Not All Terpenes Are Made Equal: Knowing the Difference

Terpenes are aromatic hydrocarbons that help make up the smell found in the essential oils of certain plants like cannabis. Ten years ago, the word meant nothing to the average cannabis consumer. Now, it is one of the most cherished aspects of the plant. In fact, a study on terpenes showed that the smell of a strain influenced people’s perception of the value and potency when compared to others.

Additional research has suggested they work with cannabinoids to alter effects. Since then, isolated terpenes became a popular product that could be sold to concentrate consumers to mix with their own dabs or vape makers to add flavor and act as a cutting agent in cartridges. They are also used to reintroduced terpenes in products that may have lost them during the growing, curing, drying, or extraction process. We’ll go over everything you need to know about the various forms of extracted terpenes.

Terpene Profiling

Many connoisseurs can use their nose to interpret terpenes. There are strains that smell earthy, citrusy, creamy, floral, gassy, and more. The various terpenes in the strain are what gives it a unique smell and flavor. There are more than two hundred different known terpenes in cannabis. Most of the terpenes found in cannabis are also found in other plants; as a result, not all terpenes on the market are derived from cannabis.

Some strains have unique shapes and colors but most have a unique terpene profile. Products with slim to no flavor like distillates or THCa crystalline can be enhanced with the addition of various terpene products.

Food Grade Terpenes

According to thousands of years of cannabis smoking, the terpenes that naturally occur in cannabis seemed safe enough to inhale. On the other hand, humans haven’t been known to consume food grade terpenes via inhalation. Food grade terpenes are derived from plants other than cannabis. It’s worth noting that just because something is safe to consume in food doesn’t mean it is safe to vaporize. Food grade terpenes may contain more than pure terpenes as long as it is safe to use in food. There is no research on the safety considerations of vaporizing food grade terpenes.

Moreover, the level of terpenes in the natural cannabis plant almost never exceeds four percent. As a result, we don’t know the effects of higher concentrations of terpenes on humans. Cannabis consumers using food grade terpenes to enhance the terpene profile of their extracts may be tipping the natural balance of terpenes found in cannabis.

Extraction vs. Distillation

There are multiple ways to get terpenes from cannabis. High terpene extracts differ from isolated terpenes because they consist of more than just terpenes. There is also a cannabinoid content.

Furthermore, it is extracted using hydrocarbon solvents rather than distilled with steam or water. And there is usually a small cannabinoid content on top of the terpenes in high terpene extracts.


Isolated cannabis-derived terpenes have no cannabinoid content and are mostly produced by a steam distillation or hydrodistillation.

One way to steam distill involves a basket of plant matter hanging over boiling water. Hydrodistillation places the plant material directly into the boiling water.

The main downside to these techniques is the high levels of heat required. The heat destroys or alters components found in the natural essential oil of the plant. What you’re left with is a hydrosol, not anything that would resemble the actual essential oils found in the plant prior to distillation.

There are companies with isolated terpenes that claim they are not steam or hydrodistilled, but their techniques remain proprietary.

Hydrocarbon Extraction

On the other hand, solvent extracts can produce the natural balance of terpenes and cannabinoids found in the plant that was extracted.

Furthermore, not all terpenes are soluble in steam. You’ll be getting mostly monoterpenes. However, the full spectrum of cannabis terpenes consists of sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, diterpenes and other classes of terpenes, not just monoterpenes. You can’t expect the full spectrum experience with only monoterpenes present.

Mechanical Separation

These days, there are ways to extract terpenes without the use of hydrocarbon solvents or steam. This is thanks to the evolution of solventless extracts like rosin. The same mechanical presses used to make rosin can be used to separate the high-terpene liquid portion of the product from the solid THCA crystals that lack the aroma of the strain. Mechanically separated terpenes are not completely isolated so there should still be a cannabinoid content to them.

Supercritical CO2 Extraction

Another method for extracting terpenes is with a supercritical CO2 extraction machine. CO2 extraction machines use fractionation to separate terpenes from other components in the essential oils of cannabis.

People are using isolated terpenes to reintroduce terpenes that may have been lost during the curing and extraction process. However, cannabis strains consist of many different combinations and concentrations of terpenes. As a result, it’s hard to mimic the terpene ratios found in the natural plant. A cannabis product with unnaturally high terpene levels will be uncomfortable to inhale.

As of now, there is no research on the inhalation of high concentrations of terpenes or hydrosols in humans. Furthermore, there is no research on the impact of byproducts that can come from distillation methods used to extract terpenes.

The post Not All Terpenes Are Made Equal: Knowing the Difference appeared first on High Times.

A Tropical Sleigh Ride of THC

It is the middle of September and the heat is intense, sweat is dripping down my forehead as I walk down rows of plants that seem to never end. Myself and my crew, which includes my bandmate Bleezy from our rap group Mendo Dope and our business partner Mark Greyshock of Greenshock Farms, are just finishing up the biggest pheno hunt that any of us have ever done. Our noses are covered in resin after closely examining about 800 plants, searching for the next top strain among the phenos. We literally cannot smell anymore, our nostril hairs are sticky and the tips of our noses are raw.

