Central Park + The Batch Hybrid

Before sitting down to watch this week’s episode, I tested out a new-to-me strain from “The Batch” by High Park Holdings. A joint, some bong rips and a bag of chips later, “Central Park” left me feeling quite mellow and thoroughly entertained.

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Sexually Frustrated Female Cannabis Plants and High-THC Production

Cannabis has been a popular recreational substance for a long time, but the type of weed we consume today has changed dramatically from what our parents and grandparents were smoking decades ago. On average, cannabis available today is about 67% stronger than in the 1970s, and it grows faster and stays smaller in size. Cultivators no longer need 9 full months and space large enough to grow 12-foot-tall plants with buds that only had about 3% THC, if they were lucky. But what factors led to these rapid changes in growth and potency? As it turns out, the secret to getting stronger weed is sexually frustrated female cannabis plants.  

As a dioecious plant, yes, cannabis be either male or female, and yes, it can be sexually frustrated. What you’re smoking on right now are flowers from a female plant; and if your current stash is really dank and covered in sticky THC trichomes, then those buds came from a sexually deprived female.

Cannabis is such a fascinating plant and we continue to learn more about it every day. In addition to learning about the plant itself, we also enjoy exploring the wide array of products available on the market today. If you’re interested in trying fun products, rare cannabinoids, and new strains, make sure to subscribe to The CBD Flowers Weekly Newsletter, your top source for all things cannabis-related. If exotic products is what you want, such as Delta 8, Delta 10 THC, THC-O, & THCV make sure to subscribe below to Delta 8 Weekly, and enjoy from our exclusive deals.


Male vs Female Cannabis Plants

Female cannabis plants produce those large, resin-secreting, psychoactive buds. Females are the industry’s superstar because they’re the ones that produce the most cannabinoids. Anytime you buy weed or look at pictures of marijuana with flowers, you’re looking at female plants.

Male cannabis plants do not grow flowers. Instead, they develop pollen sacs around the nodes and tips of the branches, with which they can pollenate any nearby female plants. When female plants are pollinated, they begin to produce seeds, but since no one wants to smoke low-THC schwag with seeds in it, the males are usually thrown out pretty early.

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On the public side of the cannabis market, females get all the glory. However, when we look more at the botany behind the bud, male plants have some very important functions as well. Like humans, when a female plant is pollinated, half of the genetic makeup of the seeds produced will come from the male plant. Aside from potency and flavor, many other important characteristics can be passed on from male plants including growth rate, bud size and shape, resistance to mold and pests, and general resilience.

The buds we prefer to consume are seedless female plants with good genetics, referred to as “sinsemilla”, which means “without seeds” in Spanish. To ensure that plants will be sinsemilla females, growers can used feminized seeds or grow clones by replanting small clippings from their existing plants.

How To Tell The Difference

At first, you won’t be able to. Once your plants are roughly 4-6 weeks old and entering the flowering stage, you can start looking for “pre-flowers”. Cannabis pre-flowers are comparable to sex organs, and the females’ look quite different from the males’.

To determine their sex, you’ll need to look between the plant’s nodes (where the leaves and branches extend out from the stalk). Males will have pollen sacs to help spread pollen to the female plants, and females develop two bracts and hair-like stigmas to catch the pollen. Click here for a great guide with photos to help you more easily determine sex.

Female Preflowers
Male pollen sacs

Sexually Frustrated Females

Back in the 1970s, cannabis growers made a game-changing cultivation discovery: isolating female plants produced extra potent flowers. When females are pollinated, they halt resin/THC production and begin producing seeds. However, when the sexes are separated, females do not get pollinated and thus, they don’t produce seeds and ramp up the resin production. Sinsemilla weed, on average, has a THC content around 6-10% higher than seeded strains.

Simply put, this cultivation method results in ‘sexually frustrated’ female plants. It’s strange, but it works, and the reason for this is because cannabis is one of the few plant species that elicits a physical response to prolonged virginity. Meaning, the longer she feels ‘sexually deprived’, or the longer pollination is put off, the larger and more resinous her sex organs (flowers) become.

Some growers would go so far as to say their plants are somewhat ‘masochistic’, in addition to being horny. Apparently, when the flowers begin to form, some plants will repeatedly bend their branches to the point of almost breaking, a process that helps facilitate resin production in the buds. As one popular Redditor so eloquently put it, “you’re all high on horny plant vaginas.” It’s strangely accurate.

Cannabis Resin, Pollination, and THC Production

Cannabis resin is a rich brown, sticky, gooey substance found on the flowers and leaves of the plant. It’s similar to tree sap, but the main distinction between the two is that cannabis resin is held together by fatty structures called trichomes. These are the plant’s resin glands that contain THC, CBD, terpenes, flavonoids, and other therapeutic cannabinoids and compounds.

