How toxic is a vape pen and how do lab tests find out

Vape injuries occurred in 2019 because of THC adulterated with tocopherols (a vitamin derivative.) To prevent some issues before market, a lab can test cannabis oil for certain contaminants to determine how toxic a vape pen is. But how does a lab quantify a stream of aerosolized vapor or smoke? Vapor containment in the lab […]

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Isreali Nextage Explores Effective Delivery of Psychedelic Compounds

Israel is one of the leading countries for medical cannabis research and has held this title for decades; since the 1960s to be exact. Now, they’re joining efforts to study the benefits of psychedelics in a clinical setting as well.

Of the main areas of focus is using psychoactive compounds to treat clinical depression and other psychiatric disorders. One Israeli company, Nextage Therapeutics, is looking specifically at utilizing ibogaine, along with their own patent delivery system, to better treat people with these conditions.

When it comes to treating psychological disorders and minimizing the risk of side effects, psychedelics are the way of the future. Check out our newsletter, The Delta 8 Weekly, to learn more about these incredible compounds as well as gain access to exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products.


What are Psychedelics?

Psychedelic drugs are a subset of hallucinogens. They contain psychoactive compounds that are capable of altering a person’s mood, perception, and cognition; sometimes permanently. The active compounds are usually found in nature, like psilocybin or mescaline, but they can also be manmade, like LSD.

Psychedelics are known for causing ‘trips’, which is what the high is referred to. When a person is tripping, they may have altered perceptions of the world around them. Many people believe this is limited to visual and auditory hallucinations, but it can also include feeling, tasting, and smelling things that are not real, as well as a heightened sense of connection and understanding, and greater feelings of introspection.  

The trips that people most commonly associate with these types of the drugs are the ones in which a state of hallucinogenic delirium is reached, but that is not always the case. Many times, it is more of an experience than a trip, and something can be learned and achieved psychologically with every small dose.

The word itself, ‘psychedelics’, was first used in 1957 to recognize substances that were said to open the mind, however, the more accurate term for them is ‘entheogens’. This term was adopted, not necessarily for the sake of being scientific, but rather to allow the sector to operate without all the stigma attached to psychedelics from smear campaigns and restrictive policies throughout history. The term entheogen comes from Greek where it means ‘building the god within’.

Different psychedelics produce different trips. For example, with DMT you can expect a short high lasting less than 1 hour, whereas LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline trips can last up to ten hours. Some hallucinogens are more potent than others, like mushrooms vs acid. The active compounds are different in each drug so there is a lot of variation to the effects that can be felt.  

Some people experience bad trips in which negative, or even scary, hallucinations are experienced, and/or a rapid heartbeat, sweating, nausea, disorientation, and fatigue occur. There is indication that the majority of these symptoms can be controlled through proper dosing. This is why most modern-day, therapeutic users of psychedelics consume the drugs in micro-doses.

Nextage Pharmaceuticals and MindMend

According to Nextage Founder and CEO Abraham Dreazen, “there has been a shift in the last decade. The US Food and Drug Administration, for example, is starting to see quality of life as a factor in evaluating medicine, opening the door to these drugs.”

Earlier this year, Nextage signed a collaboration agreement with industry trailblazer Mindmend, to use their proprietary new technology known as Brain Targeting Liposome System (BTLS) – a delivery system Dreazen claims will “optimize the delivery of drug products based on noribogaine, and ultimately other ibogaine derivatives.”

Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in Apocynaceae plant family in Gabon, a small coastal country in central Africa. Although minimal research exists, a handful of clinical studies found that Ibogaine and its derivatives can be used to combat addiction, and it was looked at particularly for the treatment of opioid addiction, for which the results were promising.

Unfortunately, when used at high doses over a longer period, there are potential side effects. In a recent press release, reps from MindMend explained that, “orally administered ibogaine and noribogaine present unacceptable safety risks due to their torsadogenic effects at high systemic concentrations.”