As the sun sets, the colors in the sky are unreal, almost as if the clouds themselves were on fire glowing in a bright orange. We roll up a Backwood of Sour Apple bud, pack our gear and get ready to head out, reeking of fresh ganja. The road is winding, swerving through the rolling hills with such sharpness that it almost feels like we are on mushrooms as we drive into the night sky.

“We found some winners today,” Bleezy says, still smelling the tips of his fingers that are completely covered in resin.

The Road Before Us

Pheno hunting and creating new strains is a lengthy process. Greyshock explains that creating the award-winning Tropical Sleigh Ride strain came after many years of hard work.

“It all started with the Purple Candy Cane, which has placed in the top three at the Emerald Cup two years in a row,” he says of the strain’s lineage. “We got a hold of a Pineapple plant from [noted California cannabis breeder] Mean Gene and just out of intuition, I knew that there was going to be a winner by crossing these two plants.”

The strain was created in 2016 and grown for the first time during the 2017 harvest. Greyshock says he had more confidence in this particular breeding project than others he has worked on in the past. This confidence was due, in part, to the strain’s unique terpene profile. In fact, in 2017, Greenshock’s Tropical Sleigh Ride won the highest total terpene content award at the prestigious Emerald Cup, with 4.8% terpenes.

The fruit-forward Tropical Sleigh Ride has an ocimene-dominant terpene profile, something that is also found in other plants such as basil, bergamot and lavender. In addition, it has a high level of CBG (a cannabinoid that is a precursor to both THC and CBD), generally 2 to 2.5 %.

“It has an overall very high cannabinoid ratio with the THC itself in the neighborhood of 17% at its lowest and all the way up to 27-28%,” Greyshock says. “With high levels of both terpenes and cannabinoids in one plant, it makes this strain a very dynamic combination. The smell and flavor of this flower is unlike any other.” 

It’s an uplifting strain with a woodsy, floral and tropical smell (think oranges, mangos, guava, pineapple, papaya, lemons and hints of pine) that could be applicable to lift a depressive fog, he says.

“Tropical Sleigh Ride makes you feel happy to be alive. It crushes negativity and brings out positivity. I would say its best medical trait would be treating depression,” Greyshock says. “The flavor is truly delicious and just smelling it will make you feel good. Smoking the Tropical Sleigh Ride is like snowboarding down a mountain of fruit, carving through oranges and mangos jumping over pine trees.”

And, in terms of its growth, Greyshock says the vigorous fast-growing Tropical Sleigh Ride is extremely adaptable.

It handles a variety of conditions very well, performing great in all environments,” he says. “Here in California, we have grown it in the Sierras at 4,200 feet [elevation] and it grew very nicely. This year, we are growing it in San Luis Obispo County in a very hot and dry climate that reaches temperatures of 110 degrees regularly and it is performing great.”

Greyshock says the strain also possess a strong resistance to both bugs and mold, something that becomes very important when picking the winners from a new batch of plants. The buds themselves are generally very solid and chunky.

“Even with the sativa influence, these buds are not loose at all — they are very tight sativa buds,” Greyshock says. “We have had plants started from seed that have grown over 12 feet tall and 10 feet wide, towering over our heads, so she can definitely grow big. One of this strain’s best traits is its ability to fight off mold.”

Two Birds of a Feather

When it comes to the variations in phenotypes on this strain, Greyshock explains there are two basic types: the green pheno and the purple pheno.

The purple pheno shows a lot of color on the leaves and stalk and a decent amount on the bud,” he says. “About 40% of the phenos exhibit the green version of this strain. One pheno that we love is the Passion Orange Guava (POG) and that is an example of a green variation. Another pheno we have took sixth place [in the sungrown category] at the 2018 Emerald Cup and this one has more of a purple influence that we call the Hawaiian Punch pheno.”

And when it comes to picking which pheno is best, you might as well ask a mother which daughter she favors more.

“It is hard to say which variation is better, both purple and green phenos are phenomenal,” Greyshock says. “In terms of the overall size of the buds, I’d say about 10% of the phenos have large big buds and those aren’t generally the ones we keep. It seems to be the tighter, medium, chunky phenos that we are after a lot, which fortunately the majority come out to be.”

Even though the Tropical Sleigh Ride is a fabulous smoke, cannabis breeders are almost always interested in taking their strain further.

Once you have these type of plants in your collection, it is always about trying to make new and better things if you can,” Greyshock says. “Right now, we are playing around with the Tropical Sleigh Ride. This last year, we crossed it with another phenomenal California plant that was bred right here in Mendocino County called the Long Valley Royal Kush. Both of these plants have won awards at the Emerald Cup, so the combination of these two plants is making for some really exciting stuff this year.”

Breeder: Greenshock Farms

Genetics: Purple Candy Cane x Pineapple

Yield: Medium to Heavy

Height: Medium to Tall

Harvest Time: 56 to 60 Days

Profile: Sativa 70%/Indica 30%

TELL US, would you be interested in trying a strain bursting with tropical terps?