To us, trichomes are an amazing and delicious plant byproduct that offers endless medicinal and recreational benefits; but to the cannabis plant, trichomes are one of its most important defense mechanisms. As cannabis flowers develop, they are vulnerable to so much harmful external stimuli such as pests, infections, herbivores, damaging UV rays, and pollution. In the wild, trichomes offer a certain level of protection from all of these things.

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Additionally, cannabis resin aids in seed production by catching pollen from the male plants. One male plant can produce an estimated 350,000 pollen grains, and cannabis pollen is airborne so a little bit can go a very long way. As a matter of fact, a study published in 2000 found that cannabis pollen made up just under 36% of total airborne pollen counts in Midwest states during harvest months. This is why it’s important to remove the male plants from the grow area as soon as you determine the sex.

The good news is, you don’t have to go through this process every time you want high-THC, seedless flower. Realistically, isolating your female plants would only be necessary if you’re using the male’s genetics to create new strains. To skip the pollination process, a modern grower can either buy already feminized seeds, or use a clone from an existing female plant.

Hermaphroditic Plants

Cannabis is a bit of a rarity because only about 6% of flowering plants are dioecious. However, on rare occasions, hermaphroditic weed plants containing both male and female parts are known to occur. In general, most plants are hermaphroditic, but this is not very common for cannabis. Sometimes, hermaphroditic cannabis plants can self-pollinate, but they usually produce seeds, lower levels of THC, and they can pass on hermaphroditic genes, so they’re not ideal. Also, true hermaphrodites produce sacs that need to rupture.

There are two types of hermaphrodite plants: those that develop both sexual organs (buds and pollen sacs), and those that develop anthers. Anthers are oval-shaped, pollen-producing sacs found at the end of the stamen. Some growers call them “bananas” because of their elongated appearance.

When cannabis plants turn hermaphroditic it’s sometimes referred to as “herming out”. This is usually a result of excessive environmental stress such as damage to the plant’s physical structure, bad weather, disease, and/or nutrient deficiencies. Bad genetics and previous hermaphroditic development can also be a risk factor. Basically, if you notice any pollen sacs or anthers, get that plant away from your females ASAP.

Final Thoughts on Female Cannabis Plants, Sexual Frustration, and THC Production

To reiterate, if you want big, potent buds that are covered in those flavorful, cannabinoid-filled trichomes, the key is sexually frustrated female plants. Cannabis plants basically live to be pollinated and produce more plants, so when pollination doesn’t occur, the female plant begins to overcompensate by creating bigger flowers with thicker resin.

The fact that cannabis plants are dioecious and respond in such complex ways to sexual stimulation (or lack of it), really makes them even more relatable. We are so incredibly connected to the universe around us which makes it that much more important to understand the complexities of other living creatures.

Thank you for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your source for all things cannabis-related. For more articles like this one and exclusive deals on flowers and other products, subscribe to The CBD Flowers Weekly Newsletter.

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Why didn’t I get stoned from my first toke?

The first time I smoked weed, I didn’t get high from it. The same thing happened on the second and third try. At the time, I remember not being disappointed because I enjoyed the flavor of the smoke. Then one year, on April 20th everything changed. I was downtown Victoria at the 420 celebrations, smoking […]

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High Potency: How THC-O Acetate Is Made

The question of how a cannabinoid is “made” does not come up very often. That’s because it’s usually pretty simple, they are “made” by the cannabis plant. However, there are a few compounds that are byproducts of phytocannabinoids and some other type of chemical catalyst… meaning they aren’t 100% naturally derived. THC-O Acetate falls under this category. So, how exactly is this exciting and very potent cannabinoid created?

The psychedelic THC-O Acetate sure sounds interesting, and goes to show just how many different products can be made from cannabis. Compounds like that one, THCV, Delta-8 THC and Delta 10 are the newer face of the cannabis industry. We support the expansion of cannabis use, and have some really great deals for delta-8 THC and many other compounds. Take a look at our selection, and join the cutting edge of marijuana use.
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What is THC-O?

In short, THC-O is an analog of THC, meaning is has a similar chemical structure but, as is the case in chemistry, minor differences often lead to substantial changes. THC-O is short for THC-O-Acetate, or THC Acetate/ATHC. Most of the time you’ll see it written and referred to as THC-O. It’s important not to confuse ATHC with THCA, the parent molecule of THC which found in raw plants that have not yet been decarboxylated.

