Trusting Today’s Cannabis Industry? Mislabeled Products, Delta 6a10a, and more

My deep dive into yet another THC, delta 6a10a tetrahydrocannabinol, all began with a brief conversation among friends regarding some advertisements they saw; they were wondering what this cannabinoid is if what the companies are saying about it are correct. For the record, it’s a synthetic cannabinoid that has been completely misrepresented by some of the people selling it, the exact people who should know what compounds are in the products they’re pushing.   

That being said, you’re likely to see a short-term influx of products containing delta 6a10a THC hitting the store shelves and online retailers; especially if you live in a state without a legal recreational market, as this is where you’ll be more apt to see all the alternative cannabinoids.  

Cannabis science has come a really long way since the initial discovery of individual cannabinoids back in the 1940s. To this day we continue to uncover new and exciting things about this incredible plant. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


What is Delta 6a10a THC? 

Delta 6a10a, also known as Delta-3 THC, is a synthetic isomer of delta-9 THC that was developed in 1947, along with some other similar compounds, to establish different versions of THC that could be used to avoid patent problems and issues with shelf life and stability. 

Other chemical names for delta-6a10a THC include: Δ3 -Tetrahydrocannabinol2 (B), Δ6a,10a-Tetrahydrocannabinol2(A), EA 1477, Δ3 -Tetrahydrocannabinol2(B), and Δ6a,10a-tetrahydrocannabinol2(A). Contrary to what some companies are saying, delta-6a10a is not the same as delta-10 THC. Delta 6a10a products are often mislabeled as another form of delta 10 or delta 6 – neither of which is accurate. Whether this is due to incorrect lab testing results, incompetence on the company’s part, or intentional false advertising, that remains to be answered.  

As devoid of sense as this situation is, the main thing to focus on is that, if you do feel like you want to give delta 6a10a THC a try, at the very least, don’t buy it from a company that it’s promoting it as delta 10, delta 6, or anything other than the chemical names I listed above. Delta 10 THC is a synthetic crystalline compound formed when certain chemical catalysts are applied to delta 9 THC, moving the double bond over to the 10th carbon chain. Delta 6, another synthetic isomer, is quite potent but not yet being used in products and is not the same thing as delta 6a10a. 

What exactly is going on with all these different cannabinoids? 

If you do a lot of online shopping, or have noticed the new selection of products at smoke shops, head shops, gas stations, and so on, you’ve seen that there are A LOT of cannabinoids available to consumers now… almost too many to keep track of at this point. In just a single product you can find combinations of 3 or more cannabinoids like delta-10, delta-8, and THC-O, for example. Or delta-8, delta-9, delta-10, and CBG, is another popular combination that I have seen.  

According to recent surveys, nearly half of all cannabis consumers prefer to use products that contain cannabinoid blends, and that number is expected to grow. Knowing what we know about the entourage effect and how different plant compounds work together synergistically to provide the highest level of benefits, it’s no surprise that people are excited to try new combinations of cannabinoids and terpenes.  

Delta-9 THC is still by far the most popular, it’s the backbone of the entire cannabis industry. But, in its absence, people are turning to alternative forms of THC to get the job done, sometimes individually and sometimes many of them combined. Some of these THCs, like THCV and THCP, are found in trace amounts in the cannabis plant, but most of them are synthetic isomers.  

Are they natural or synthetic? 

This is an interesting question, and one with a double-edged answer. Let’s start by breaking down what exactly each type of cannabinoid is. The term ‘natural cannabinoids’, or phytocannabinoids, refers to all the cannabinoids that can be isolated from the cannabis plant. Research has found that the cannabis plant produces between 113 cannabinoids and about 300 non-cannabinoid chemicals, and the most abundant are CBD (cannabidiol) and delta-9 THC.  

Now, the definition of synthetic cannabinoids is where things branch off a bit. Synthetic cannabinoids are compounds that either, do not exist in nature and must be created in a lab, like THC-O; or, a synthetic may also be a cannabinoid that does exist in nature, but in such minimal amounts that in order to manufacture enough for it to be used in consumer products, it must still be synthesized in a lab.  

Whether or not a cannabinoid that does actually exist in the plant but needs to be synthetically produced, should still be classified as a full-on synthetic, is up for debate and causing both legal and practical confusion for businesses and consumers alike. Delta-8 immediately comes to mind, and all the complications surrounding legality and the uncertainty among consumers, many of whom are not sure if what they’re consuming is even natural or synthetic.  

To clarify, all these synthetic cannabinoids are regulated under the Federal Analogues Act, and thus are not federally legal, regardless if they’re found naturally in cannabis plants. And because all these compounds are completely prohibited, they are unregulated in the markets in which they are sold, another fact that may come as a surprise to many consumers.  

All this is not to say that synthetics are inherently bad. If they’re safe and produced by an experienced professional, they can be fun and certainly have their place in both medicinal and recreational settings. But you’re definitely not going to get the same kind of high or experience with these products as you would with the real thing. If you know what to expect, you won’t be disappointed though.  

Fake lab tests and mislabeled products  

Now, back to the subject of mislabeled products and incorrect or completely falsified labs and COAs (certificates of analysis). There’s a narrative being played out in the media that, because of the 2018 Farm Bill provisions, any cannabis product that contains less than 0.3 percent delta 9 THC is legal, regardless of what else is in it. When it comes to minor cannabinoids, THC isomers, cannabinoid analogues, and so forth, most of them are actually illegal, regulated under the Federal Analogues Act (as mentioned above). 

Obviously, pointing out the legality of a product, if it’s not legal at all, is not the best business strategy. So, to be able to continue pushing said products, the story is perpetuated that they are permissible by some type of legal loophole, when that is not the case. Since these products are illegal and there are no standards in place to regulate them, a growing number of companies are resorting to some unscrupulous means to provide “lab results” in an attempt to validate their black market products.  

Real, legitimate lab testing is the backbone of any cannabis market. All the products sold at licensed dispensaries are required to undergo testing from a state-accredited facility to confirm levels of cannabinoids and terpenes; as well as test for heavy metals, mycotoxins, residual pesticides, microbials, and any other unwanted contaminants. Overall, the main purpose of lab testing is to guarantee compliance with whatever state protocols are in place to govern the sale of cannabis products.  

Every test requires certain procedures, different equipment, and needs to be performed by a licensed and trained specialist. Not only do these lab technicians need to be knowledgeable in their field, but they should be familiar with state and local testing regulations, as they are constantly changing. Most labs are third party companies that are accredited through a state program. All labs have specific tests they are required to perform and guidelines they must abide to, but there are no universal standards in place. 

As foolproof as this sounds, there are ways for companies to get around it. I mean, where there is money to be made, corruption will breed. One way this happens is by companies and growers only sending in samples of their best products in for testing, while lower quality, untested batches of the same product get listed for sale. Another strategy is referred to as “lab shopping” – a shady practice in which cultivators and manufacturers send their products to labs that have a reputation for inflating potency numbers and overlooking contaminants that would cause the product to fail purity tests at more reputable facilities. 

Dylan Hirsch, executive vice president of Diagnostic Lab Corporation says that “Many of the labs will sometimes say they can get better results. It can be so subjective for results on THC.” Dr. Donald Land and Dr. Reggie Gaudino, two of the scientists in charge of running Berkeley’s Steep Hill Labs, one of the nation’s largest testing companies, echoed these statements. Both mentioned that their company is asked to boost potency number on a regular basis. “In almost every state we operate in we have someone approach us and say, ‘Hey, what would it take to get these numbers changed?’” Gaudino said. 

Taking things to another level, some companies have altered or completely faked their products’ lab “results”, as per a recent investigation conducted by CBD Oracle, a website that reviews “hemp-derived” products. For example, they sent in 51 different delta 8 THC products to FESA licensed labs in Southern California. They found that, “delta-8 product manufacturers routinely mislabel their gummies, vaporizer cartridges, and other products.” In total, 77 percent of products failed testing.  

Final thoughts 

Whether you’re shopping for delta 8, THC-O, regular weed, or even delta 6a10a THC, it’s imperative that you do as much research as possible. You’ll be inhaling these compounds straight into your lungs, so you want to make sure that they’re as clean and safe as possible. Don’t blindly trust the companies selling to you, because obviously they’re more concerned with their bottom dollar than your health. I’m not saying to avoid these products entirely, because some of them can be perfectly fine, but make sure to as informed as possible before rushing to try the newest flavor-of-the-month cannabinoid.  

As far as delta 6a10 THC is concerned, no one really knows enough about it to say with 100 percent certainty that these products are safe. I’m sure the compound itself is perfectly fine, if it’s manufactured by a trained professional that is. But if you’re buying stuff from companies who are completely misrepresenting this cannabinoid, it’s hard to say what else is not on-the-level there.  

Hello and welcome! Thanks for stopping by CBDtesters.co, your #1 web source for cannabis and psychedelics-related news, offering the most interesting stories of today. Join us frequently to stay on-top of the quickly-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out The THC Weekly Newsletterto ensure you’re never late on getting a story.

Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Trusting Today’s Cannabis Industry? Mislabeled Products, Delta 6a10a, and more appeared first on CBD Testers.