Simply put, there’s a moderate risk of heart attacks when using noribogaine. However, Dreazen believes that if the drug is administered using certain methods that better permeate the blood-brain barrier, so more of the drug actually reaches the brain rather than going to other parts of the body, including the heart. He described it as “the winning lottery ticket.”

Permeating the Blood-Brain Barrier

When it comes to treating psychological and neurological disorders, or really any other disease or condition affecting the brain, the main challenge is permeating the blood-brain barrier. The purpose of the blood-brain barrier is to protect the brain from foreign substances, and as such, can prevent up to 95% of molecules from reaching the brain.

So far, the most common way to work around that is by giving prescribing these drugs at extremely high doses, and that, needless to say, can have numerous unwanted and severe side effects. Using a more effective model, The BTLS platform, licensed from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, has been making use of a “liposomal vehicle with a unique targeting complex” that allows for blood-brain barrier permeation at much lower doses of various pharmaceutical agents.

This is a relatively well-known concept, but according to Dreazen, Nextage took it a step further and attached a “small arrow of seven amino acid peptides – essentially a very small protein – which is part of a much larger protein that is native to the brain and has a way of actively transporting the liposomal capsule through the blood-brain barrier. Once the capsule is drawn into the brain with the arrow, it gets lodged there and starts dissolving, facilitating release of the active material – the drug.”

What the Future Holds for Nextage

Nextage has been working in the drug delivery sector for 14 years and their daughter company, IMIO, is focused solely on psychedelics. The company completed most of required preclinical worked needed to determine the potential efficacy and generality of their new patent technology. They have already worked with CBD and THC-based medications and Nextage/IMIO plans to explore the potential of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

Dreazen says LSD “is a really promising drug.” Its challenge is that when taken, people can “trip” for 15 to 17 hours, making it very unfeasible as a chronic treatment. But just like with ibogaine, he believes that if the dose can be reduced and the least amount possible gets into the body as opposed to the brain, “you could potentially get the same therapeutic effect without the longevity of the trip.”

“In the US, the psychedelic movement has exploded in the last 12 months,” Dreazen added. “I think psychedelics in Israel are just emerging, and we are the first public company to really put our teeth into it. Israel has always been in the forefront of research and development and we are committed to spearheading this industry.”

Final Thoughts

As you can see, conversations surrounding the use of psychedelics to treat mental health and neurological disorders is reaching nearly every corner of the globe, and the countries that have been more accepting of cannabis are also spearheading the medical psychedelic revelation. Psychedelics are here to stay, and in the very near future, we can expect to see a lot of these compounds being safely used in clinical and therapeutic settings.

Thank you for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your hub for all things cannabis and psychedelics-related. Make sure to Subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter to learn more and for exclusive deals on Delta 8Delta 10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC.

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How does a vaccine compare to medical cannabis against cancer?

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological mechanism that works to keep almost all vertebrae alive. It regulates everything from death to cancer. Not surprisingly, cannabis‘s role in cancer therapy is multifaceted and irrefutable, despite a still moot status with the FDA. Yet, institutions continue to intently focus on cancer vaccine research with disregard for […]

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Do BC Covid cases justify vaccine passports in the cannabis sector?

Certain non-essential services in provinces like Ontario and British Columbia now require customers to be vaccinated. But, how does the skeptical process provincial governments use to report Covid cases to justify vaccine passports in the cannabis sector? Cannabis — a medicine for many — was deemed an essential service during the pandemic in BC. This […]

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Is Vaping Bad for You?