In tetrahyrdocannabinolic acid (THCA) the A stands for acid, NOT acetate like with ATHC. THCA can be converted to THC-O, but THCA is a natural phytocannabinoid and THC-O is not. THC-O is a synthetic cannabinoid that can only be produced in a laboratory setting, preferably by an experienced chemist. With the rise of DIY technologies, it can be tempting to try and make THC-O yourself, but the process can be difficult and quite dangerous, so it’s best left to the professionals.  

Because it is an artificially produced cannabinoid, what you see is what you get – meaning all you get is THC-O and none of the beneficial terpenes and flavonoids that are found in natural oils. This is an obvious issue for whole-plant advocates and proponents of the entourage effects, but when it comes to pharmaceutical formulations, isolated cannabinoids are always preferred.

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The purity of these compounds means that 1 milligram of isolate equals measures out to exactly 1 milligram of cannabinoid, whereas 1 milligram of full-spectrum plant extract might have 0.5 milligrams of THC, 0.3 milligrams of CBD, and 0.2 combination of other terpenes and compounds. This makes isolate very easy to use for specific dosing and product production.

According to Serge Chistov, the inventor of Nanobidiol Technology, says his team has found a safe and efficient method to acetylate THC using only approved solvents. Chistov says his team “developed the analytical standard for testing for THC-O, as well as being in the final stages of introducing products to retail outlets.” So, if everything stays on track, we can expect to see THC-O therapeutics relatively soon.

THC-O Acetate: More Potent, Psychedelic and Spiritual Than Delta 9 THC

THC-O potency: Delta-9 THC vs THC-O

We already know that THC and THC-O are chemically similar, but that small variation in molecular structure translates to a huge difference in potency. While it may seem like a stretch, this is very common in chemistry – think CO vs CO2, the former being a manmade potentially dangerous substance, and the latter a natural gas required for plant and human life. Another well-known example is H2O vs H2O2, water vs hydrogen peroxide. Small molecular changes can make a world of difference.  

To be specific, THC-O potency is so high, that THC-O is considered to be three to four times stronger than Delta 9 THC. There are times when THC, despite how amazing it is, doesn’t seem powerful enough to accomplish the task at hand, especially when used for pain, digestive disorders, and other chronic health conditions. THC-O is not only much more potent, but our bodies recognize it as a completely different compound. This means THC-O can be used in place of Delta 9 THC if you have built up a tolerance.

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“The prodrug [THC-O] enters the system as a Trojan horse. The body sees the horse, the body tries to destroy the horse, keeping the insides of the horse available for the body to process. This means the THC inside of the prodrug preparation will not be metabolized into 11-hydroxy-THC at the same rate and speed as the native THC molecule. That change in the metabolic perception of the body is what is partially responsible for the effect that most people describe as different,” Chistov explains.

Even recreationally, it has its place in the industry, and honestly, it sounds like a lot of fun. There is a huge market of people searching for cannabis products with more of a kick, which is exactly how concentrates came to be. It’s certainly not for everyone, but for people who like to experiment with pot products and psychedelics (myself included), it sounds like something worth trying at least once.

Those who have had the opportunity to try it claim that THC-O produces a much more spiritual, psychedelic, and introspective high than what they are used to from Delta 8, 9, or 10. Even habitual cannabis users noticed a difference. As a daily user, this alone has me sold, and I know many other people who feel the exact same way (hey subscribers, products will be available in our newsletter very soon!)

How THC-O is Made

Circling back, let’s talk a bit more about the THCA and THC-O connection. I have already covered the difference between the two (acid vs acetate), now it’s time to discuss how THCA can be converted to THC-O. Again, it’s a complex chemical process that should only be attempted by experienced chemists, this is NOT something that can be done safely at home.

In raw cannabis plants, cannabinoids are found in carboxylic acid from. Carboxylic acids are any of class of organic compounds in which a carbon atom is bonded to a hydroxyl group via a single bond, and to an oxygen atom by a double bond. When exposed to heat, the compounds lose their carboxylic acid groups and become the cannabinoids most consumers are familiar with.

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Carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups are both polar and hydrophilic, meaning small amounts of THCA (or any other cannabinoid acid) are water soluble. Using two chemicals – sulfuric acid and acetic anhydride – the conversion can begin. Summarized, the process goes like this: THCA + heat > D9 + sulfuric acid + acetic anhydride = THC-O Acetate. When THCA is converted to THC-O, the polar C-OH becomes C-O-CH2C=O-CH3. The carboxylic acid group is hydrolyzed by the heating with the sulfuric acid, which then reacts with excess anhydride to produce acetic acid. This acid reacts with regular THC at the hydroxyl group and becomes the potent THC-O-Acetate.

To reiterate, sulfuric acid and acetic anhydride are both very corrosive and hazardous chemicals that should not be in the hands of amateurs and everyday consumers. Attempting this process at home is incredibly risky.