Originally published in Issue 40 of Cannabis Now. LEARN MORE

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The Cannabis Now Guide to Pairing Herbs with Your Herb

Stop for a second and think about your last smoke session. Imagine the smell after grinding up the bud, the flavor after that first full exhale and the pleasant effects that follow: a boost of energy, a wave of relaxation or a sense of peace. The unsung hero of your perfect post-high moment? Terpenes. These aromatic compounds, also found in other plants, herbs, flowers and even fruits, are key players in the taste and scent of your cannabis and the distinct buzz that follows.

Because terpenes also interact with cannabinoids to create all of the components that make up your favorite strain, adding herbs to your cannabis can enhance the consumption experience.

Depending on which herbs you use, you can boost flavor profiles, increase energy and focus, ease pain or reduce stress. There are lots of different ways to pair herbal blends with cannabis and knowing what to consider before making your own combination is crucial for coming up with the perfect mix.

Monica Fine, a California-based master herbalist, has some simple tips when it comes to matching herbs with cannabis strains. She says it’s best to use what you like in small amounts, change herbs regularly and try to use what is actually in season around you. Fine explains that any herb used in excess can be dangerous — even ones you think are the safest.

She also suggests staying away from herbs like datura, morning glory and nightshades, which are poisonous.

Unfortunately, she cautions that both burning and vaping dried herbs don’t allow you to enjoy the highest terpene content possible, because of the process of combustion and oxidation burns off terpenes. So, Fine says, tinctures are the better option when it comes to cannabis and herbal blends. Still, there are some benefits if you are interested in consuming cannabis and herbs by vaping or smoking, especially since Fine notes that smoking hits the central nervous system much faster than other delivery methods, which makes it useful for immediate relief.

Personally, Fine favors herbs like damiana, life everlasting flower and any of the artemisia family added to joints and spliffs. She is working to launch a brand that will feature sublingual extracts that utilize the powerful combination of herbs and cannabis, using formulas designed to preserve the integrity of the plants.

When it comes to picking your own herbs to pair, she refers to her mentor Jeanne Rose, a world-renowned author, herbalist and aromatherapist who suggests using herbs like rosemary and sage to dry mucus and excess secretions from the lungs and recommends trying marjoram, chamomile and gentian to help kick a tobacco habit. And of course, there are also other herbs and flowers, from peppermint and mullein to rose and jasmine blossom, that you can choose from to complement your strain of choice.

How to Combine Herbal Terpenes With Cannabis

Linalool is an anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic and analgesic terpene found in herbs like lavender and is good for pain management and reducing anxiety and stress. Pairs well with the strains Romulan, Sour Kush and Purple Urkle.

Pinene is a bronchodilator, expectorant and antimicrobial terpene found in herbs like rosemary and sage and helps with boosting focus, increasing alertness and improving airflow to the lungs. Pairs well with strains like Purple Kush, AK-47, Dutch Treat and Bay Dream.

Myrcene is an antibiotic, antimutagenic and a muscle-relaxing terpene found in herbs like eucalyptus and hops and is known for its calming properties. Pairs well with strains like Mango Kush, Granddaddy Purple, Trainwreck and Grape Ape.

Geraniol is a natural antioxidant terpene that’s antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic. It’s found in roses and is good for adding floral flavor profile. It also has antibacterial and antifungal properties that can help reduce infections. Pairs well with strains like Afghan, Headband, Amnesia Haze and Great White Shark.

TELL US, do you go for certain taste profiles when it comes to choosing cannabis?

Originally published in Issue 39 of Cannabis Now. LEARN MORE

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How Legal Cannabis Relieves CHS – Limits of Irradiation

We recently explored the rare phenomenon that causes cannabis to induce profuse vomiting and excruciating pain, a condition that has been tagged Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS.) It is hard for some to believe this can happen, calling it refer madness; alternatively, some reports now claim Canada’s legal cannabis relieves CHS. Bogus! That’s nothing but more […]

The post How Legal Cannabis Relieves CHS – Limits of Irradiation appeared first on Cannabis News | Lifestyle Tips | Expert Opinions | Stocks.

Prevent Migraine with Cannabis and Diet

Migraine is a fickle, unpleasant neurological condition. A debilitating, pulsating headache that lasts from 4 to 72 hours. The best choice is to avoid their experience, but that is a constant battle. Diets and medicines that prevent migraines do exist, but not all routines work. Cannabis seems to be a flexible, ubiquitous option that may […]

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Terpenes 101, Best Hemp Flowers For Sleep, Medical Cannabis In France, and more – The Medical Cannabis Weekly

Did you miss yesterday’s newsletter? Well we have the full scoop for you right here if you need to get caught up. 

First, we’re taking an in-depth look at the co-star to cannabinoids – terpenes – which, in addition to giving plants their desirable aromas, they also have many benefits for human health. Also, are all these medical claims about CBD legitimate or all hype? And the soon-to-launch medical cannabis program in France will initially support 3,000 patients.