With the popularity of vaping on the rise, the health risks of vaping are top of mind. While experts can’t definitively state whether vaping is bad for you, research is ongoing. In this article, we’ve compiled some up-to-date information on the risk and benefits of vaping. Vaping started out as a way for heavy smokers […]

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Enteral ventilation via Anus – Saving Lives with Butt Breathing

Hold onto your butts because this is a pretty weird one; have you ever heard of rectal ventilation? Until recently, no one really had or would even think of putting those words together. Thanks to the pandemic, the topic of ventilation has become a household concern. As the Delta variant continues to spread, ICU beds […]

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A New Clinical Study To Evaluate The Effects of Cannabo-Nerve Combination On Chronic Neuropathic Pain

*** PRESS RELEASE *** San Francisco, CA – Herzliya, Israel, August 17, 2021 – Cannformatics, an early-stage biotechnology startup focused on the identification and application of saliva-based Cannabis-Responsive TM biomarkers and Cannabotech, a biomedical company developing medical solutions based on botanical combinations of cannabis extracts and functional mushrooms, today announced that Cannabotech has commissioned Cannformatics to conduct a study to evaluate the effects of Cannabotech’s Cannabo-Nerve combination on human patients suffering from chronic neuropathic pain. This study will also compare “MycoCann NeuroPain” to other leading off-the-shelf medical cannabis pain relievers that are currently being sold in the state of CA.

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“We are honored that Cannabotech chose Cannformatics to scientifically evaluate the impact of “MycoCann NeuroPain”. Pharmacometabolomic data in combination with study participant pain assessments are unique in their ability to provide insights into a product’s physiological mechanism of action and ability to manage chronic pain,” said Cannformatics CEO and Cofounder, Dr. Itzhak Kurek. “This is an exciting opportunity to support Cannabotech in bringing new hope to patients suffering with chronic neuropathic pain and deepen our understanding of pain related Cannabis-Responsive biomarkers.”

The study will be conducted under the supervision of an FDA regulated Institutional Review Board (IRB) in conjunction with Cannformatics’ Advisory Board members Dr. Donald Abrams and Dr. Bonni Goldstein. Subject to receiving IRB approval, Cannformatics will begin recruiting participants for the study. People interested in participating the study may sign up for study updates HERE.

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Elchanan Shaked, CEO and Chairman of Cannabotech, said: “For the past two-years Cannabotech has built a rigorous scientific pipeline for the development of cannabis- and mushroom-based products. The unique formulation that will be tested combines an exact composition of 13 cannabinoids and terpenes with mushroom extracts for the purpose of reducing chronic neuropathic pain without THC-related psychoactive effects. Cannformatics’ technology will provide novel insights obtained in a real-world setting, adding an important layer to the high- quality scientific evidence necessary to gain the support of the medical community ahead of a planned launching of “MycoCann NeuroPain” in the second half of 2022.”

About Cannformatics, Inc:
Cannformatics is an early-stage biotechnology startup focused on the personalization of medical cannabis treatment through the identification and application of Cannabis- Responsive biomarkers found in saliva. The company’s mission is to deliver recommendations for predictable and repeatable science-based medical cannabis treatment to improve health and quality of life. The company is now pursuing identifying Cannabis-ResponsiveTM biomarkers related to autism spectrum disorder in children.
Cannformatics is headquartered in San Francisco, CA.

About Cannabotech, Inc:
Cannabotech is an Israeli biomedical company developing botanical solutions for preventive & integrative medicine. These solutions are based on combinations of active ingredients from the cannabis plant and medicinal mushrooms focusing on two main systems in the human body: the endocannabinoid (ECS) system and the immune system. The Company’s goal is to develop products that can be integrated into existing oncology treatment protocols. Cannabotech is developing a series of eight formulas designed to help patients suffering from five cancer types (Pancreatic, Colorectal, Breast, Lung & Prostate), and minimize chemotherapy-induced chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CINP) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).
Cannabotech is headquartered in Herzliya, Israel.

*** END OF PRESS RELEASE ***

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Best CO2 Extracted Delta-8 THC Shatter Products

Cannabis concentrates, like shatter, are becoming more popular, and can be made for compounds like THC, CBD, and even delta-8 THC. What does it mean for a concentrate to be CO2 extracted, and what are the best delta-8 THC shatter products to try?