THC-O Acetate Production – Final Thoughts

THC-O is such an interesting compound. Not only is it four times stronger than Delta 9, which as far as we know, is the most potent of THC’s, but it is so pure and had limitless therapeutic potential. You might be eager to try it, but since it’s too risky to make at home, your best bet is to check out some of the existing products the are just hitting the store shelves. For more articles like this one, and for access to exclusive deals on all the newest, rare cannabinoid products, make sure to subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter.

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Evaluating A New Study Claiming Teen Cannabis Use Alters Brain Structure

A new study published just last month in JAMA Psychiatry claims that teenage cannabis use can negatively alter brain structure… but how accurate is this claim and exactly what factors and variables did the researchers consider in coming to this conclusion?

Childhood and adolescence are critical times for physical and emotional development. Until we reach adulthood, our brains change considerably by growing in size, modifying number of cells and structure, and opening more connective pathways. During our late teenage years, the outer layers of the brain begin to lose some thickness and density in a process known as “cortical thinning”. Cortical thinning is a completely normal part of cerebral development, but, according to the study, the rate of thinning is accelerated in cannabis-using teens. Lead researcher Matthew Albaugh, a clinical psychologist and assistant professor at the University of Vermont Medical Center, says that “it is unclear what will happen” if the thinning process occurs to quickly.

Cannabis is a powerful, yet controversial, tool. Despite the drama, we know that cannabis has so much therapeutic potential and access to safe, legitimate products is of utmost importance. If you’re a cannabis connoisseur and you’d like to learn more about this fascinating plant, as well as access to exclusive deals on flowers and other products, make sure to subscribe to The CBD Flowers Weekly Newsletter. If legal THC is more your thing, head on over to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter and check out the selection of deals on Delta 8, Delta 10, THC-O, THCV, and other fun tetra products.


Teens and Cannabis

Cannabis is one of the most frequently used illicit substances by all age groups, especially youth. What’s interesting, however, is that although rate of use among older adults is rising in legal states, that has not been the case with teens and young adults. As Kayla Tormohlen, Ph.D. candidate, from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health stated, “Since the implementation of retail marijuana sales, we haven’t seen an increase in use among youth, but we are seeing a difference in how young people are consuming.”

Take a look at these stats:

  • 6.9% of 12th graders use cannabis daily.
  • 43.7% have tried cannabis in their lifetime.
  • 35.2% consumed cannabis in the last year.
  • 2.4% used synthetic marijuana, also known as K2 or Spice, in the last year.
  • 62.8% of 12th graders who used cannabis in the last year consumed it via vaping.
  • 12th graders are 82.1% more likely to use marijuana in their lifetime than they are to smoke a cigarette.

A growing number of adolescent cannabis users are more inclined to vape, dab, or eat edibles rather than smoking flower. A couple years ago, a survey-based study published in JAMA Pediatrics found that in Colorado, teen cannabis smoking saw a significant decrease. According to the study, from the students questioned in 2017, around 78% of teens who admitted to using cannabis said they did so by smoking. That number was down from 87% in 2015.

About the Study

In this study, Albaugh’s team evaluated data from a separate study of teenage brain development, conducted over a multi-year period in Europe. A total of 799 participants had their brains scanned once at 14 years of age, and one more time when they turned 19 years old.

Lifetime cannabis use ranged from 1 to more than 40 uses, with roughly half of participants falling somewhere in between 10 and 30 estimated uses. Using this self-reported data (meaning researchers simply asked the teens about their cannabis use over the last five years), and two brain scans over the course of a half-decade, researchers concluded that there were “significant brain differences” in the teens who used cannabis and those who didn’t.

“Results suggest that cannabis use during middle to late adolescence may be associated with altered cerebral cortical development, particularly in regions rich in cannabinoid 1 receptors. Cannabis-related cortical thinning in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex accounted for unique variance in attentional impulsiveness at 5-year follow-up while controlling for sex, site, baseline age, baseline brain volume, baseline pubertal development, verbal IQ, and performance IQ. Thus, accelerated thinning in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex was associated with the transition to cannabis use as well as greater attentional impulsiveness at 5-year follow-up.”

In plain English, it means that adolescent cannabis use can cause accelerated cortical thinning, which may lead to questionable impulse control in young adults. Researchers emphasized there was a direct correlation between rate of use and rate of cortical thinning, meaning those who used more pot experienced more discernable structural differences. They also stated that confounding variables like sex, age, IQ, and so forth, were accounted for, but no environmental factors were considered. Additionally, the study mentions that alcohol was controlled for as well, but tobacco use and other carcinogens were not.