FEATURED STORY: Everything You Need To Know About Terpenes 

terpenes market

Terpenes are a diverse group of organic compounds produced by plants, fruits, and vegetables. Terpenes are used by some plants to deter animals, but many also have significant therapeutic and medicinal value for humans.

It’s a well-known fact that humans, animals, and plants have evolved in tandem throughout the ages, at least on some level. For example, some terpenes inside plants are known to benefit humans and to bring them closer to a state of homeostasis or “perfect equilibrium.”

Click here to read the full story 

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Must Read Articles:

Reshaping How We Talk About CBD: Evidence or Exaggeration? 

cbd testing

Many people still remain skeptical or confused about the hemp-based CBD compound. Those are some monumental conditions, symptoms and ailments that regular people suffer from each and every day. Can CBD help decrease all of this? Does CBD truly do what it claims to? How do you know it works? Are all CBD brands going to create that much of a differing effect?

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What Are The Best Strains For Sleep?

best strains sleep

Some people stop drinking coffee in the evening. Others feel they have no choice but to take powerful prescription medications to get to sleep. Then, there’s CBD, a plant compound that has many people counting sheep as soon as their head hits the pillow. Thousands of people from around the world who have already discovered the fantastic health benefits of CBD use it for a variety of different reasons already.

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French Medical Cannabis Trial Would Initially Support 3,000 Patients 

french cannabis

France is moving closer to the launch of a medical cannabis trial which could benefit 3,000 patients. The French National Assembly is expected to give approval to the two-year trial which is being backed by president Macron’s La République En Marche majority party, reports Marijuana Business Daily.

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We hope you enjoyed this week’s review. Don’t forget to send your friends to subscribe to our Medical Cannabis Weekly Newsletter for more articles like these!

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Everything You Need To Know About Terpenes

Terpenes are a diverse group of organic compounds produced by plants, fruits, and vegetables. Terpenes are used by some plants to deter animals, but many also have significant therapeutic and medicinal value for humans.

It’s a well-known fact that humans, animals, and plants have evolved in tandem throughout the ages, at least on some level. For example, some terpenes inside plants are known to benefit humans and to bring them closer to a state of homeostasis or “perfect equilibrium.” These terpenes affect various intricate systems inside the human body, and if they go out of whack or aren’t regulated correctly, it can lead to illness and various other ailments.

The body is continually attempting to bring itself to a state of homeostasis. It does this via three central systems: The Endocrine System, The Neuroendocrine System, and the Endocannabinoid System. Let’s start by taking a look at these systems and the roles they play in regulating health, sleep, mood, appetite, and a range of other things.

After that, we’ll take a closer look at how and why terpenes work for people suffering from a range of conditions. We’ll also look at some of the most popular terpenes, and how they’re used to promote healthfulness and wellbeing.

The Endocrine System

One of the intricate systems inside the body that controls mood, sleep, sexual function, growth, and other things is the endocrine system. The system is made up of glands, which secrete hormones throughout the body. The endocrine system includes the thyroid, pituitary gland, testicles, ovaries, adrenal glands, pancreas, and parathyroid glands.

These glands work together to balance the body, and the more balanced they are, the better. The glands absorb matter from the bloodstream and then release back only the substances that are required to bring the body to homeostasis.

The Neuroendocrine System

Another finely-tuned system that regulates the body is the neuroendocrine system. This system is closely related to the endocrine system and includes many of the same glands.

However, the neuroendocrine system also contains various non-endocrine tissues, hormones, neurons, and neurochemicals. Certain cells, abundant in the neuroendocrine system, produce specific hormones in response to a myriad of neurological signals and stimuli.

The Endocannabinoid System

The endocannabinoid system, known as the ECS, present inside the body, also regulates a variety of daily functions. As the name suggests, this system is the symbiosis of various cannabinoids from cannabis and hemp plants, interacting uniquely with the body. The ECS consists of receptors located in the organs of the body called CB1 and CB2 receptors.

CBD, for example, doesn’t infiltrate these receptors but does encourage them to work in a balanced and optimal way. The ECS is partially responsible for regulating appetite, mood, and sleep. It’s also interesting as it supports the case that some scientists make that humans and plant life have evolved together in unique ways over millennia. Terpenes also affect the ECS in a variety of different ways.

Working Together

These intricate systems work uniquely to regulate certain daily functions for humans. That includes getting the right amount of (good quality) sleep, eating at the right time of day and generally feeling upbeat and content.

The body will do its utmost to keep itself balanced and in check to reach homeostasis. Homeostasis includes things like blood sugar levels, breathing, and body temperature. Interestingly, some terpenes are known to balance the systems we discussed in humans.

Terpenes and Humans

The main organs in the body responsible for bringing people to a state of equilibrium are the brain, liver, and kidneys. The brain controls balance within the hypothalamus or the endocrine system. At the same time, the liver controls how the body metabolizes carbohydrates. The kidneys are responsible for several bodily functions, including blood water levels, salt levels, and balanced pH levels.