CO2 extracted delta-8 THC shatter products are growing in popularity, but that’s because delta-8 is growing in popularity. This alternate to delta-9 THC causes less psychoactive effect, less anxiety, and leaves users clear-headed, and with more energy. There are a ton of delta-8, delta 10, THCV and THC-O products to try out, and we’ve got a great selection of deals. So check out the possibilities, and try it out today.

First off, what’s delta-8 THC shatter?

Shatter is a form of cannabis concentrate that goes along with similar concentrates like wax, butter, honeycomb, and resin. What sets shatter apart from the other concentrates, is its texture and consistency. Most of the concentrates are actually made in the same basic way, and it’s the purging process that often defines a difference between the concentrates. There are two main ways to make a concentrate like this using solvents, one is with a hydrocarbon like butane or propane, and one is with carbon dioxide, (although ethanol can be used as well). We’ll get to that soon.

Shatter has a texture that makes it look like glass, with air bubbles throughout, or a sort of air-bubble mesh pattern. Unlike butter and wax, it has a more solid texture, smooth, translucent, and yellow in color. It has the appearance that it could crack or shatter, if hit with a hard object. During the purging process of extractions, the shatter is heated and cooled over an hours-to-days period, which gives it its texture and consistency. At the end of this process, there can be as much as 70-90+% THC or CBD, making shatter extremely strong.

Shatter can be smoked, but it can also be dabbed, which is a kind of vaping that involves a dab rig, or a water bong made for using concentrates. The shatter is placed on a nail which is heated, and the vapor is dragged through a water chamber before being inhaled by the user. Because of its consistency and harder texture than other concentrates, shatter is easier to use in this way, and can be dropped right on the nail, without the use of a dab tool, which is meant for scooping up stickier concentrates.

dab rig

Shatter can also go by the names ‘sap’ and ‘pull’n’snap’, with the former denoting a thinner concentrate, more in line with tree sap, and the latter with a texture and consistency closer to taffy, which can bend. Molecularly, the difference between these different concentrates is associated with how the molecules are aligned, this can be affected by heat or cool being applied during purging, pressure, and how much the concentrate is disturbed in the purging process. Shatter has a neat molecular alignment, with molecules organized into parallel rows.

Shatter is both an extract and a concentrate. It’s an extract because it comes from the cannabis plant, and is made of cannabinoids that have been extracted out of the plant material. And it’s a concentrate because the cannabinoids its made of are isolated out, creating a very concentrated form of a specific cannabinoid, generally THC or CBD.

One of the recent alternatives to standard THC, is delta-8 THC. This half brother to delta-9 is known for causing less anxiety, less psychoactive effect, and offering the same general medical catalogue as delta-9. Shatter can be made high in delta-8 THC, which is preferable for medical or recreational users, that want to have a clearer head and more energy while using cannabis.

Best CO2 Delta-8 shatter products

$29.95 – $269.50 – The company Exhale Wellness puts out its Delta-8 Shatter – Sour Tangie. This lab tested concentrate, that uses broad spectrum hemp oil, has no additives or preservatives, no MCT, PG, VG, or PEG oil, Its highly concentrated in delta-8, and is made using a CO2 extraction. This tangy citrus flavor which comes from East Coast Diesel and Tangie, is great for dab rigs and standard vapes. Consumers can subscribe to the site to save an extra 25%!

The company also puts out Delta-8 Shatter – Girl Scout Cookies, (with a sweet and nutty flavor) and Delta-8 Shatter Purple Punch (with a sweet fruit punch flavor). This company ships to all states that allow delta-8 THC.