Personal Observations and Unanswered Questions

Although this study is makes some interesting observations, there are a few things that will naturally require some further observation, starting with the fact that it’s relying entirely on the self-reported data of teenagers. Assuming that teens can remember exactly how many times they used cannabis over an extended time period of five years, is a very unlikely gamble. Also, whether the questions were answered with complete honesty is another issue. Numerous studies have found that participants often lie in surveys of counternormative behaviors, such as drug use and abortion. It’s not a stretch to assume that some of the teens were concerned the results could negatively impact their futures, come come back to bite them in some way, and they weren’t entirely forthcoming. But again, these are just personal theories.

Of further concern to me, is how few confounding factors were actually accounted for. The study claims that controlling for sex, socioeconomic status, and IQ did not “meaningfully” alter the results (although some negligible differences were observed), but many other things can lead to more rapid cortical thinning as well. Alcohol consumption was controlled for, but personally, but it’s quite likely that 800 teens who experimented with cannabis use also drank occasionally. If moderate cannabis use can impact the brain, what are the effects of limited alcohol exposure on young minds?

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Tobacco/nicotine use was not controlled for during the study, and at the 5-year follow up, regular tobacco use was correlated with regular cannabis use. According to numerous medical texts on the subject, the adolescent brain is especially sensitive to the damaging effects of nicotine. Studies in human subjects have found that smoking cigarettes during teen years leads to a greatly increased risk of developing cognitive impairment and various psychiatric disorders later in life.

Researchers did mention that they went back and mentioned that, “rerunning the longitudinal analysis and including lifetime tobacco use as a covariate resulted in largely consistent findings.” Based on my understanding, they just revisited the number and updated the algorithm to include possible tobacco use, but still, in the original data, it was not controlled for. Also, it is worth noting that use of other illicit drugs and prescription medications, diets, and exposure to environmental toxins were not largely considered during this research project either.

And finally, they mentioned impulsivity as the final “negative” result following varying rates of teen cannabis use. It’s important to remember that the second scan was conducted when participants were only 19 years of age. The human brain is not fully developed until we reach our mid-twenties, so it is difficult to say whether the impulsive behaviors would carry over into adult years or what the actual long term (10+ years) effects of cannabis use are.

This study also doesn’t fully clarify whether cannabis caused the impulsive behaviors. What parameters are used to measure impulsivity? You need to be relatively uninhibited to be willing to experiment with illegal drugs in the first place, so how likely is it that these teens were impulsive before using cannabis, and not the other way around? 

Conflicting Research

Medical research, although very important, is subjective to a degree. This is why we need repeatable results from numerous different studies looking at a diverse range of socioeconomic and geographical data. This study claims that adolescent cannabis use has negative impacts on the brain, but numerous other studies say the exact opposite. For example, a significantly larger study published just two years ago in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence, spanning over an even longer period of time, claimed there was no difference at all in the brain structure of cannabis-using teens compared to their counterparts who abstained.

The study followed a group of 1000 subjects starting in the 1980s and continuing for about 15 years, with testing and brain scans performed and various points throughout the course of the research period, and found that “adolescent cannabis use is not associated with lasting structural brain differences.”

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As the authors of the research pointed out, “Even subjects with the highest level of cannabis exposure in adolescence showed subcortical brain volumes and cortical brain volumes and thickness in adulthood that were similar to boys with almost no exposure to cannabis throughout adolescence.” Put simply, no matter how much cannabis was used during teenage years, there were no noticeable effects on brain formation.

Unrelated to cannabis entirely, if we’re following medical literature, it’s up for debate whether cortical thinning is even a bad thing or not. While this study maintains that cortical thickness has some type of relation to impulsive behaviors, others have found that cortical thickness was not related to cognitive performance at all. Better yet, this study claims that early adolescent cortical thinning actually translated to better neuropsychological outcomes.

Conflict of Interest?

Medicinal cannabis use has a long history in traditional eastern healthcare – and by long I mean centuries. It was not uncommon for cannabis, with its very mild side effects, to be used at a treatment option for numerous childhood ailments. Obviously no clinical trials have been conducted on these ancient subjects, but medical practitioners of the times did keep their own detailed records and it was never noted that any brain damage or behavioral changes occurred in people who used cannabis throughout their lives.

Of course, the westernized among us would argue that without sound scientific research, there is absolutely no way to determine whether cannabis was/is safe or not. Fair enough, but there is one considerable difference between old-school medical literature and the modern studies of today – funding. These days, there are so many conflicts of interest surrounding medical research that you really have to dig deep into who’s paying for a particular study and what their underlying motives are.  

This particular study was funded by numerous entities, including many big-name pharmaceutical companies such as Eli Lilly, Pfizer, Bristol Myers Squibb, and Vifor Pharma. Big Pharma is a longtime enemy of cannabis reform and the pharmaceutical industry has spent millions over the years lobbying against marijuana legalization.