Minnesota States the Obvious: CBD Was Never Legal

In a recent posting by the Minnesota Cannabis Association, in relation to conversations they say took place between them and a Department of Agriculture representative, it’s once again stated that CBD and cannabinoids are not, and were never, legal. This should not come as a shock to anyone, and it says a lot about news reporting, if it does.

While legally, CBD was never above-board in the US under federal law, there are still plenty of ways of enjoying CBD products, as well as other cannabinoids like delta-8 THC, HHC, and THCV. In fact, with today’s cannabinoid market, these products can be bought outside of dispensaries and are even in stores in illegal states. We’ve got great products available to get you through this holiday season, so check out what we’ve got on offer to make it a truly jolly holiday. Make sure to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter for deals on legal cannabis products, as well as all the latest news and industry stories. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


The 2018 US Farm Bill

All of the confusion surrounding CBD and other cannabinoids stems from the 2018 US Farm Bill. To call it ‘confusion’ is a bit short-sited, as these are basic, and easy-to-understand legalities that no legal department would ever have a problem comprehending. As every company has some form of legal representation, including most publications that erroneously repeat lines about legality, I think it’s safe to say that legally, everything I’m about to go over, is plenty well understood by those who need to understand it.

The 2018 US Farm Bill legalized the production of hemp for hemp products. It did this by creating separate definitions for low-THC ‘hemp’, and high-THC ‘marijuana’. As per the law, the definition of ‘hemp’, which is actually ‘industrial hemp’ is as follows:

“The plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of the plant, whether growing or not, including the plant’s seeds, and all the plant’s derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomers, acids, salts, and salts of isomers, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.”

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This definition made it possible to begin hemp cultivation for industrial purposes. What it most certainly did NOT do, was legalize synthetically derived products of any kind, or legalize anything to be taken internally or used as a medicine or health supplement. Whereas hemp cultivation moved under the regulation of the USDA from the FDA, anything involved with foods and medicines/supplements were not moved, retaining their regulation from the FDA.

As such, anything synthetically derived from hemp (including the entirety of the cannabinoid market excluding CBD), and anything meant for food, medicinal, or supplemental purposes (including CBD), are not federally legal according to the FDA as cannabis – including CBD not for industrial purposes, has never been legal in recent times under prohibition laws. This is not unclear to anyone with a legal degree, and is pretty well understandable without one. How many companies selling these products under claims of legality by the Farm Bill don’t retain a lawyer? How many government, and non-governmental agencies don’t consult legal representatives? Exactly!

Despite it not being difficult to understand this, a misunderstanding has been waged in the media in the form of a storyline by which no one with any legal understanding, seems to be able to understand basic laws. This is done to be able to push products, of course. And since the goal isn’t to scare the public away with realities of unknown chemical additives, dangerous processes, and product contamination issues, all of which run rampant in these illegal, unregulated markets, the black market literally created itself black market testing to back up its black market products.

What does this have to do with Minnesota?

There has been a logical back and forth between government and different organizations and businesses. The answer is always the same: these compounds are not legal. Maybe because they’re synthetically made (doesn’t matter if some material is from the hemp plant, if other parts are not), maybe because they’re not legal as a medicine or supplement, or maybe for both reasons.

Back in September of this year, the Alabama Board of Pharmacy was responded to about the legality of delta-8 upon request for information. Of course, the DEA literally only repeated what it had previously said, as its original statements were, indeed, clear enough. A synthetic is not covered under the definition of ‘hemp’. Even this clarification was made the opposite in the press, with headlines claiming it actually proved legalization.

This time around, it was Steve Brown, a member of the Minnesota Cannabis Association board, who apparently ‘stumbled’ onto this legally well-understood information. This came at the mention of a tincture, in reference to a question about processing facilities. According to Brown, “They stated later in the meeting that tinctures are illegal… Then this morning I received information from the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy, sent by a colleague.”

Apparently a representative from the Department of Agriculture explained the following: “The problem here is some of the products you’re mentioning here, Steven, would not be legal food by our definition… The reason for that is all these other cannabinoid products are governed by the Board of Pharmacy.”

The Board of Pharmacy in Minnesota takes its cue from the FDA, which means, the only legal hemp products in the state are hemp seed oil with no THC or CBD, and hemp flower that tests under .3% THC. The thing about a ‘medicine’ is that it must be approved by the FDA in order to be considered one, and the thing about ‘supplements’ is that once an official medication exists, the active ingredient cannot be advertised as a nutritional supplement.

How do we know CBD was never legal?

While this may not make sense, and is greatly in the benefit of big pharma, it still exists as law that the active compound in an approved medicine cannot be marketed as a nutritional supplement in any food or beverage product. Supplements are currently regulated as food by the FDA. And since the drug Epidiolex (pharma CBD) was approved in 2020, it is now illegal to put CBD into supplement products. Epidiolex was approved by the FDA on July 31st 2020. This was done in the middle of a worldwide vote to reschedule cannabis, which resulted in CBD being removed from Schedule IV of the Single Convention on narcotic Substances, making it available for legal medical use globally. Of course, ‘medical’ use varies by country, and what some see as a supplement, others see as a prescription medication.

Imagine that, just as CBD became okay to use as a medicine (and supplement depending on definition), the US approved a pharmaceutical medication that would keep it illegalized for every industry and company outside of big pharma. So, much like France, which was short-sited enough to go to court with the EU over blocking natural CBD products into the country, while openly selling Epidiolex, the US government is saying out of one side of its mouth that CBD is just fine, and out of the other side, that its totally against it.

In terms of other cannabinoids like delta-8 THC, THCV, HHC, CBN, regardless of whether they are naturally occurring or not, if they only occur in small enough amounts to require synthetic processing to make enough for products (all the natural ones do), they’re automatically going to qualify as synthetic. As synthetics were never legalized, and as analogues of Schedule I substances like delta-8 (an analogue of delta-9) are regulated under the Federal Analogue Act, such compounds, much like CBD, were never legal.

While CBD is therefore legal in a legalized state, the synthetically made cannabinoids still aren’t, because they’re synthetics. No state law varies from federal regulation on this, so states setting separate laws for illegalizing delta-8, like Colorado and Vermont, are doing way more than they have to, since by both federal and state law, the compounds aren’t legal.

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Says a lot about trying to stamp out an industry that such states would make separate laws. And all this, when they could simply regulate how certain compounds are made to ensure safety. Delta-8 THC has never shown an issue of worry in its natural form, so working to illegalize it, rather than regulate it, is a strange move, and one that only makes sense in my mind, if its being held back for use in a pharmaceutical market later. Considering how far other countries have gone to suppress natural CBD, while pushing Epidiolex, it’s not that hard to imagine this is true.

Is there a loophole?

Despite confusion created by the press, there is no legal loophole here with either CBD or other cannabinoids. The confusion created centered around the idea that anything that came out of a hemp plant of less than .3% THC was legal for whatever use was desired. As if all those other provisions in the Farm Bill related to the definition of hemp, didn’t exist at all. Realistically, it’s all in the definition itself, and what it does and does not include.

Having said that, there is another type of loophole, which has more to do with dealing with consequences. In this case, it’s about the lack of them. Even if something is illegal, if there isn’t a real threat of being caught or paying consequences, then is it really illegal? The obvious answer is yes, it still is, but the other aspect is that it can also be gotten away with, and that’s incentive to do it.

Maybe the US government is waiting for some kind of market collapse and pharma/biotech buyout of the current industry before going after the black market to support a new legal pharma-owned one. And maybe there is no intention of doing anything for lack of money or popularity for losing drug wars. Either way, at least at this juncture, the US government is making very few moves to enforce the illegality of any of this, which in and of itself has created a loophole for production, sale and use. They might not be legal, but CBD and the rest of the compounds, sure fit into a no-one-will-do-anything-about-it loophole.

Conclusion

To be honest, it makes very little difference whether CBD and other cannabinoids are legal, or if they were never legal at all. The markets are there, and aren’t suffering consequences for being there. For buyers, it’s best to know your products and brands to ensure quality, as unregulated markets spawn a lot of dirty stuff.

Welcome! Thanks for joining us at CBDtesters.co, your one-stop-shop for the most groundbreaking and newsworthy cannabis and psychedelics-related news out there. Come by frequently to keep in-the-loop on the ever-moving universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and join The THC Weekly Newsletter, to ensure you never miss an important story.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Minnesota States the Obvious: CBD Was Never Legal appeared first on CBD Testers.

What is HHC-O? And What Exactly Are Cannabinoid Acetates Anyway? 

Today’s cannabis industry is moving at lightning speed, and we’re constantly learning about new discoveries relating to the plant. One of the latest trends getting ready to blow up the industry is HHC-O Acetate: a brand new cannabinoid that very little is actually known about. Let’s get into what exactly this psychoactive compound actually is, how it is created, and where you might be able to find it.

Cannabis exciting and fun, yet very complex. From the extensive medical research going on behind the scenes, to studies on the plant’s biology, it seems that every day we’re learning something new about cannabis. For more articles like this one and exclusive deals on legal THC products, make sure to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter. Also save big on HHC-O, Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!

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The acetylation of cannabinoids explained 

Acetylation starts with the main cannabinoid, and only the psychoactive ones have been used, so THC and HHC. The acetate version (-O) is what’s referred to as a semi-synthetic derivative, or an analogue. Using a chemcial catalyst called acetic anahydride, you can turn THC and HHC into THC-O and HHC-O, which are said to be more potent than the original compounds.