$29.99 – Another company that makes sure its delta-8 shatter is CO2 extracted, is Agrodine. This company puts out its Delta-8 THC Shatter, which come in 1gram jars, with 45% – 75% potency, and over 96% purity per jar. This shatter is minimally processed, has no GMO materials, and is laboratory tested for your safety. Prospective buyers can choose between the following flavors: Pineapple Express, Blue Dream, Green Crack, Sour Diesel, Girl Scout, Super Lemon Haze, Grapefruit Haze, and Tangie. The company does say it ships to all 50 states, but prospective buyers should understand the laws for their specific location.

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$35 Yet another company that takes your safety seriously when it comes to making CO2 delta-8 THC shatter, is Top Five Wholesale. This company puts out Delta-8 Shatter (1g) – Mango (Hybrid), with a pungent tropical aroma. This company claims 93% purity, and a 45% – 75% extracted oil. This company sells 1 gram per container, is laboratory certified, and uses safe CO2 extractions. This company ships to all states where delta-8 has not been illegalized, and offers other delta-8 products that interested buyers should check out.

Butane hash oil extractions

Shatter is generally made in one of a few ways. The most standard way is with a hydrocarbon solvent like butane or propane. The solvent is put on the plant material, where it breaks down the trichomes where the cannabinoids are stored, and then binds directly to them. When the solvent is burned off at the end, it leaves behind concentrated cannabinoids. More and more this is done in a closed-loop system, which is a safer way of using such a solvent. In a closed-loop system, the solvent doesn’t have contact with the outside.

In this kind of system, the solvent is added to the cannabis in one place, moved to another where the contents are heated to remove the solvent, then to another tank where the residual butane is purged – with how this is done dictating the consistency of the final product. At the end, the remaining solvent flows back to its original containment, closing the loop. In a home setup, the process often ends when the shatter stops bubbling while being heated, but this can leave residual butane which is toxic, and harmful when inhaled. Pressurized vacuum pumps can be used at this point in a home set-up, to further purge the butane, with heat and pressure as the means of getting rid of the butane.

Concentrates that are made in this way, using butane, are called butane hash oil (BHO). This term is often confused to mean a specific kind of concentrate, but it only actually refers to the method of extraction. Therefore, while shatter is different then butter or honeycomb, if they are made using butane as a solvent, they are all butane hash oil, as well.

In terms of shatter, the concentrate is not agitated during the purge phase, and this allows its molecules to stay more organized. It is dried out over a period of time, using hot and cold to allow the gas to be fully purged.

How a CO2 extraction is different

CO2 extractions are technically preferable because regardless of how much purging, a BHO extract can always have hydrocarbon left in it. With a CO2 extraction, there is no fear of solvent being left behind, which makes for an overall cleaner product. The way it works is that CO2 is pressurized to reach a ‘supercritical’ state. In natural temperature and pressure, CO2 is a gas. When this gas is frozen, it becomes dry ice. When its pressurized and heated to a specific temperature, it stays in a ‘critical’ state somewhere between a liquid and a gas, and having properties of both.

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This CO2 supercritical liquid is put on the cannabis where it does what butane does. It breaks the trichomes open to release the cannabinoids inside. Once this part is done, the CO2 is simply repressurized to go back to its gaseous state, leaving all the extracted cannabinoids behind. Think of freezing something in ice, and then melting the ice and allowing it to evaporate so that all that’s left is what was trapped in it, with no H2O remaining.

The equipment for CO2 extractions is more intensive and expensive, so home jobs will likely never use something like this. Luckily, with a growing industry, this processing technique becomes more likely for production, since it creates an overall better product, does so without the same risk of explosion, and without the risk of subjecting users to residual hydrocarbons. Since CO2 can’t exist in liquid, or even supercritical form, at standard temperature and pressure, it cannot remain with the concentrate upon re-pressurization.