Terpenes are a secondary metabolite produced by plants like cannabis. What that means is that those secondary metabolites – such as terpenes – play no role whatsoever in the growth or reproduction of the plant. That means the terpenes could have no other purpose other than to benefit humans and animals (or deter them.) Terpenes are produced by trees like conifer and fir, and also by fruits. As such, terpenes have been used in alternative medicine for centuries to treat conditions like pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, and insomnia, among other conditions that affect humans.

Terpenes are also in citrus fruits and vegetables and have been used for years in essential oils, particularly by the aromatherapy community. Most beauty, skincare, and hair products contain some form of terpenes, and that even includes your kitchen floor cleaner. When terpenes are infused into a room, not only do they make the area smell nice, they also make people feel better. Terpenes bind to receptors in the systems and encourage the body to reach homeostasis.

Terpene Varieties

We know that around 200 different terpenes exist and that some are more predominant than others depending on where they grow. While the precise mechanism of how terpenes affect humans is still shrouded in mystery, we do know that they target receptors and neurotransmitters in the brain.

Moreover, terpenes are considered to be one of the main things that bring the body into balance, and without them, one can feel under the weather. Many experts understand that terpenes help people with mental disorders and depression. Nevertheless, there are different varieties of terpenes, and they are used in various ways to target a range of issues.

While some terpenes offer a boost of energy, others lower stress. Terpenes are also thought to strengthen the immune system and are often used by cancer patients recovering from chemotherapy. The most popular and well-known terpenes are Myrcene, Pinene, Linalool, and Limonene, but that’s just to name a few.

The clue is in the name here, as pinene is a terpene that grows in pine trees, while lemons are abundant with Limonene. However, it’s the terpenes from cannabis which interest many people, and there are some logical reasons for that.

Ways to Take Terpenes

Assisting the body to reach homeostasis is a great thing to do. Taking the right terpenes in the right way is an excellent way of working towards that goal. Terpenes are already widely used in alternative medicine as well as by the pharmaceutical industry. There are two primary ways to take terpenes: naturally and via aromatherapy, with a third way being the introduction of cannabis terpenes, in one form or another.

Ever heard of “forest bathing?” It’s a real thing, and that’s why many people feel invigorated and relaxed after a long stroll in the woods, especially if there are conifers, firs, and pine trees around. Simply by passively breathing in during a long walk in a forest, terpenes are taken into the body via the lungs and attach to various receptors.

The aromatherapy method is a little more scientific and, according to most, a lot more effective. Particular essential oils are used by some people, for example, to treat Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Oils that are terpene enriched are known to boost serotonin levels and lead to feelings of peace and tranquility.

Terpenes in high concentrations are taken by many in cannabis or CBD flowers. When either of these is smoked or vaporized, a large amount of the terpenes specific to that cannabis or hemp strain will enter the system via the lungs. Terpenes are also added to broad and full spectrum cannabis and CBD oil tinctures or to edibles such as gummy bears or cupcakes. Despite the controversy, CBD products are a great way to take terpenes and to encourage the body to a state of homeostasis.

Spotlight on Terpenes

Terpenes all have unique aromas and are easily distinguishable to the discerning eye. Some terpenes are lemony or smell like berries. Others are musky and piney and more reminiscent of the forest. Here’s a quick-reference list of some of the best-known terpenes and what they’re used for.

  • Myrcene – Most common terpene. Prevalent in indicia varieties of cannabis and used as an analgesic, an anti-inflammatory, and as an antibiotic.
  • Pinene – Second most common terpene and the most prevalent in cannabis plants. Pinene is so-called as it also grows in fir, conifer and pine trees. This terpene is used for its anti-inflammatory properties and as a local antiseptic.
  • Linalool – Another prevalent terpene, Linalool has a floral, often spicy aroma. Working as an anti-inflammatory, this terpene also aids neutral function and kills bacteria and some strains of fungi.
  • Limonene – This terpene gets its name from its lemony, citrusy smell. Considered to be a more uplifting and invigorating terpene, Limonene is often found in cannabis Sativa varieties. Limonene is also used as an anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and to treat anxiety.
  • Camphene – Camphene is a lesser-known terpene but one that is very useful for some conditions. With a delicate, herbal aroma, this terpene is used as an antibiotic and, like most of the others, is also anti-inflammatory.
  • Caryophyllene – This terpene is identifiable from its hop-like aroma. It’s also present in hops, a close relative of cannabis and hemp. Caryophyllene is used to treat depression, anxiety, and panic attacks.

One of the most effective ways to take terpenes is by using CBD oil or vape liquid. Let’s take a look at how terpenes are used inside these products and how they benefit a variety of people with different medical issues.

Using CBD Oil For Terpenes

According to Dr. Leah Zachar, a specialist in the field of CBD, terpenes are “volatile and pharmacologically active molecules, which not only enhance the ability of CBD to exert its benefits but also have their own benefits.” However, there are different types of CBD oil, and not all are equal. CBD Isolate contains no terpenes at all and is just 100% CBD.