In short, THC-O is an analog of THC, and same is the case for HHC-O and HHC. They have similar chemical structures but, as is the case in chemistry, minor differences often lead to substantial changes. The acetate versions are synthetic cannabinoids that can only be produced in a laboratory setting, preferably by an experienced chemist. It should be emphasized that these acetates are NOT found in the cannabis plant. With the rise of DIY technologies, it can be tempting to try and make these compounds yourself, but the process can be challenging and quite dangerous, so it’s best left to the professionals. 

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Serge Chistov, the inventor of Nanobidiol Technology, says his team has found a safe and efficient method to acetylate THC using only approved solvents. Chistov says his team “developed the analytical standard for testing for THC-O, as well as being in the final stages of introducing products to retail outlets.” So, if everything stays on track, we can expect to see THC-O therapeutics relatively soon. 

And Christov is not the only one working to perfect the process. In a patent filed by NextLeaf Solutions, they described their process for manufacturing THC-O Acetate: “A process for producing THC-O-acetate using a succession of distillation, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extractions (SALLEs), and solvent recovery techniques. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis oil reacts with acetic anhydride under reflux to produce THC-O-acetate and acetic acid. The resulting crude product is distilled and subjected to a SALLE with hexane followed by a SALLE with petroleum ether, before being distilled again in order to obtain a refined, THC-O-acetate product.” 

It’s complicated, volatile, and it is even really worth it? Sure, these compounds might be a bit stronger than their plant-derived counterparts, but that doesn’t mean they are better. And if you’re a purist like many who are drawn to cannabis in the first place, no synthetic can ever be better than the real thing anyway.

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What is HHC? 

Honestly, the available information on HHC, scientifically known as 9-Nor-9β-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, is extremely sparce and somewhat contradicting. Let’s start with whether it’s natural or synthetic: it can be both. There is a biologically active naturally occuring (−)-hexahydrocannabinol, as well as its synthetic enantiomer (+)-hexahydrocannabinol – the latter being what you’ll find in consumer products since natural HHC is only present in very trace amounts.  

As the name suggests (Hexahydrocannabinol vs Tetrahydrocannabinol), HHC has many similarities to THC. It’s basically a simplified version of Delta 9 THC. Both HHC and THC have very similar molecular structures and comparable effects, although HHC is milder. It was discovered during research in the 1960s and 70s in which the goal was to find the most basic cannabinoid-like substances that could still bind to CB receptors. 

Very limited studies indicate that HHC has a decent safety profile in animal models and that it could have some medical potential, but we’ll get more into that a bit later. However, claims made by retailers regarding its legality and where it comes from are misleading at best, complete lies at worst.

Is HHC-O stronger than HHC? What about Delta 9 THC?

Here’s where things can get a bit confusing. When trying to measure the strength of a cannabinoid, we tend to compare it to the golden standard, which is Delta 9 THC. So if HHC is less potent than Delta 9 THC, but HHC-O is more potent than HHC, where exactly does that put it?

Honestly, all these comparisons are a bit arbitrary because it’s not always about potency per se, but the overall effects of the compound. When you’re using whole plant products like real flower or live resin, you’re benefiting from the entourage effect, which is not just a therapeutic phenomenon – it applies recreationally as well. You get higher when there are terpenes, flavonoids, and all the natural cannabis compounds in the products you’re consuming.

Now, synthetics aren’t inherently bad. If they’re safe and produced by an experienced professional, they can be fun and certainly have their place in both medicinal and recreational settings. But you’re definitely not going to get the same kind of high or experience with these products as you would with good old-fashioned delta 9 flowers. If you know what to expect, you won’t be disappointed though, and you can see that comparing which one is “stronger” doesn’t really make a lot of sense.

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HHC, HHC-O, and Drug Testing? 

The resounding assumption is that, because HHC is structurally different THC, that it will not show up on a drug test because it does not produce the same metabolites in the human body. When it comes to cannabis, standard urine tests are used to detect use ranging from roughly 1 to 45 days. Occasional users will typically be clean after 1-5 days, regular light users will take about 1-3 weeks, and for heavy daily users, expect 4 to 6 weeks to get clean.

Contrary to popular belief, urinalysis does not screen for the THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) in cannabis, but rather, they detect the metabolites created by the human body when we are exposed to THC. This class of metabolites is known as THC-COOH. These metabolites are nonactive, so drug tests are only measuring exposure, NOT impairment. Marijuana impairment cannot be detected through any kind of test thus far.

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THC-COOH, or “carboxy THC” is the most common name for this metabolite. It’s the second THC-metabolite formed in our bodies, following hydroxy-THC, immediately after exposure. THC-COOH is lipid-soluble, meaning it’s stored in our fat cells making it detectable in our systems for much longer than other substances, those that are water soluble for example. Now, when it comes to all the new cannabinoids like HHC, HHC-O, THC-O, and so forth, the lines get a bit blurry.

Please note that this is not something I personally have knowledge about, as in, I have never tried to drug test myself for HHC because I use THC products regularly so I wouldn’t make a very good test subject. But according to numerous reddit users, this is accurate and you can pass a drug test if you’re only using HHC.  

Where to find HHC-O products…

At the moment, pretty much nowhere. But a few companies that we work with, whose products you’ve likely seen in our newsletters, are planning to launch HHC-O vapes, edibles, and tinctures in the coming weeks. Doing a quick online search, I was only able to find one site that was selling HHC-O distillate, but it’s a company that I’m not very familiar with. As soon as these products are available to consumers on a bit wider scale, we’ll make sure to let you know. 

Hello to everyone..! Thanks for dropping by CBDtesters.co, the #1 internet source for cannabis and psychedelics-related news, offering up current and relevant stories from the industry today. Join us daily to stay on top of the fast-paced universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletterso you never miss a single thing. 

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Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post What is HHC-O? And What Exactly Are Cannabinoid Acetates Anyway?  appeared first on CBD Testers.

Texas & the Delta-8 Debacle: Will It Stay Legal?

Delta-8 THC sure brings with it a lot of controversy. As different states create legislation that bans the compound, Texas has showcased the growing escalation of the delta-8 battle. Whether Texas keeps delta-8 legal remains to be seen, but for now, the compound has gotten a stay, making Texas one of the first states to fight back against delta-8 prohibition laws.

Texas is in the spotlight with its ongoing delta-8 THC battle. It’s hard to say how it will go, but luckily, there are plenty of options for delta-8 THC and many other cannabis compounds out there. Delta-8 is the half-brother to delta-9, and comes with less psychoactive effect, and more energy than its THC counterpart. Check out our selection of products in the The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter. And save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10THCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


What did Texas do?

Texas has been going back and forth on delta-8 THC for a little while now. Last year, HB 2593 was passed through the Texas House of Representatives, which would’ve worked to lower penalties for those caught with cannabis concentrates and extracts. However, when it got to the Senate, a provision was added that would illegalize isomers like delta-8 THC through a ‘total THC’ provision. The House did not accept this revision, and opted for a resolution commission instead of signing off on it. The provision was removed by the House, the bill passed the House again, and then the Senate adjourned before a vote. This killed the bill.

On October 15th, 2021, the Texas state health department posted a notice on its website that any delta-8 products were illegal. This was rebutted by Lukas Gilkey, the CEO of CBD and delta-8 company Hometown Hero, who originally filed for a temporary restraining order against the Texas Department of State Health Services on October 21st.

Travis County judge Jan Soifer granted an injunction – not a restraining order – on Monday, November 8th, making delta-8 at least temporarily legal again in Texas. The reason given in court documents for not granting a restraining order, was that “the plaintiff has not met requirements of a temporary restraining order.” To give an idea of how unexpected getting the injunction was, Gilkey said this after the injunction was granted: “Wow, completely insane… We thought we were going to get it, but now that we’re here, it’s completely crazy.”

Texas cannabis laws

So, how did this happen if the law was never passed? Apparently, back in January of 2021, the health department in Texas added delta-8 THC to its Controlled Substances list, very, very quietly. So quietly that the agency only put up the post about the illegality some nine months later! So undercover of night, that in a May legislative session, upon talk of a new bill to ban the compound, it had to be stated by an associate health commissioner to legislators, that it had already been banned. It should therefore come as no surprise that when the state health department held a public comments session in November 2020, no one knew to come.

What is delta-8 THC?

Delta-8 THC is a naturally occurring cannabinoid of the cannabis plant. It’s predecessor is delta-9 THC, which it differs from chemically only in the placement of a double bond. When delta-9 comes into contact with oxygen, it loses elections (oxidizes) to form the more stable compound of delta-8. This means delta-8 has a longer shelf life since its already the oxidized version of delta-9.

While delta-8 and delta-9 are often associated with the same – or similar – medical benefits, delta-8 is associated with a slightly less intense psychoactive high, less anxiety, and more energy without the standard couch-locking effects of delta-9. Though delta-8 has been known about since the original research in the mid-1900’s, and used in testing for different ailments, it was never brought into the mainstream until the 2018 US Farm Bill.

Though delta-8 is naturally occurring, it only oxidizes from delta-9 at an extremely slow rate. This is problematic when it comes to creating products, because not enough can be produced naturally to use for production. For this reason, delta-8 is synthesized when used for products, either being converted from CBD using chemical solvents, or combined with zinc chloride, although the second method is less precise in terms of how much D8 vs other compounds, is produced.