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Final Thoughts – Cannabis, Teens, and Brain Development

Point blank, brain studies are difficult because it is impossible to account for every confounding variable in a person’s life. The food they eat, the area the live in, the air they breathe, toxins consumed, rate of alcohol and tobacco use, genetics, and so much more can affect the way someone’s brain develops. Cannabis is popular among teens, so of course people want to know if it is safe. However, many more studies over longer periods of time are needed before we can have more clarity on this issue.

Thank you for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your hub for all the lasted in the cannabis industry. For more articles like this one, and exclusive deals on flowers and other products, don’t forget to subscribe to The CBD Flowers Weekly Newsletter.

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Business Spotlight: Fire and Flower Cannabis

Typically we focus on local small businesses for our spotlight, but recently I travelled out of my area and realised something. I didn’t have much time, or a budget and needed to find a shop with a decent CBD selection. There was no time to run around and price out different places, I was already incredibly anxious and the thought of going into a strange place was not something I looked forward to.

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All About CBL (Cannabicyclol) – A Minor Cannabinoid No One Knows About

Cannabicyclol, or CBL, is a non-psychoactive, minor cannabinoid found in cannabis. Research on this compound is limited and very little is known about the extent of its therapeutic potential. Based on what we know about other cannabis compounds, it’s safe to assume that CBL can be used in the treatment of many different medical conditions, but which ones would benefit most from it remain to be addressed.

What Exactly Is CBL?

As of late, researchers have identified and isolated 113 cannabinoids, including CBL, from the cannabis plant, and they estimate there are dozens more waiting to be discovered. The fact that we have solid scientific research on only a handful of these compounds speaks volumes to how limiting and asinine prohibition has been. Imagine how much we would know if cannabis wasn’t shunned in the medical community and banned for all these years.

CBL is just one of those compounds. We know it exists, we know it comes from cannabis, and we know its molecular structure is different from other cannabinoids. Beyond that, we don’t have very much to go on. CBL is a minor cannabinoid with no double bond in its chemical structure, so it doesn’t have any intoxicating effects.

Because CBL structurally comparable to other non-psychoactive cannabinoids, so researchers believe it may function similarly in the human body. It is very likely that CBL interacts with our Endocannabinoid Systems the same way as CBD, CBN, CBG, and other cannabinoids lacking that double bond their carbon chains.

Also, as a minor cannabinoid, CBL could have just as much pharmaceutical potential when working synergistically with other cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. This phenomenon is known as the Entourage Effect and explains the reason many people prefer the effects of natural cannabis flower and whole-spectrum extracts as opposed to isolates and distillates. Cannabis is such a controversial substance that we often forget it is simply a plant, and it functions like many other plants that we consume regularly. In botanical therapies, the compounds are more effective working together than individually.

Are you a cannabis aficionado who would like to learn more about cannabicyclol, as will as other minor cannabinoids and all aspects of this incredible plant? If so, make sure to subscribe to The CBD Flowers Weekly Newsletter for the best of the best that this industry has to offer, as well as access to exclusive deals on flowers and other products. Or you can check out the Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for the best deals on Delta 8 THC.

What Are The Benefits of CBL?

In general, cannabinoids can be beneficial for an incredibly diverse range of medical conditions including mental disorders, autoimmune disease, inflammation, epilepsy, pain, and digestive issues, just to name a few. When looking specifically at the benefits of CBL, we don’t have enough research to make any conclusive statements and it’ll likely be a few more years before we have any studies to reference.

Aside from the specific molecular structure of CBL, we also know that it is a very stable cannabinoid. In 2008, a study was published in which researchers examined 2700-year-old cannabis samples found in the tomb of an ancient Chinese shaman. The arid climate, grave depth, and soil alkalinity did wonders for preserve the contents of the tomb, include the cannabis flower.

Although it was lacking aroma or flavor, the samples were still green in color. As expected, THC, CBD, and other major cannabinoids had degraded, however, the ancient cannabis samples were high in CBL and CBD; both of which are products of cannabinoid breakdown.

This has a few different implications. First, it’s relevant when discussing proper storage of cannabis. If you have flower that has either been around too long or been stored improperly, you can expect it to have higher levels of CBN and CBL. Because these cannabinoids are often found together, they likely work in tandem. Also, the fact these cannabinoids are the end of the line makes them very stable, and stability is paramount when it comes to manufacturing pharmaceuticals.

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS)?

The only reason cannabinoids even work and have an effect on so many different living organisms is because of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS), a system that was only recently discovered in 1992. Simply put, the ECS is a network of neurotransmitters and receptors that exists in the bodies of all animals. Cannabinoid 1 and Cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB1 and CB2) are found in the brain and nervous system, as well as in peripheral organs and tissues.