Conclusion

Shatter is becoming a very popular way of vaping cannabis extracts, and delta-8 is certainly gaining popularity among cannabis smokers. Making sure products are safe by using safe extraction methods is important, and the CO2 delta-8 shatter products listed here use this safer extraction technology, to ensure you have the best product possible.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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Meet the Concentrates: Shatter, Wax, BHO, Resin, Rosin, and More

Smoking, dabbing, and vaping concentrates has become a main way of consuming cannabis. But what are these different concentrates on the market, like shatter, wax, butter, and resin, and how are they different from each other?

Cannabis concentrates can be found on dispensary shelves, boasting names like shatter, butter, wax, resin, and more. Any specific cannabinoid can be concentrated, so regardless of whether you’re looking for delta-9 THC, delta-8 THC, delta 10, THC-O, THCV, CBG, or something else, it can be found in concentrate form. This is great for delta-8 THC users, because it allows a concentrated form of this alternate form of THC which doesn’t cause anxiety like half-brother delta-9, and which leaves users with a clear head and energy, while having a similar medical profile. We’ve got great deals for delta-8 THC and many other compounds, so take a look, and try ’em out!

Extracts vs concentrates?

A concentrate is sort of what it sounds like, a concentrated form of something. Before getting further into it, though, it’s best to do some quick definitions in order to understand what we’re speaking of. The terms ‘concentrates’ and ‘extracts’ are used almost synonymously, and though sometimes this makes sense, sometimes it does not. So, for the sake of clarity, here are the two basic definitions.

Extract: This is anything that has been taken out of the cannabis plant. A cannabis flower is a flower, not an extract, but when the plant is put in alcohol to leach out the THC or CBD, those compounds that get taken out, are extracts of the plant.

Concentrate: This is an extract that has been put in concentrated form. So let’s say a plant naturally has about 20% THC. If you smoke the plant you’ll get that 20%. However, if you extract the THC out into a product that now doesn’t have the rest of the plant, the THC is concentrated to account for maybe as high as 90%+, making it a concentrate. You can kind of look at it like this, all concentrates are extracts, but not all extracts are concentrates.

concentrated cannabinoids

Taking a minor cannabinoid like CBN is a good example. You can do an extraction, like a tincture, where different compounds from the plant are leached out into the alcohol. If it’s just a regular extraction, the amount of CBN will be low, since it doesn’t exist in large quantities in the plant. If it’s <1% of the plant, the ratio of it to other compounds will remain the same in the tincture. However, if you’re looking specifically for a CBN product, you might want to find a concentrated form, where the CBN has been leached out, and then separated from the rest of the compounds, making for a concentrated version of just that cannabinoid.

Sometimes this means taking the CBN from several plants to put together as one concentrate. This is also why synthetization occurs frequently when making cannabis products. CBN doesn’t exist in large amounts, so if enough is wanted to produce a product, it often has to be synthesized in a laboratory to make enough for production. There is currently argument over whether something should be considered a synthetic under this condition.

Another good example is hemp oil vs CBD oil. Hemp oil is made as an extraction of the compounds in a hemp plant. CBD oil is a hemp extraction where the CBD has been concentrated to be above the amount found in the plant in nature.

How are extractions done?

Extractions can be done in different ways. The tincture method, mentioned above, is done with ethanol alcohol usually, although tinctures can also be made with vinegar, oil, glycerin, or even water. Alcohol does the best job of breaking down plant material to release compounds, so it’s often used most for this purpose.

For the kind of extracts we’re talking about in this article, they are usually extracted using a solvent like butane or carbon dioxide.  Usually butane, though. The plant material is put in the solvent, which breaks down the trichomes which house the cannabinoids inside. The cannabinoids bind directly to the solvent, and by the end of the process, the solvent is burned off with heat, leaving behind a concentrated extraction of cannabinoids. This is often done in a closed loop system:

A closed-loop system is a process that involves devices that can operate automatically to control a process in order to reach a specific result. In an open-loop system, human help is required, closed-loop does not have such a requirement. As per the name, the process involves a circular motion and ends in the same place it begins. For a closed-loop, the plant material starts in one place, goes to another where its soaked with a solvent like butane. Then to another chamber where compounds get released, and then to another chamber where the solvent is heated to burn it off. The remaining solvent filters back to the place it started, ending the loop.