The takeaway from both is that chemical solvents and zinc chloride are not from the cannabis plant, meaning both of these processes create a ‘synthetic’ by definition. Since this process is a synthetic process, the compounds involved no longer fit under the definition of hemp. Since the products now don’t fit under the definition of hemp, they are not regulated by the 2018 US Farm Bill. More on that in the next section.

Is delta-8 THC technically legal?

First and foremost, the whole reason this debate goes on at all is because of the 2018 Farm Bill, and some confusion (whether natural or instigated) that has formed around it. The 2018 US Farm Bill legalized the production of industrial hemp, and hemp-derived compounds. The legislation even came with a new definition of hemp, which sets it apart from other cannabis plants. The definition states that hemp is defined as:

delta-8 THC in Texas

“…the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of that plant, including the seeds thereof and all derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomers, acids, salts, and salts of isomers, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol [(D 9 -THC)] concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.”

This opened the door for hemp-derived products under the confused notion (whether natural or instigated) that simply taking something out of the hemp plant means its legal if the plant contains no more than .3% delta-9 in dry weight at the beginning. This, of course, undermines the fact that the entire processing procedure and final result must also have no more than .3% delta-9. It also ignores other laws. Like the Federal Analogue Act, which states that the analogue of a Schedule I Controlled Substance (like tetrahydrocannabinols – THC), is also a Controlled Substance, and this goes for synthetics of a Schedule I compound.

And while it should have been understood the whole time, the DEA just reiterated in its recent clarification to Donna C. Yeatman, R.Ph., the executive secretary for the Alabama Board of Pharmacy, that anything made synthetically just doesn’t fall under the definition of hemp, thereby making it regulated under the Federal Analogue Act. The statement goes as follows:

“Thus, D8-THC synthetically produced from non-cannabis materials is controlled under the CSA as a “tetrahydrocannabinol.”” Of course, if it’s controlled as a tetrahydrocannabinol, then its automatically illegal. So basically, if delta-8 could be derived from hemp without any synthetization (actually naturally-occurring), it would be perfectly cool. Since it can’t in big enough quantities for production, the use of synthetization becomes necessary, making the delta-8 we use for products, non-Farm Bill compliant.

What happens next for Texas and delta-8 THC?

It’s really hard to say. Whether unwittingly or not, Texas has now become a focal point in the whole delta-8 battle. In the end, of course, so long as its made synthetically, delta-8 is federally illegal. However, delta-8 is also an exemplary candidate for the ‘no-one-will-do-anything-about-it’ loophole, a loophole that exists because of the lack of ability to police a law. And since popular opinion about legalities seems to be steered by the cannabis industry in this case, delta-8 is being written about very mistakenly.

Does it matter? Also hard to say. Synthetic processes can mean the inclusion of bad chemicals, and since delta-8 isn’t regulated, it means no one is watching to see what’s being used. I’ve said this many times in articles, the regulation of the industry is what’s needed in terms of chemicals and processes that can safely be used. Not prohibition laws.

cannabis regulation

On the other hand, it should be remembered that processes to create extractions and concentrates often use butane and other solvents, but are considered perfectly fine, and are used for products sold in dispensaries all the time. These create no different issues than the current complaints about delta-8 processing. The most important thing to understand in all this, is that delta-8 THC itself is fine, and it is merely talk of processing that creates this debate.

Clearly, the government of Texas wants to illegalize delta-8 THC, possibly from federal pressure to do so. The federal government can’t go after producers or vendors in an organized way since it would cost too much money. After spending over $1 trillion on losing drug wars, and with popular opinion so greatly changing on cannabis, the US federal government no longer has a way to go after it, and no money to do so, or ability to get the masses on board again with rampant smear campaigns. It can only force its will on state governments.

Conclusion

Will Texas keep delta-8 THC legal? Or, will Texas try another sneaky move? Quite possibly the second. Considering that the state health department held a public comments session, which no one attended because no one knew about it, I’d say the state government will go pretty far to get this through. Luckily, there is that other hand, and at this point, there might just be enough attention on the subject, and the shady way Texas attempted to illegalize it, that things could finally start going in the other direction for delta-8.

Hello to all! Welcome to CBDtesters.co, the #1 cannabis and psychedelics-related news publication on the web, presenting the most thought-provoking and relevant stories in the industry today. Check us out daily to stay up-to-date on the quickly-moving universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and jump over to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter, so you never have to guess what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Texas & the Delta-8 Debacle: Will It Stay Legal? appeared first on CBD Testers.

Robo-Tripping – The Cough Syrup Psychedelic Answer to Getting High

With all the talk about upcoming psychedelic legalizations, and the beginnings of the medical psychedelics market, it’s easy to forget that some psychedelics are already legal. For years now, people have been robo-tripping off cough syrup, (or at least taking the medication), making it the most commonly used psychedelic in America, and an OTC one at that!

Robo-tripping and cough syrup might represent legal psychedelic use in the US, but that’s not everyone’s cup of tea. Some prefer a good old standby like cannabis, and all the recreational and medicinal compounds within. Not only can you now get hemp-derived delta-9 THC, but compounds like delta-8 THC, THCV, and THCA are all available as well, and come with their own specific benefits. We’ve got great deals for delta-8 THC and more, so check out our stock, and figure out which compounds work best for you. Check out our selection of products in The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter. And save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10THCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!

What is robo-tripping?

You might be familiar with this term, or you might not be. The word ‘robo-tripping’ is based on the name Robitussin, a brand name cold and flu cough syrup, which contains a special ingredient. This ingredient can also be found in Nyquil, and is associated strongly with both of these brand names, among others.

The drug in question is DXM, or dextromethorphan. DXM has been legal in the US since 1958, so while the government was running smear campaigns about LSD and magic mushrooms, it was simultaneously pushing the use of DXM in over-the-counter (OTC) medications, without using the term ‘psychedelic’. Though there may be some confusion over where exactly DXM fits in, most consider it under the general umbrella of psychedelics.

DXM is, in fact, a member of the morphinan class of drugs, which also comprises drugs like codeine and morphine. Morphinans are generally naturally occurring (like the two just mentioned), but as exemplified by DXM, can be synthetic as well. DXM does not have the same effect on receptors as other morphinans, and is not related to pain relief in the same way. In high does, DXM acts as a dissociative hallucinogen. At lower doses, it has sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties, while also bringing on feelings of euphoria and general well-being. I know this from my own experience.

DXM

What does DXM from cough syrup feel like?

As stated, at regular doses, DXM has sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties. It makes a person feel high and good, even at standard doses, and can go on to cause more extreme dissociation, and hallucinations in higher does. On the other hand, in testing, DXM and psilocybin (of magic mushrooms) were found to produce similar effects, with the biggest difference being that psilocybin causes more extreme hallucinations and mystical experiences.

In my personal experience, I found cough syrup to be the best part of being sick. I mean, no one wants to be sick, but whenever I was, I knew I could jump on the Nyquil train (my preferred brand name DXM remedy). These days I don’t take pharmaceuticals except if necessary, so I stay off the Nyquil train for the most part, but still hop back on at times when I need a sick-time pick-me-up.

It always made me feel great. I never took it above recommended doses, and if I did, it wasn’t by much. I did go as far as buying just the cough syrup to avoid unnecessary acetaminophen (Tylenol) use. If I take it today, it’s strictly without the acetaminophen. DXM has always been a sick-time oasis for me. That one thing that can be taken at a miserable time, to make a badly feeling body, feel a little better. And all the while reaping the benefits of a cough suppressant.

I expect at higher doses I would’ve been more out-of-it, but even with the standard dose, I always felt euphoric, but in a kind of not-totally-there way. I don’t remember experiencing any negative side effects over years of intermittent sick-time use. It should be remembered though, that when a person is ‘robo-tripping’ on cough syrup, they often consume an entire bottle, or more. I’ve never done this.

Where did DXM come from?

Since it’s synthetic, we know it wasn’t found out in the wild, or as part of an existing plant. Which means we know that at some point, someone created DXM in a lab. The parent compound was first described in a patent application by Hoffmann-La Roche in 1946. The patent was granted in 1950. The parent compound underwent testing and was mentioned in published literature in 1952, DXM was first tested in 1954.

Who did this testing? None other than the US Navy and CIA, on research into non-addictive options instead of codeine. It gained approval from the US’s FDA in 1958 as an antitussive – or cough suppressant. While opioids like codeine are generally associated with pain management, such compounds can also serve as cough suppressants. In the 1960’s and 70’s, DXM really took off in the States with the brand Romilar selling it for this purpose. The brand was discontinued in 1973 because of misuse of the medication.

cough medicine

A few years after this (showing the government was actually totally cool with it), new brands emerged like Robitussin and Vicks-44. When the internet emerged in the 1990’s, it allowed for the quick spreading of information, which led to discussions about use and how to get it. By the mid-90’s, wholesale DXM powder could be ordered online, thereby bypassing the need to take a product with other ingredients.

In September of 2010, the FDA shot down an initiative to make DXM prescription, once again showing that the government was cool with people using, and abusing, this psychedelic. Though DXM is federally legal as an OTC medication, some states like California and Oregon have instituted regulation to bar sales to minors.