As a whole, the ECS regulates numerous different functions and processes in our bodies and maintains internal balance and homeostasis. The ECS modulates the nervous and immune systems and other organ systems to relieve pain and inflammation, regulate metabolism and neurologic function, promote healthy digestive processes, and support reproductive function and embryologic development.

Researchers have discovered two different endocannabinoids so far, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA). 2-AG is made from omega-6 fatty acids and is present in fairly high levels in the central nervous system, but it has also been detected in human (and bovine) milk. 2-AG is a full agonist of both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, but it has a stronger influence over the CB2 receptor. Because of this, 2-AG is thought to have a substantial impact on the immune system. Anandamide (AEA), also commonly referred to as the “bliss molecule”, is known to play a major role in the in all our basic daily physiological functions including sleep/wake cycles, appetite, mood, and even fertility.

In addition to the naturally produced cannabinoids, there is also a large web of receptors that allow AEA and 2-AG to function the way they do. Again, the two receptors that have been studied most extensively are CB1 and CB2. These cannabinoid receptors sit on the surface of cells and monitor conditions on the outside. Once they sense changing conditions and the body falling out of a state of homeostasis, they signal the appropriate cellular response to restore balance.

What Does The Future Hold?

Considering this is one of the least discussed cannabinoids, it’s understandable that demand is low and not many companies are prioritizing CBL products. At the moment, it’s only available as a scientific research material through a handful of companies, like Cayman Chemical and Cerilliant. Eventually, that will change and just like CBN, CBC, CBG and another minor cannabinoids, more and more products will make their way to the retail sector and into the hands of consumers.

With legalization sweeping the world, a growing fascination for the medical benefits of cannabis, and vastly improved extraction and production techniques, even the most minor compounds like CBL will find a suitable market. There is such a need for non-psychoactive medicinal cannabinoids that it will be impossible and immoral to ignore the treasure trove that is found in this plant.

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THC-O Acetate: More Potent, Psychedelic and Spiritual Than Delta 9 THC

THC-O gets very little attention in the cannabis industry and most consumers are probably completely unaware of its existence, but wrongfully so as it is many times more potent than Delta 9 THC and said to produce very uplifting and spiritual experiences. The purity, strength, and consistency of this compound could have several implications for both the medical and recreational markets.

The emergence of THC-O can take the world of cannabis into a whole new direction. However, we know way less about it than we do about delta-8 THC, another newcomer to the cannabis products market. Delta-8 is interesting because it functions much like delta-9 THC, but without producing anxiety and paranoia, or couch locking users. In fact, delta-8 is associated with a more clear-headed high and more energy in general, which makes it preferable for many cannabis users. Are you one of them? Check out our assortment of Delta-8 THC deals and order some today.

What is THC-O?

THC-O is short for THC-O-Acetate, or THC Acetate/ATHC. Most of the time, you’ll see it written as THC-O or ATHC. It’s important not to confuse ATHC with THCA. In tetrahyrdocannabinolic acid, or THCA, the A stands for acid (not acetate like with ATHC). THCA is the parent molecule of THC, found in raw plants that have not yet been decarboxylated.

THC-O is a synthetic cannabinoid that can only be produced in a lab. While it may be tempting to try and make some at home, the process can be volatile and dangerous, so it’s best left to the chemists. In short, THC-O is an analog of THC, meaning is has a similar chemical structure but, as is the case in chemistry, minor differences often lead to substantial changes.

Because it’s an artificially produced cannabinoid, what you see is what you get – meaning all you get is THC-O and none of the beneficial terpenes and flavonoids that are found in natural oils. This is an obvious issue for whole-plant advocates and proponents of the entourage effects, but when it comes to pharmaceutical formulations, isolated cannabinoids are always preferred.

The purity of these compounds means that 1 milligram of isolate equals measures out to exactly 1 milligram of cannabinoid, whereas 1 milligram of full-spectrum plant extract might have 0.5 milligrams of THC, 0.3 milligrams of CBD, and 0.2 combination of other terpenes and compounds. This makes isolate very easy to use for specific dosing and product production.

According to Serge Chistov, the inventor of Nanobidiol Technology, says his team has found a safe and efficient method to acetylate THC using only approved solvents. Chistov says his team “developed the analytical standard for testing for THC-O, as well as being in the final stages of introducing products to retail outlets.” So, if everything stays on track, we can expect to see THC-O therapeutics relatively soon.

The THCA to THC-O Conversion

Back to the THCA vs ATHC/THC-O. We covered the difference between the two (acid vs acetate), now it’s time to discuss how THCA can be converted to THC-O. Again, it’s a complex chemical process that should only be attempted in a professional laboratory setting, this is NOT something that can be done safely at home.

Carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups are both polar and hydrophilic, meaning small amounts of THCA (or any other cannabinoid acid) are water soluble. Using two chemicals – sulfuric acid and acetic anhydride – begins the conversion process.

When THCA is converted to THC-O- Acetate, the polar C-OH becomes C-O-CH2C=O-CH3. The carboxylic acid group is hydrolyzed (forms water) by the heating with the sulfuric acid, which then reacts with excess anhydride to produce acetic acid. This acid reacts with regular THC at the hydroxyl group and becomes the potent THC-O-Acetate.

THC-O is 300 Percent More Potent Than THC

We already know that THC and THC-O are chemically similar, but that small variation in molecular structure translates to a huge difference in potency. To be specific, THC-O is about 300 percent stronger than regular Delta 9 THC (a 300 percent increase would be 4 the original value). It really makes you appreciate the tremendous impact of these tiny molecules.

There are times when THC, despite how amazing it is, doesn’t seem powerful enough to accomplish the task at hand, especially when used for pain, digestive disorders, and other chronic health conditions. THC-O is not only much more potent, but our bodies recognize it as a completely different compound, so although you may have developed a tolerance to THC, you can still use THC-O and experience the full effects.

“The prodrug [THC-O] enters the system as a Trojan horse. The body sees the horse, the body tries to destroy the horse, keeping the insides of the horse available for the body to process. This means the THC inside of the prodrug preparation will not be metabolized into 11-hydroxy-THC at the same rate and speed as the native THC molecule. That change in the metabolic perception of the body is what is partially responsible for the effect that most people describe as different,” Chistov explains.

Even recreationally, it has its place and definitely sounds like fun. There is a huge market of people searching for more potent cannabis products, which is exactly how concentrates came to be. It might sound intimidating to some, being considerably stronger than D9 THC, but for people who like to experiment with psychedelics (myself included), it sounds like something worth trying at least once.

Those who have had the opportunity to try it have state that it’s a much more spiritual, psychedelic, and introspective high than what they are used to from regular THC. Even regular cannabis users noticed a difference. This alone has me sold, and I know many other people who feel the exact same way (hey subscribers, stay tuned for when products begin to launch).

Final Thoughts

Although THC-O is very tempting and highly beneficial, you’re unlikely very many products containing this compound just yet. Some online retailers are selling THC-O vape carts and similar, but without knowing much about these companies it’s hard to say whether the products are legit or not. When it comes to cannabis, especially newer compounds, it’s best to stick to the most reputable retailers you can find. If you need guidance, you can always check with your local dispensary to see if they have any leads, although it is not guaranteed they will know where to find any.

Regardless, if you can find it, THC-O is a wonderful cannabinoid for both therapeutic and recreational purposes. The acetate version of THC can be helpful when the real compound doesn’t work as expected. And, since every human is at least slightly different biologically, some patients need different products to achieve the desired effect. “Because THC-O-Ac affects the receptors differently, the effect might be beneficial to people who might not receive relief from conventional THC or other formulations,” Chistov says.

As cannabis legalization measures continue to progress throughout the world, more will be available to us in both the recreational and pharmaceutical sectors. Once the research floodgates open up completely, we can look forward to some incredibly pure and potent cannabis products hitting the store shelves. For now, remember to check out or Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for more articles and exclusive deals on legal psychoactive cannabinoids.

Thank you for stopping by CBDtesters.co, the #1 location for the most relevant cannabis-related news from around the world. Give the site a read-thru every day to stay on top of the ever-changing world of legal marijauna, and sign up to receive our newsletter, so you’re always in the know.

Resources

Exploring Raw Cannabinoids – What is THCa and What Can it Do For You?
It’s Not Your Parents’ THC – Welcome Cannabidiolic Acid Methyl Ester The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter (All you need to know about Delta 8 thc), the Best Delta 8 THC Deals and the Best Delta-10 THC deals CBG, CBN & CBC: Benefits of the Lesser Known Cannabinoids
Delta 8 / 9 / 10 / 11… How Many THCs Are Out There? Extra Potent 11-hydroxy-THC and the Power of Cannabis Edibles
The Question of Delta-8: Recreational or Medicinal?
Delta 10 THC Disposables
What is Delta 10 THC & Does it gets you high?

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Products of Prohibition — Cannabis Synthetics and Replacements

Strange but true — there was a time when synthetic cannabis was legal in Canada, but the natural herb was not. How was this even possible? If you can find a source of effective medicine that is natural and non-lethal, why would you ever want to recreate it with chemicals? The simple answer is prohibition. […]

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