cannabis extraction - concentrates

More and more, this is being done as a cold process in order to preserve cannabinoids and terpenes. When done as a cold extraction, the plant material and solvent are both cooled first – sometimes down to cryogenic temperatures in the case of something like live resin. The cooling becomes a part of the closed-loop cycle. In a closed-loop system, the solvent never makes contact with the outside, and this creates a generally safer situation when dealing with flammable solvents. Anytime a solvent like butane or propane is used, it’s a hydrocarbon extraction.

Main concentrates of interest: shatter, wax, BHO, butter, resin

There are a lot of different names these days to define concentrates. Concentrates have names like shatter, butane hash oil, butter, wax, resin, rosin… So what’s the difference? Sometimes not much at all. In fact, sometimes the difference has more to do with the consistency of the final product than anything else. Here’s a basic breakdown of some of the more popular concentrates currently on dispensary shelves:

Shatter: This concentrate actually looks a bit like glass, which makes the name understandable. It’s generally yellow in color with air bubbles throughout, and a slick, hard texture. It has the appearance that it would literally shatter if you banged it against a hard object. It’s stiffness and shininess are what defines it. Shatter gets its appearance because of the cooling process it goes through. It is purged, heated, and cooled on repeat for no less than 48 hours, which turns the otherwise sticky oil, into a glass-like structure. This can allow for very high THC levels of close to 99%, so the end product is nearly pure cannabinoid.

Wax and butter are the same thing, and can also go by the name batter. Much like the name again, the consistency is creamy-looking, like butter, with a thicker, wetter consistency than shatter. This is a result of actually being whipped, much like butter. The whipping process evaporates out solvents left over, while incorporating in air to give it its nice buttery texture. Depending on how intensely its whipped, the final product can be more dry and crumbly – resembling wax, or less intense which leaves it creamier like butter. Waxes and butters melt very quickly, and are great for dab tools.

Honeycomb is another kind of concentrate, generally made using hydrocarbons as solvents. The only real difference between how shatter and honeycomb are made, is in the purging phase (which is how most of these concentrates get their individual textures). Unlike shatter which is purged, heated, and cooled on repeat, or butter, which is whipped during purging, honeycomb is created by putting the concentrate on a pan in a vacuum, and purged only at low temperature for a long time, allowing it to dry out. This creates a concentrate that can look like a honeycomb, or simply just be dry and crumbly, making it different then concentrates that are wetter and stickier. This is also called crumble, because it can crumble in your hand due to its brittle nature.

Live resin: This one relies on not only using cold temperatures, but using cryogenic temperatures, although the rest of the extraction is similar to the others mentioned, using a closed loop, and a hydrocarbon solvent like propane or butane (or carbon dioxide). The plant material is frozen immediately after harvest, and the solvent is also cooled down to cryogenic temperatures before being put over the cannabis. In this process the matter is still being heated at a point to burn off the solvent, but the rest of the process is done at -292 F. The last step for live resin involves vaporizing out CO2 molecules to lower volatility, which leaves the pure live resin at the end. The end result is a yellow concentrate with a consistency somewhere between liquid oils, and more firm waxes.

live rosin - concentrates

One concentrate that does not fit in with the rest, is live rosin. What makes rosin stand out (and it should never be confused with resin – which is a different thing), is that it doesn’t require a solvent, instead using cold and pressure. The term ‘live’ that’s used for both resin and rosin, comes from the idea that both concentrates are made from fresh frozen cannabis, and the processes are done in cold temperatures. This is to preserve as much of the plant material as possible. Some people make rosin in a cheaper way using a hair straightener to smash it together, but the heat in this can ruin plant constituents.