How does DXM work?

DXM has several mechanisms of action including being a nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and a sigma-1 receptor agonist. In terms of its function as a cough suppressant, DXM works differently than opioids. Whereas opioids produce an antitussive effect by way of opioid receptors (though how and why is not necessarily understood), DXM actually tricks your brain into not feeling the need to cough. This is because the airways and lungs have tons of nerves attached, and these nerves can detect fluid in the lungs, other irritants, respiratory constriction, and mucous build-up.

DXM works by being a communication disruptor between the brain and the nerves which are responsible for the coughing reflex. It creates a temporary block of this information, so that the brain never receives the signal from the body that it should cough. When enough receptors are blocked, a person no longer feels the need to cough, even if they technically should. For this reason, DXM (much like opioids) is not advised for anything other than a dry cough, as it can stop a person from coughing up fluid from their lungs, which can cause other issues.

Though DXM was supposedly meant to keep prospective chronic coughers from getting addicted to opiates, it ended up being used recreationally, much like opiates. In fact, the term robo-tripping was coined in reference to the high that legal cough syrup can provide users, whether in the correct dosages, or by taking more than the recommended amount.

Psychedelic legality in the US

DXM is strange because it gets treated fundamentally differently than every other psychedelic out there. While everything from LSD to MDMA to psilocybin is a Schedule I Controlled Substance, DXM just slid right through, not just to legality, but to OTC legality. The only other pharmaceuticals that have any legalization status, are ketamine and esketamine.

ketamine

While ketamine has been cleared for use as an anesthetic, it can’t be used or prescribed for anything else. So while it’s not Schedule I, it’s also not accessible legally for anything but anesthesia. Ketamine remains big as an illicit party drug. It’s close cousin esketamine was cleared for medical use with treatment-resistant depression, for which it received authorization by the FDA in 2019. This authorization was updated in 2020 to cover suicidal thoughts as well. This requires a doctor’s prescription, however, making it significantly less accessible than DXM to the average person.

Esketamine does show a new trend arising. The treatment of psychological issues by way of psychedelics over monoamine antidepressants, and this trend looks to be picking up and continuing. Both MDMA and psilocybin have received ‘breakthrough therapy’ designations by the FDA for PTSD and severe depression respectively, for which both are undergoing trials. This means a US federal government agency is pushing for the research and development of compounds with Schedule I listings. And this indicates that laws could be changing very soon.

Conclusion

Robo-tripping from cough syrup is the most common way to experience psychedelics legally in the US. That is, unless you live in a place like Oregon, which has decriminalized their recreational use, and legalized medical use for some compounds like psilocybin.

The idea of DXM certainly stands out as inconsistent when it comes to regulation for psychedelics. Though its nice to know that not everything is banned, there’s a certain strange aspect to the idea that DXM is so openly sold, while comparable compounds are kept off limits. I guess no one says much about it because DXM isn’t advertised as a psychedelic, and the connection is not made by the masses. It truly is astonishing how brilliant well-orchestrated marketing campaigns can be.

Hello and welcome! Thanks for joining us at CBDtesters.co, your premiere cannabis and psychedelics news publication online. Check us out everyday to stay on top of the ever-changing landscape of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and make sure to sign up for The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter, so you’re never behind on what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Robo-Tripping – The Cough Syrup Psychedelic Answer to Getting High appeared first on CBD Testers.

Vape Cart Reality: Is It Real, or Is It Fake?

Smoking a joint used to be the go-to method for weed consumption, with bowls, bongs, and brownies also popular options. These days, its all about oil vaporizers, and those small oil-filled containers we call cartridges. The sad situation of today is that this has become a massive fakes market, and its hard to know if you’re sucking on the real thing, or just breathing in chemicals. The vape cart reality is that it’s nearly impossible to tell if it’s real or if it’s fake.

The vape cart issue is definitely a thing, and it’s not easy to tell a real one from a fake one. The best thing you can do as a buyer is be informed about where you buy from, and what’s in the product you’re buying. Of course, there are a lot of great vape products out there, from delta-8 THC to CBDA to THCV. It’s up to you what you want to vape, and what precautions you want to take. If you’re looking to try some of these compounds, we’re happy to get them out to you right away! Check out our deals for delta-8 THC and many other marijuana products, to experience the positive side of vaping cannabis.

What’s a vape cart?

When it comes to the word ‘vaporizer’, there are two main types that apply to cannabis (and a third that applies to decongesting your chest with water vapor when sick). In terms of cannabis, there are dry herb vaporizers in which cannabis flower is directly placed in, and then heated to the point of vaporization. The other type of vaporizer is an oil or concentrates vaporizer, which can come in the form of a dab (for concentrates or oils), or as a battery-operated oil vaporizer which utilizes a cartridge for the oil, attached to a stem that acts as a battery.

The latter vape is the one that has been growing in popularity of late, likely because of its general ease of use, and disposable nature. While longer lasting batteries are popular, disposable pens are also very big, providing a much more waste creating method of vaping oils. Either way, this method depends on the oil being put in a little container that attaches to the battery, and which has a mouthpiece on the other end. When the battery is turned on, the temperature can be chosen, and then the oil is heated to vaporization, and pulled into the lungs through the mouthpiece.

I admit, I love using oil vapes, because they are very easy. A good battery can last for days of pretty heavy use, and it’s super convenient to bring places. The oil won’t spill out, there’s no smell of fresh flower, there’s no work that must be done to load it, and no cleaning regimen that must be taken afterward. And it produces a vapor that at times can smell like cannabis, but in a much less offensive way than smoke, and more easily cleared. The convenience level is unbeatable, and the vapor produced is very powerful, so these are great tools to get a good high, and for medical use.

The vape cart issue of real vs fake

Fakes industries are all over the place, and not at all particular to the field of legal cannabis. Think about going to a cheap market and seeing brand name clothing and accessories, but at ridiculously cheap prices. And think about checking out those super sleek-looking leather bags that somehow just don’t smell like leather, even though they bear names like Gucci, or Coach. These products are made to look like their more expensive counterparts, which rely on the idea of a brand name, and an understood and expected level of quality.

cannabis vape carts

Of course, when buying these items, what a person generally finds is that there are minor visible inconsistencies, and that the products are generally of far lower quality, meaning less durability, cheaper materials, cheaper dyes that may run onto your skin, and rips and tears in products that should last much longer due to poor quality manufacturing. It means not knowing what exactly the product is actually made of, or what chemicals are used for it. If a high end shirt uses dye that is safe, and a knockoff brand uses dyes that are not, buying the knockoff brand means not only not getting the desired product, but also possibly having exposure to things like unsafe chemicals.

The newly forming cannabis industries of America are all up against existing black markets with generally lower prices than dispensaries, which must adhere to mandatory tax rates. Things like actual cannabis flowers are nearly impossible to fake. When stories come out about fake weed of the flower variety, what they’re referring to is generally a collection of standard dried leaves and foliage, like someone scooped a handful of stuff off the ground and crushed it up. It might be mistakable for very low quality cannabis, but it could never be mistaken for actual high quality cannabis flowers. This material is then sprayed with a synthetic.

Apart from regular flowers, vaping has taken over as one of the most popular forms of ingestion, and since fake oil and real oil look pretty much the same, the door has been opened for a massive fakes market in the vape cart industry.

What’s a fake vape cart?

There are a selection of closely related synthetic cannabinoids that are generally used in fake cannabis products. These synthetics are closely related to HHC, a compound found and studied by the US government back in the mid-1900’s, and deemed safe. Though the synthetic cannabinoids themselves have shown to be safe, there has been a marked issue with additives for different things. From flavoring, to stabilizers, to thickening agents, and so on, these additives, at times, have caused injuries to many people, including deaths.

These numbers are not huge to begin with, and show up in specific incidences of bad batches. Nonetheless, these incidences still occur since there is no regulation in a black market in terms of what chemicals can be used. Though the massive and widespread usage of fake vapes and synthetic cannabis with so few incidences, does show a certain level of safety, this isn’t that comforting for those who want to be more careful with what they put in their bodies, in which case unidentified materials in a vape cart are not ideal.

fake vapes

What should be remembered though, is that, regardless of the fact that danger can be caused by the usage of bad chemicals, that the government’s intention to blow the problem out of proportion creates the image of a much bigger issue. The government itself has stated through the CDC, that since the inception of vaping, until January 2020, a total of 68 confirmed deaths were registered as being related to vaping.

That’s a nearly 20 year period with 68 confirmed deaths. On the other hand, smoking causes 480,000 deaths a year, 41,000 of which come from secondhand smoke, also according to the CDC. Oh, and as the government uses the word ‘epidemic’ to describe people smart enough to switch to vaping from smoking, it ignores the true epidemic of opioid use which has claimed over 70,000 lives in 2019, and as many as 93,331 in 2020 alone. And this epidemic was created by pharmaceutical companies, and allowed to prosper by way of shoddy government regulation.

Though vape cartridges are not all real, with many fake options on the market, they have not yet shown even close to the danger level of cigarettes, opiates, or alcohol.

Vape carts – real or fake, how can you tell

So how does a person know if the product they’re buying is the real deal? Sometimes this can be very hard to do visually. There are a few things to keep in mind when going vape shopping, which can help you determine if your vape carts are real or fake. Everything I’m listing here has been found to be true through my own personal experiences, though individual experiences can certainly vary.