Full Spectrum CBD Oil contains a natural balance of CBD and terpenes which are retained and preserved during the extraction process. Full Spectrum CBD Oil is the best option if you’re looking to get the full benefits from the terpenes, regardless of whether the CBD is secondary to you or not. Broad Spectrum CBD Oil is similar to Full Spectrum oil but contains only tiny trace amounts of THC. To benefit from the so-called “Entourage Effect,” Full Spectrum oil is the way to go.

Terpenes For Health & Wellbeing

Terpenes can be easily incorporated into your daily health regime or lifestyle. One of the best ways to do this is by using Full or Broad Spectrum CBD oil. Bear in mind that CBD and terpenes are non-addictive, non-toxic, and non-psychoactive. Many people who use them regularly report feelings of calm and wellbeing. Other people use terpenes and CBD more vigorously to treat things like anxiety, pain, and sleeplessness.

Ingesting CBD oil isn’t the only way to take terpenes into the system. CBD edibles are another convenient and effective way to take terpenes, but with ingestion, it takes up to two hours for the full and rounded effects to be felt. Some premium CBD vape juices (or CBD E-liquids as they’re also known) are packed with terpenes. In some cases, you can even choose which specific terpenes you want if you find the right vendors. When CBD and terpenes are taken via the lungs when vaping or indeed smoking (CBD or THC flowers), the effects are felt almost immediately and are long-lasting and potent.

Whichever method you ultimately decide is best for you, always do your homework to ensure you’re purchasing your terpenes from reputable vendors only. A rule of thumb for this is to check for third-party lab results which any dependable CBD vendor will provide transparently and openly. Online reviews from verified buyers are also a good idea to familiarize yourself with the most popular and most current products.

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Israeli Entrepreneurs Join Forces To Deliver Terpenes To U.K.

Two Israeli businessmen with strong U.K. links have joined forces to deliver high-quality cannabis terpenes to European consumers.

CiiTech, a leading cannabis business, has partnered with Kanabo Research to launch terpene formulas for use with the latter’s VapePod, they say in a joint press release.

The partners say the partnership will see CiiTech’s ‘terpene formulas meet the highest standards required for the U.K. market’. These have been designed specifically for use with the VapePod, Kanabo’s patented device which was the first to be approved for medical use by the Israeli Ministry of Health. 

‘Promote Sleep And Boost Mood’

Terpenes are essential plant oils that deliver distinctive flavors and smells and include the likes of linalool – also present in lavender –  and pinene, in conifers. They are also said to confer therapeutic effects, with cannabis terpenes being used to promote sleep, fight inflammation and boost mood.

CiiTech was was founded by Clifton Flack, once of  iCAN and the investment platform CannaTech. 

Understanding Terpenes

The London-based company initiates in-house research and created Provocan which was recently selected as best in class among U.K. CBD brands. He said trust in CBD brands is ‘crucial’ and collaboration with partners such as Kanabo can help achieve that.

He added: “There’s a real growth in consumer understanding of the terpenes. “We believe our proven formulas created with Kanabo for the VapePod device deliver an exceptional level of CBD innovation and efficacy not previously seen in the industry.”

Raising Capital in London

Kanabo recently announced plans to list on the London Stock Exchange in what will be an effective reverse takeover with U.K. shell company Spinnaker Opportunities PLC. Kanabo’s CEO Avihu Tamir says the London move will support efforts to raise £4 million ($4.8 million) for clinical trials and the launch ‘over-the-counter’ products in Europe.

In the joint press release he said:  “As terpene-based CBD formulas gain greater recognition, the Kanabo collaboration with CiiTech to create targeted terpene formulas for our patented VapePod device is paving the way forward for non-THC medical cannabis products.”

On its website CiiTech says it chose to base itself in the U.K. as it has an open-minded approach to the CBD industry and can act as gateway into the European markets.

The post Israeli Entrepreneurs Join Forces To Deliver Terpenes To U.K. appeared first on CBD Testers.

The Importance of Plant Terpenes in Human Health

While the human body is permanently trying to bring itself to a state of equilibrium – known as homeostasis – there are numerous external factors to consider, plant compounds known as Terpenes are on that list.

The human body will stop at nothing to keep itself balanced and in check. There are numerous intricate systems inside the body which control different things, whether that be health, feelings of well-being, sleep, or appetite. That intricate process is known as homeostasis, and it can be impacted by a variety of things including plant terpenes.

Homeostasis refers to balance in the body and include the regulation of multiple internal functions like body temperature, blood glucose levels, appetite and metabolism, sleep/wake cycles, and breathing patterns, to name a few. Three organs in the body are mainly responsible for bringing the body to homeostasis:

  • Brain – The human brain is intricately involved in every process in the body. The brain controls various aspects of homeostasis within the hypothalamus or the endocrine system.
  • Liver – The liver controls the metabolism of carbohydrates and well as numerous other functions vital for keeping the body in harmony.
  • Kidneys – The kidneys control several different things inside the body, including blood water levels, salt levels, and a balanced pH in the blood.