Instead, the real way to make it is to make bubble hash (water hash), which involves an entire process of putting the plant material in successive bags of ice water and using agitation in the cold to remove the plant constituents from the plant. After agitation, there is a layer of golden trichomes that have come off the plant. These are washed off at the end to cleanse away impurities, left to dry on a filter screen, and then scraped off with something like a butter knife. This ice wax is then smashed through a filter in low temperatures, and the result, which is pushed through the filter, is a nearly pure concentrate. Rosin comes out looking smooth and oily, kind of like honey. One gram of good quality rosin can go for over $100.

One name that should be very well known, is BHO, or butane hash oil. This is not a specific type of concentrate, but rather refers to all the concentrates that can be made using butane as a solvent. This term often gets used in place of the more specific concentrate names, but is not specific to anything else, other than the processing solvent. Similarly, when the term ‘CO2 oil’ is used, it refers to concentrates made using carbon dioxide as a solvent. The same concentrates can be made by using either butane or carbon dioxide, so if you want shatter, wax, resin, or whatever else, it doesn’t have to be made with a hydrocarbon.

CO2 extractions

A supercritical CO2 extraction is when carbon dioxide is compressed beyond its ‘critical point’. A critical point is a term used in thermodynamics to describe, in the case of CO2, when its being held at, or above, its critical temperature and pressure point, which allows it to stay somewhere in between a liquid and a gas. At natural temperature and pressure, CO2 is a gas, and when frozen, its dry ice. In its supercritical state it has properties of both a gas and a liquid.

For a CO2 supercritical extraction, the CO2 is compressed to its supercritical liquid form, which is put on cannabis to strip away the cannabinoids and terpenes. The CO2 is then re-pressurized to turn back into a gas, at which point everything it stripped from the plant is left and the CO2 is gone. It’s like if there was stuff stuck in ice, and then the ice melted completed, leaving only what it had been holding onto. This kind of extraction has a couple benefits. The CO2 can be pressurized at temperatures that don’t ruin plant material, and when it reverts back to a gas, it does so without leaving any kind of contamination on the product, making for a cleaner extraction process than using hydrocarbons like butane. It also will not decarboxylate material in the process of extraction.

One of the great uses of a CO2 supercritical extraction is to make an isolate. An isolate is one of the purer forms of concentrate because in the process of making it, all the other plant materials are burned out, which means isolates actually have no smell, color, or flavor. Isolates can be made in several ways, the best of which is with a CO2 supercritical extraction. A less expensive way to make an isolate is with ethanol. Ethanol works well and is safe, but will also pull out more from the plant than just cannabinoids, requiring other techniques to clean out the rest. Yet another way is to use a solvent like pentane. Regardless of how it’s done, the final product is a crystalline powder, which is about the most pure form of CBD or THC possible to get, with no other plant material there.

cannabis isolate

If necessary, after the initial extraction, the extracted material is winterized – or soaked in alcohol and frozen to separate out cannabinoids from other residual plant matter. This is necessary after an ethanol extraction since plant materials are included in the extracted material. The idea of an isolate is that it will be just one cannabinoid in crystalized form. This is separate from a distillate, which is rich in one specific cannabinoid, but which contains other cannabinoids to include the entourage effect.

Conclusion

There are a ton of different cannabis concentrates on the market that include names like shatter, butter, wax, resin and so on. Depending on what’s important to you, and what you’re looking for, there is sure to be a concentrate that meets your needs.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Meet the Concentrates: Shatter, Wax, BHO, Resin, Rosin, and More appeared first on CBD Testers.

Episode 364 – A Tribute to Steve Fox

Betty Aldworth, Andrew Livingston, Jordan Wellington, and Mason Tvert join host Kris Krane to talk about the life and legacy of our friend and activist Steve Fox, who passed away at the age of 53 in April. Produced by Shea Gunther.

Photo: Nancy Lane/Boston Globe