1 – The taste. The thing to know about synthetics is that they don’t have a flavor. And neither do distillates or isolates, which are concentrates of just one cannabinoid (or one main cannabinoid along with minor cannabinoids) with everything else burned out. A real cannabis full flower oil will taste exactly like cannabis, and this can’t be faked very well. However, it’s already expected that distillates and isolates will taste like flavoring, and not marijuana. So, when a fakes manufacturer is trying to pull off a fake vape cart, it’s more likely to be of a distillate or isolate since the user won’t be able to distinguish the taste. Buying full flower vape oils can give you a better indication if you’re smoking the right thing.

2 – The packaging. The truth is, fakes manufacturers are getting extremely good, complete with fake lab results and fake QR codes. Anything can be faked, so seeing these things on a product doesn’t mean anything anymore. The real product producers will change things up regularly to try to stay ahead of the fakes market, instituting details in packaging to set themselves apart from their copycats. But that means you have to keep up with what should be expected in your product packaging. I’ve caught fakes by minute details before, which can often be found online for a specific product. Do a search for what you’re buying, see if anyone posted where the fake makers mess up, and look for those inconsistencies in packaging.

real vape carts

3 – The price. Real vape carts aren’t cheap. They take processing time, they require large amounts of cannabis to produce, and they are heavily taxed in real dispensaries. A one gram cart will run about $100 in a legit dispensary, and that’s not a debatable price. A ½ gram runs about $50, and these are low end prices, as higher quality products can still cost more than this. Black market retailers want your money, and part of what gets you in their non-legal dispensary, is lower pricing. If you buy a one-gram cartridge for $30, it’s probably not going to be real. The fakers want you to buy, so they have no reason to compete with super high prices. Their costs are lower, and they can make plenty of money from charging you half the price or less. If the price seems too good to be true, it most likely is.

4 – The effect. Synthetic cannabinoids used in fake cannabis products, are not generally direct synthetics of THC, but instead are more closely related to a molecule called HHC. HHC was investigated as part of government research, in a quest to create a THC-like molecule that could effect receptor sites, but without doing anything else. Essentially, a minimized version of THC. The current synthetics out there are generally related to this compound (though there are likely many versions out there at any given time).

In my personal experience, synthetics have all felt about the same. Getting me high in a way, but not fully, or in a slightly different way than standard weed. I can suck on a synthetic vape all day and still go out and exercise, and this with an advertisement of a strong indica and 90% THC. If the vape was actually an indica with 90% THC, I’d be stuck to my bed, and I know this. Most of the synthetics out there will not give you the same high that you get from regular cannabis, though they will produce a decent high. So pay attention to how you feel. And question if its really applicable to what’s being advertised.

Conclusion

The unfortunate aspect of vape carts, and trying to establish if they’re real or fake, is that there’s a certain reality to quality and pricing that exists in this market. If you’re buying a cheaper product, from a store that seems to be able to offer a lot of lower-than-market prices, and it lacks the intensity of what’s advertised, comes in questionable packaging, or tastes like flavoring when its supposed to be full flower… you’re likely smoking a synthetic. Just be glad they’re really not that likely to cause major damage. And remember that in today’s dispensary world, you might be able to get good black market weed still, but if you want a quality vape cart, you’re going to have to pay out.

Hello and welcome! Thanks for joining us at CBDtesters.co, your ultimate internet location for the most up-to-date and interesting cannabis and psychedelics-related news from around the globe. Check us out frequently to stay aware of the quickly changing landscape of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and make sure to Subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter to learn more and for exclusive deals on Delta 8Delta 10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP HHC.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Vape Cart Reality: Is It Real, or Is It Fake? appeared first on CBD Testers.

Albert Hofmann: The Finding and Self-Experimentation of LSD

The psychedelic boom is just beginning, with legalizations occurring, and new bills working their way through local governments to provide more psychedelic freedom. For those still unaware, psychedelics have been proving to be a valuable medicine in the fight against mental illness. When looking back in the history of medical psychedelics to where it started, it all comes down to one man, Albert Hofmann, and his discovery of LSD.

Albert Hofmann sure started something big when he discovered LSD, but it might be a while longer before LSD is legalized. If psychedelics continue like the cannabis industry, it should happen eventually. Luckily, for now we’ve got cannabis, and all its great medicinal and recreational compounds, like delta-9 THC, delta-8 THC, and a range of other minor cannabinoids like THCV, THCP, delta 10, HHC, THC-O and more. You can go ahead and check out our weekly deals.

What are psychedelics?

Psychedelics are drugs that contain chemical compounds that cause a psychoactive reaction in a user. Such reactions include experiencing hallucinations, which means hearing, seeing, feeling, tasting, and smelling things that aren’t there. Psychedelics are also associated with creating spiritual experiences and can promote feelings of connectedness between the user and others around. Users experience euphoria, relaxation, and well-being, while also experiencing mystical sensations. Psychedelics can alter mood, perception, and cognition, though different drugs can cause different effects, and the amount taken is important.

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs, which themselves are a subset of psychoactive drugs. They can be found in nature, like magic mushrooms or peyote, or made in a lab like LSD or PCP. Though psychedelics have been found generally safe in testing, getting the dose correct is important. This is the same with any type of medication, and is not specific to psychedelics. A person who takes too much oxycontin might overdose and die, a person who takes too much LSD might have a bad trip.

‘Bad trips’ are characterized by negative, or even scary, hallucinations. Users can experience feelings of dysphoria, anxiety, and panic, as well as physical symptoms like dizziness, irregular heartbeat, numbness, vomiting, and sweating and chills. Bad trips have not been known to result in death, but can certainly be a negative experience for the user, and back up that careful dosing is very important.

Many psychedelics are serotonergic, meaning they interact with serotonin receptors in the brain. This will usually cause a rush of the neurotransmitter, followed by blocking reuptake to allow for more absorption. The neurotransmitter serotonin is responsible for many functions in the human body, from mood regulation and involuntary muscle control, to transmitting signals throughout the brain.

Historical use of psychedelics

Though we treat psychedelics like we don’t know much about them in mainstream life, there is plenty of evidence they’ve been used for thousands of years, although the context they were used in, may have been different from how they’re used today. Information that we do have was obtained from ancient texts, findings, and rituals.

For example, in the Sora River Valley of Southwestern Bolivia, a pouch was found containing traces of different psychedelic compounds including both harmine and dimethyltryptamine – used to make ayahuasca; bufotenine, a psychedelic compound found in toad skin; and psilocin, a psychedelic compound of magic mushrooms. The pouch is said to be from around 900-1100 CE according to mass spectrometry carbon dating. This is the earliest finding to show the use of the plants that combine to make ayahuasca.

Other research has pointed to use of psychedelics in Mesoamerica by the Mayans, Aztecs, Olmecs, and Zapotecs. The Mayans were known for drinking balché from Lonchocarpus bark extracts, which together with honey produces a psychoactive effect (the bark can itself, but is milder without the honey). It was used for group ceremonies to get intoxicated. The cultures mentioned used the peyote plant for mescaline, hallucinogenic mushrooms, and ololiuhqui seeds, which contain lysergic acid amide, a relative to LSD.

The near-East has also been a hotspot for ancient psychedelic findings. Several artifacts have been made in that region including residues, fibers, pollen, and carbonized seeds. In fact, traces of Blue Water Lily extract, a strong narcotic, were found in Tutonkamen’s tomb which dates back to the 14th century BC. In Lebanon, 10 liters of Viper’s Bugloss was found in a storage jar in Kami del-Loz temple from the late bronze age. Viper’s Bugloss is a very strong hallucinogenic compound.

What led up to Albert Hofmann finding LSD

History is all fine and good, but in today’s world we study things in labs. In modern times, the practice of studying psychedelics began in Switzerland with a chemist named Albert Hofmann. Born in 1906, in Baden, Switzerland, Hofmann finished his chemistry degree at the University of Zurich in 1929. Immediately after graduation, he began working for the chemical company Sandoz.

When Sandoz hired Hofmann, the company had only opened a pharmaceutical department a few years before in 1917, even though the company was founded in 1886. The pharmaceutical department started with the isolation of a compound called aotamine from a fungus called ergot, which can be found in tainted rye. Ergot has been used in natural medicine traditions for many, many years, since in small doses, it has been known to quicken child birth, as well as help with the bleeding after. However, when found in tainted rye, ergot can cause incredible illness. The scientist who isolated the compound, Arthur Stoll, wanted to isolate the part that caused the constriction that allowed for the medical advantages only.

He was able to do it, isolating the compounds ergotamine and ergobasine, which enabled the ability to dose very precisely, and without other compounds from ergot getting in the way. Within the next few years, researchers at the company were able to elucidate the chemical structures of different compounds of ergot thought useful, all of which share a common nucleus. This point at which all the compounds start, is named Lysergsaure (in German), or lysergic acid. These discoveries made a lot of money for Sandoz, and helped launch a pharmaceutical department for further research and development. This is the climate that Hofmann walked into when he was hired in 1929.

Albert Hofmann and the unexpected finding of LSD

When Albert Hofmann entered the picture, the Sandoz lab was busy studying ergot, and the compounds within. Hofmann was able to establish a synthetic process to build the ergot compounds using the chemicals that make them up. He was able to synthesize active components of ergot, along with similar compounds from other plants, that were thought to be possible for medical use. Hofmann did a lot of experimentation, combining lysergic acid with other compounds to see what kind of results occurred. He did this about 24 times before something big happened.