The human body also has collections of glands located in different places, which play a vital role in encouraging the body to a state of homeostasis:

  • Endocrine System – This system inside the body consists of glands which produce hormones used to regulate things like sleep, sexual function, mood, metabolism, growth, and many other things. Glands located in the endocrine system include the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, testicles, ovaries, pancreas, adrenal glands, and parathyroid glands. This system is involved in absorbing things from the bloodstream, processing them and then releasing only those hormones that are needed most back into the bloodstream. These hormones are one of the main things that bring the body to homeostasis.
  • Neuroendocrine System – Can be described as multiple sets of neurons, glands and non-endocrine tissues, and the neurochemicals, hormones, and humoral signals they produce and receive, that work together to help regulate the body. Many cells in the neuroendocrine system produce hormones as a response to various neurological signals.

While these two systems are primarily responsible for homeostasis, they cannot work alone. Other systems inside humans, such as the endocannabinoid system (ECS) also regulates various functions in the body. That’s why many scientists believe that as humans evolved alongside plant life for so long, various chemicals and compounds from some plants effectively maintain and even boost these systems to the point of equilibrium or perfect balance. One of those chemicals is terpenes.

Terpenes Explained

terpenes homeostasis

Commonly found in hops and bay leaves

Terpenes are officially a “secondary metabolite produced by plants.” That means in laymen’s terms that some plants produce chemicals that play no part in the reproduction or growth of the plant itself. These metabolites are not only beneficial for the plant, they do interact in surprising ways with humans. Terpenes are thought to be beneficial for the treatment of a variety of ailments that humans suffer from, like anxiety, pain, and insomnia.

Terpenes are in many things, from oranges to lemons to various trees like conifers. Terpenes are what give a fruit, vegetable, plant, or tree its unique smell. Terpenes have been extracted to make essential oils for years and are used inside beauty products and even cleaning products to give them a “natural” aroma.

Take aromatherapy, for example, whereby essential oils packed with terpenes are diffused into the air. These terpenes are subsequently inhaled in large amounts and then bind to receptors, encouraging various internal systems to reach homeostasis. Terpenes affect the endocannabinoid system, the endocrine system, and the neuroendocrine system. The way that terpenes interact with humans is quite fascinating.

Terpenes and Homeostasis in Humans

To date, scientists have identified around 200 different terpenes. Each terpene affects humans in specific ways, even though we don’t precisely understand that mechanism. Terpenes target various receptors and neurotransmitters, with the most well-known being alpha-pinene, myrcene, and limonene.

These terpenes are inside some varieties of cannabis and are considered to be intricately involved in encouraging and activating receptors in both the endocannabinoid and neuroendocrine systems. Terpenes are believed to make those systems more active and assist in bringing the body to that ideal state of homeostasis.

Maintaining homeostasis with things like terpenes is a great way to keep the delicate systems of the body in check. For example, many medical experts believe that terpenes encourage homeostasis and can help to ward off things like anxiety and depression. However, different terpenes have varying effects. Some help to increase energy, reduce stress, and strengthen the immune system; others help to relieve inflammation and pain. That’s why many people even go as far as to say that people need terpenes, in the right amounts, to truly reach that ultimate goal of homeostasis.

Terpenes in Cannabis

We’re taking a look at five of the most common and best-known terpenes in the cannabis plant:

  • terpenes homeostasis

    Commonly found in conifer trees

    Myrcene – The scientific name for Mycrene is β-myrcene, and it happens to be the most common terpene in cannabis. It smells musky and earthy and is also highly fragrant. Myrcene is associated with a sedative body sensation and is mainly present in Indica cannabis varieties related to sleep. Myrcene also allows various cannabis compounds to enter the system more rapidly. Myrcene is also a potent analgesic, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is antibiotic.

  • Pinene – Pinene is probably the second most popular terpene when it comes to cannabis. It derives its name due to its aroma of pine and fir but is split into two varieties. There’s α-pinene and β-pinene, and both are vital components of pine resin. Pinene is used as an effective anti-inflammatory, expectorant, bronchodilator, and local antiseptic. Pinene is also used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and is believed to soften the effects of THC for some people.
  • Limonene – Limonene is characterized by its lemony scent but is in reality formed from pinene. Cannabis strains containing an abundance of limonene smell citrusy and offer an uplifting and creative effect. Limonene also enhances mood and makes its way rapidly into the bloodstream. Limonene is also known to kill fungi and bacteria and is used for that purpose in essential oils applied to the skin.
  • Linalool – Linalool is another popular terpene found in cannabis. Many describe linalool as having a flowery, lavender aroma, and it’s used by people wanting to feel calm and relaxed. Many cultures have used linalool for centuries as a sleep aid. It’s also used to temper any anxiety potentially caused by too much THC. Studies have shown that linalool boosts the immune system and restores cognitive and emotional function.
  • Terpinolene – Terpinolene is more on the herbal side of things. It gives off the aroma of sage and rosemary and is used in the production of soaps, perfumes, and hair products. Terpinolene is a central nervous system depressant and is used to encourage drowsiness and to reduce overexcitement or panic attacks. Research is also underway to look at the connection between Terpinolene and various forms of cancer.