Hofmann had been trying to find a combination that could stimulate circulation and respiration. On the 25th occasion of combining lysergic acid with another compound, Hofmann used diethylamine, a derivative of ammonia. The compound it created, was called LSD-25 at the time, or lysergic acid diethylamide. Though it did not meet the needs specifically of what he was looking for, it was noted that the created compound caused excitability in animals during testing. At the time, LSD-25 was put on the backburner, but Hofmann couldn’t forget about it, saying it was “a peculiar presentiment—the feeling that this substance could possess properties other than those established in the first investigations.”

Five years later, he felt the urge to recreate this compound again, and this time, something very strange happened. He started feeling strange. It was a Friday, so he left the lab early and returned home. When he came back into the lab the following week, he wrote this to Stoll, who was his boss at the time:

“I was forced to interrupt my work in the laboratory in the middle of the afternoon and proceed home, being affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition, characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dream-like state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted steam of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors.”

What did he do next?

When Albert Hofmann first discovered the effects of LSD, he didn’t know what caused them. First, he thought he had been exposed to some kind of chloroform solvent, but when he intentionally breathed in fumes, he didn’t get the same response. It finally occurred to him that he might have actually ingested some of the LSD-25 he was working with, despite the fact that the only place he had made contact, was his fingertips. As it was understood ergot compounds could be toxic, a lot of measures were taken for safety. Upon realizing it might have been the LSD-25, Albert Hofmann did what any good scientist would do, he began experimenting on himself.

On April 19th, 1943, Hofmann dissolved 250 millionths of a gram of lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate (the crystalized version of LSD-25), and drank it down. He did this without giving a heads up to anyone at Sandoz except his lab assistant, and he didn’t expect anything to happen. He had taken such a small dose – with the intention of slowly increasing to find the right amount, that he hadn’t expected the response that he got. After about 40 minutes, he wrote this:

“Beginning dizziness, feeling of anxiety, visual distortions, symptoms of paralysis, desire to laugh.” Due to his condition, he had to have his lab assistant take him home, which due to wartime restrictions, meant riding on bikes. One can only imagine how funny that bike ride must have been! He later said this about the experience:

“Everything in my field of vision wavered and was distorted as if seen in a curved mirror. I also had the sensation of being unable to move from the spot. Nevertheless, my assistant later told me that we had traveled very rapidly. Finally, we arrived at home safe and sound, and I was just barely capable of asking my companion to summon our family doctor and request milk from the neighbors.”

Though the symptoms were frightening, as they were unexpected, a doctor’s visit confirmed that nothing was actually wrong with Hofmann. When he had calmed down, and could speak clearly about his experience, he said this: “Everything glistened and sparkled in a fresh light. The world was as if newly created. All my senses vibrated in a condition of highest sensitivity, which persisted for the entire day.”

Hofmann continued experimentation with himself and a couple close friends. He found the setting to be a very important factor in how the trip played out. Hofmann went on to introduce this new compound to psychiatrists in the mid-1900’s like Humphry Osmond and Ronald Sandison. Osmond conducted the Saskatchewan trials in Canada. In the studies, alcoholics were given LSD to quit drinking, and according to the studies, an entire 40-45% were able to do so for at least a year after only one dose. Sandison operated out of the UK, doing his own experimentation with acid. One of his experiments included using 36 psychoneurotic patients, all of whom were cured or showed improvement after using LSD, save for two. Both doctor’s developed their own strategies for the emerging psychedelic-assisted therapy, all based on Hofmann’s experiences.

Albert Hofmann LSD

Conclusion

The story of acid is obviously much longer than this, but this is how it started, with Albert Hofmann and his self-experimentation of LSD. Though LSD is currently Schedule I in the US, both psilocybin and MDMA have been designated by the FDA as breakthrough therapies, and Oregon has already legalized psilocybin for medical purposes. On top of that, esketamine, a close relative of ketamine, is already approved for depression and suicidal thoughts, and is in use in clinics all over America.

LSD is a synthetic psychedelic compound, though it has roots in the ergot plant. While it was the most commonly used medical psychedelic in the mid-1900’s, it was illegalized and demonized shortly after, only now gaining attention once again for its medical benefits. With the impending legalization of other psychedelics, one can only imagine that LSD will be coming soon too.

Welcome to CBDtesters.co, your premiere location for the most current and thought provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news worldwide. Check out the site daily to stay abreast of the quickly-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and don’t forget to sign up for our newsletter, so you always know what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Albert Hofmann: The Finding and Self-Experimentation of LSD appeared first on CBD Testers.

Artificial High – The History of Cannabis Synthetics

The idea that cannabis exists as a pharmaceutical product, is still strange to people like me who grew up with the plant as the only form of ingestion. Whereas some medications have no natural counterpart, like Tylenol (acetaminophen) or Benadryl (diphenhydramine), some do, like anything based off cannabis. And we know the plant itself works fine, but that hasn’t stopped an immense amount of research into synthetic cannabis, and the production of synthetic cannabis products. Here we’ll take a look at the history of cannabis synthetics, and what can be expected in the future.

The history of cannabis synthetics is important because it’s a large part of today’s current market, including products like delta-8 THC. Though delta-8 is naturally occurring, it does require human synthetization help to provide large quantities, which means the dealt-8 we use in products, is all synthetic. We’re into quality cannabis products, whether naturally occurring or synthetic, and have a nice selection of delta-8 THC, delta 10 THCTHCVTHC-OHHC, THCP and even legal hemp-derived Delta-9 THC products. Subscribe to the Delta 8 Weekly and check ’em out!

What is a synthetic?

First things first, when talking about the history of cannabis synthetics, or simply what the synthetic version of something is, it’s best to know what we’re talking about. According Dictionary.com, the definition of ‘synthetic’ encompasses several principals. Under adjective, the definitions that relate to cannabis are:

  • Of, pertaining to, proceeding by, or involving synthesis (opposed to analytic).
  • Noting or pertaining to compounds formed through a chemical process by human agency, as opposed to those of natural origin: synthetic vitamins; synthetic fiber.
  • Not real or genuine; artificial; feigned: a synthetic chuckle at a poor joke.

Under noun, the following relates to cannabis:

  • Something made by a synthetic, or chemical, process.
  • Substances or products made by chemical synthesis, as plastics or artificial fibers.
  • The science or industry concerned with such products.

A synthetic is something that was created, rather than occurring naturally, although this not does negate that a naturally-occurring compound can also come as a synthetic. A synthetic is something that is not real or genuine, but is instead artificial. Synthetics are made through a process, and studying synthetics, means studying the process of making artificial products. Thus, synthetic cannabis compounds, are compounds that do not exist in nature on their own (or which do, but still require synthetization help outside of nature for products), and are manufactured by human production. This can relate to much more than just cannabis. For example, a lot of clothing uses synthetic plastic fibers rather than natural ones like cotton or hemp.

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Main points of cannabis research

When talking about the history of cannabis research in general, two of the occurrences that stand out the most are related to the isolation of certain compounds: the two main compounds of the cannabis plant. By isolating a compound, researchers can understand what it is, how it’s made, and are then able to synthesize it, and modify it. The two most spoken about findings in cannabis history are these:

1940 – The funny thing about the solation of CBD, is that it gets way less attention than the isolation of delta-9 THC, even as the current CBD industry booms. In fact, the name Doctor Roger Adams is way less known than Raphael Mechoulam, the guy up next. However, back in 1940, Roger Adams and his team at the University of Illinois, were the first to isolate CBD. In 1940, the team published their findings here: Structure of Cannabidiol, a Product Isolated from the Marihuana Extract of Minnesota Wild Hemp. It should be noted, that while Adams was not the first one to synthesize delta-9 completely, he was the first one to identify it, and he did do a partial synthesis.

1964 – Doctor Raphael Mechoulam, an Israeli researcher from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, isolated delta-9 THC for the first time in 1964. Mechoulam and team published their findings here: Isolation, Structure, and Partial Synthesis of an Active Constituent of Hashish. Since this time, Mechoulam has been a leader in the industry, actively taking part in research, and even discovering this synthetic cannabinoid in 2020, called HB 580, or cannabidiolic acid methyl ester. And this at the ripe old age of 90. Mechoulam is still the president of The Multidisciplinary Center for Cannabinoid Research at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Tons of other research has been done into different compounds within the cannabis plant, its history of use, and how it can be used today. But somehow, the isolation of these two main cannabinoids stands out as beacons in the history of cannabis research. And it’s through the finding of these compounds, that the history of cannabis synthetics began.

History of cannabis synthetics

If you’ll notice from the publication put out by Mechoulam and team in 1964, in the title it directly states that not only did they identify delta-9 THC, but they did a partial synthesis of the compound. What does this mean if delta-9 does appear in nature? It means, the researchers were able to isolate and map the compound, and that they then attempted to re-create it themselves, without help from nature. The ‘isolation’ is the part where the single molecule can be taken and studied, its chemical formula identified, and its chemical structure mapped. The ‘synthesis’ part is when the same molecule is created through human production. This might make it seem like the history of cannabis synthetics started here, but once again, it was really the other guy.