Terpenes as Medicine

The internal systems inside the body discussed in this article are vital for health and wellbeing and shouldn’t be underestimated. Terpenes have some remarkable effects on humans, and the symbiotic relationship between humanity and plants is a wonder. Terpenes are already used in pharmaceutical and alternative medicines alike and not just to make floor cleaner smell citrusy. Terpenes are associated with homeostasis in a big way, and there are two main ways to take terpenes into the body; aromatherapy, and natural.

It may sound strange, but there’s a scientific reason why people feel good after a brisk stroll the forest. The so-called practice of “forest bathing” is effective as you passively breathe in natural terpenes from trees like pine and fir. Terpenes are entering the lungs the whole time, and this is why it’s a great way to unwind and ward of anxiety and depression. It’s also the reason why people usually get a good night’s sleep after a long time spent in the fresh air, and that’s partially thanks to terpenes.

The other way to enjoy terpenes is via the aromatherapy method. Many people use specially formulated essential oils, for example, to deal with symptoms of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Certain oils containing various terpenes and other ingredients boost serotonin and make some people feel generally better. There is a third and more controversial way of taking terpenes, and that’s via cannabis.

Having been prohibited for decades across the world, despite recent legalization of the plant in certain parts of the world, there’s still a stigma when it comes to cannabis. THC is the compound inside the plants that make you high or stoned. CBD is another of the main compounds in cannabis that has no psychoactive effects and can be mixed with terpenes which are reintroduced to the extracted CBD.

CBD with Terpenes

terpenes homeostasis

Typically found in lemons and other citrus fruit

One of the best ways to take terpenes is through a CBD extract suspension such as CBD oil. There are three main types of CBD extract; Broad spectrum, Full spectrum, and Isolate. CBD Isolate contains only 100% pure CBD, and that’s great if you want to target the endocannabinoid system and nothing else. However, Broad-spectrum CBD contains CBD and terpenes, but no THC. Full-spectrum CBD can contain THC at levels higher than 0.3%.

Many companies produce and sell various CBD oils and vape juices containing different terpenes. It’s simple to find these products online or in retail stores, and you can often choose the specific strain and terpenes in the product you buy. CBD and terpenes are a natural and logical union as they cover so much ground when combined. While CBD is known to influence the ECS in positive ways, in the direction of homeostasis, terpenes, as mentioned above, also help to balance both the Endocrine and Neuroendocrine systems simultaneously, as well as the ECS.

Final Thoughts

The evidence that cannabis is a good thing for the immune system and for specific autoimmune diseases is mounting. However, there is some evidence to suggest that (cannabis) terpenes such as beta-caryophyllene decrease inflammation through its ability to stimulate the CB2 receptor. Another terpene, as discussed, Myrcene, is also known to have anti-inflammatory properties associated with some autoimmune conditions.

Further research is needed to establish precisely how terpenes affect the immune system. More studies also need to be carried out on the relationship between the so-called “entourage effect,” as far as cannabis and terpenes are concerned. If you want to delve deeper into the world of terpenes from a medical research perspective, check out the sources below linking to articles on the NCBI website.


    1. Plant terpenes: defense responses, phylogenetic analysis, regulation, and clinical applications – Bharat Singh-  and Ram A. Sharma2 –
    2. Targeting Cannabinoid Signaling in the Immune System: “High”-ly Exciting Questions, Possibilities, and Challenges – Attila Oláh, Zoltán Szekanecz, and Tamás Bíró –
    3. Terpenes from Forests and Human Health – Kyoung Sang Cho, Young-ran Lim, Kyungho Lee, Jaeseok Lee, Jang Ho Lee, and Im-Soon Lee –

The post The Importance of Plant Terpenes in Human Health appeared first on CBD Testers.

Thursday, August 1, 2019 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News

Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Thursday, August 1, 2019 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// Democratic Presidential Candidates Clash On Marijuana At Debate (Marijuana Moment)

// Surprise: Utah’s Anti-Weed Senator Is Also a Major Opioid Mogul (Merry Jane)

// CannTrust Prepares To Sell The Company Following Illegal Growing Scandal (Green Market Report)

These headlines are brought to you by Curaleaf, one of the leading vertically-integrated cannabis operators in the U.S. With legal medical marijuana dispensaries, cultivation sites, and processing facilities all over the United States, Curaleaf has served more than 100,000 medical cannabis patients and looks forward to helping many more long into the future. Swing over to to learn more about this very cool company!

// California regulators reopen funding for cannabis social equity programs (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Hawthorne Segment Helps Drive Growth and Improved Outlook at ScottsMiracle-Gro (New Cannabis Ventures)

// Pilot program for AK grown hemp loses funding (KTUU 2 NBC)

// Pardons aren’t supposed to be visible at the U.S. border. Here’s why they often are (Global News)

// Coast Guard Issues Order Barring Active Duty Members From Visiting Marijuana Shops (Marijuana Moment)

// Chart: Women account for more than a third of marijuana business executives (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Researchers Ask: Is Cannabis Contributing to Denver’s Smog? (Leafly)

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