The thing about Roger Adams, is that he didn’t just isolate CBD, he isolated CBN (cannabinol), identified delta-9 THC as well, and was able to show the relationship between CBD, CBN and delta-9, as the three are isomers to each other. Not only that, he was able to synthesize analogues of CBN and delta-9, meaning he was able to create artificial versions of these cannabinoid analogues. He wasn’t, however, the only one doing this at that time!

cannabinoids

Enter Doctor Alexander Todd, the British researcher who was neck and neck with Roger Adams, and who received a Nobel prize for his work with nucleotides. In 1940, while at the University of Manchester, at the age of only 32, and working with a very small research group, Todd was able to isolate CBD from a sample of hashish from India. He published his findings in the journal Nature in 1940. Adams submitted his first notes on CBD in 1939 to the Journal of America Chemical Society, making him technically first over Todd. Todd’s version was without detail originally, with a full detailed version published in March of 1940 in the Journal of Chemical Society

Adams’ early synthetization of cannabinoids can be seen in his published research, which additionally shows a partial synthesis of delta-9 THC. Both Adams and Todd showed the isolation of CBN, which was fully mapped before CBD. Adams takes the win for first providing the structure of CBD, though Todd was right there with him. In fact, the two scientists spent a few years dueling in the scientific press, each publishing their findings as they came to them, in direct competition with each other. Later on, the two scientists became good friends and even worked together. It should be pointed out that the goal of both scientists had been to find the intoxicating agent of cannabis (delta-9), which neither ever established for sure.

During this time, delta-9 THC was not synthesized fully, though it was identified. But other compounds were synthesized, like CBN, CBD, and analogues of these cannabinoids and delta-9. CBN seems to be the very first cannabinoid that was synthesized in the quest to find delta-9, which CBN was assumed to be very closely related to. This makes CBN and CBD the first examples of synthetic cannabinoids, even though they do appear in nature. This reinforces the idea that a naturally occurring compound, can also be produced in synthetic form.

Cannabis synthetics today

We could have a whole debate about why cannabis was illegalized, and the part that pharmaceutical companies played in it, as a way to minimize use of a plant that couldn’t be patented. And while we could go back and forth on that one, the results of it can be seen clearly in today’s world. For example, while the US government likes to talk about how bad synthetics are, it also approved synthetic cannabinoid medications like Dronabinol, Epidiolex, and Sativex, and this in place of allowing the actual plant which has been used for thousands of years. This means, the only cannabis medications approved in the US, are synthetics.

In a great example of how far a government will go to protect pharmaceutical interests, France literally went to court with the EU over the ability to block sales and imports of naturally-occurring CBD. Of course, what the majority of reporters missed in the story, was that while France went on and on about the dangers of CBD (which it failed to back up in court), it was allowing GW Pharmaceuticals’ Epidiolex, a synthetic version of CBD, to be sold. Kind of seems like France wasn’t actually all that against CBD, huh?

At this point, there are about a million synthetic cannabinoids out. From non-naturally occurring like THC-O-Acetate, delta-10 THC, and canabidiolic acid methyl ester, to naturally occurring, like delta-8 THC, Dronabinol (THC), and Epidiolex (cannabidiol). And then, of course, there are the compounds that are generally thought of as synthetic, like Spice and K2, although these are no more or less synthetic than the pharmaceutical versions being sold to patients, and were discovered through the same lines of research. In fact, the compound that led to spice and K2, was none other than HHC, which was created in a lab in a search to find a simplified, yet working, THC compound. THC-O-Acetate was also an early street synthetic, possibly put out by the military, as the military was doing testing on this compound, and it seems to have shown up in public around that time.

legal cannabis synthetics

Some of the first non-naturally occurring cannabinoids to be synthesized were non-naturally occurring delta THCs like delta-7 THC and delta-10 THC, synthesized around the time that Adams first identified delta-9. The very first cannabis medicine to be approved in the US, was Dronabinol, under the name of Marinol, which gained FDA approval in 1985. Marinol, of course, is synthetic, meaning the very first cannabis medicine allowed in current day America, is synthetic. Clearly the US is A-okay with synthetics.

What can be expected in the future should be obvious. Use of the plant will likely not be stopped, but increasing pressure will probably be put on consumers to buy pharmaceutical products. The demonization and smear campaigns for cannabis will in all probability continue since they incite fear, and can be used to push the pharmaceutical ‘better answer’. And though this ‘better answer’ might prove to be true for people fighting ailments like cancer, for many people, nothing more than the plant would ever be necessary.

Conclusion

It might not be very well known, but the history of cannabis synthetics started at around the same time as the first major breakthrough in cannabis research. Adams and Todd led the charge in the early 40’s, identifying isolating, and synthesizing CBD and CBN, making them the first isolated cannabinoids, and the first examples of synthetic cannabis compounds.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Artificial High – The History of Cannabis Synthetics appeared first on CBD Testers.

Where Cannabis Synthetic Spice Came From and Is It Related To HHC?

Cannabis synthetic ‘Spice’ has been the center of controversy for many years, with government lines saying its highly dangerous, but its massive ubiquitous nature (and the lack of any real issues), saying otherwise. Where did this synthetic compound come from? And how is it related to cannabis synthetic HHC?

Cannabis synthetic compounds like HHC and Spice are available for those who want to try them, but users should beware of where they get their products from. On the other hand, plenty of companies are selling more above board products like delta-8 THC, which is a naturally occurring alternative to delta-9, which creates less psychoactive effect, and produces less anxiety, making it preferable for many people. Make sure to subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for exclusive deals on Delta 8Delta 10THCV, and THCO, and to find out which THC is best for you.

What is HHC?

The reason I’m starting with the cannabis synthetic HHC, is because it happens to be the newest cannabis compound to make it to the public. In the last couple years, tons of cannabis compounds have made an appearance on the pubic stage, to varying levels of interest. For the most part, many of these compounds are found to be interesting, but haven’t done much to drive sales extensively. Some of this is probably because of shaky legal ground, and some of it is probably because the compounds themselves appear in small amounts only, and often require synthetization techniques that go far beyond basic extractions.

There are different kinds of compounds that have come to the public’s attention of late. Other delta-THCs like delta-8 and delta-10. Other cannabinoids like CBL, CBC, and CBN. And a range of synthetics like THC-O-Acetate, and now HHC. What is this last one? Well, it’s actual name is a long one: 9-Nor-9β-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol. Quite a mouthful, huh? And it’s a synthetic cannabinoid derivative, which came from when THC was being studied early on, and modifications were made to its structure. The goal had been to find the simplest compounds that could still bind to receptors and produce a response. HHC is therefore a more simplified version of delta-9, and closely related to it.

HHC compounds have been studied a little, but not a huge amount is known about them. Interested parties can check out studies like this one to gain a little more info, but for the most part, very little exists in the medical world to speak of. This has not stopped the compound from being sold, although whether this is a good idea or not, is certainly debatable.

What is HHC and is it safe to use?

What is Spice?

Spice’ is a term to designate a synthetic cannabinoid, not unlike any other synthetic cannabinoid that we speak about on this site. Synthetics bind to the same receptors, creating essentially, the same response in users, which is often why a user won’t know if they’re using a natural compound, or a synthetic. Honestly, I’ve smoked plenty of black market vapes which I know were some kind of synthetic, and I found very little difference.

Since the majority of synthetics were designed off of delta-9, they act as agonists at receptor sites, meaning they promote a response. Sometimes, the synthetics have even stronger binding abilities than their naturally occurring counterparts. There isn’t just one kind of synthetic. In fact, there are several classes of synthetic cannabinoids that are given names based on structural attributes, though in the past they were named in different ways, often by the place where they were found.

If you’ll notice, none of this is specific to the term ‘Spice’, as ‘Spice’ is simply a name used to denote ‘synthetic cannabinoids’. Just like it’s other well-known name, K2. These are simply street names, and do not denote a specific synthetic necessarily.

What’s the connection between cannabis synthetic HHC and Spice?

So how is the synthetic cannabis compound HHC related to synthetic cannabinoids considered Spice? Good question. HHC was studied a bit when it was first found, and even went through animal testing which showed it to be a safe compound. However, it never caught on, and it never developed into any kind of pharmaceutical product. That might have been the end of the story, except that about 25 years after HHC was being studied, a derivative of it was found out on the street as the main ingredient in synthetic cannabis being sold.

This derivative, considered obscure at the time (though not so much now), is called cannabicyclohexanol, or (C8)-CP 47,497. Where did it come from, though? Was it made for the street specifically in some basement lab? Not at all. This compound was made by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer in 1979. In 2009, a German report came out saying that it had found an analog to CP 47,497, and that it was being used in an incense product called ‘Spice’.

Obviously, Pfizer never did anything with this compound, which isn’t terribly weird considering how many compounds were created and studied, just to be tossed aside, much like HHC. And much like synthetic HHC, it made a name for itself not by being used by the company that found it, but as a street drug. HHC was not found to be dangerous in testing, so the idea it wasn’t used for safety issues, doesn’t seem to be the case. And considering how widespread Spice is, and how few problems there are related to it, it also would appear to be generally safe, although the government has certainly put a lot of effort into having you think otherwise, probably because its a synthetic not being profited from by big pharma.

synthetic HHC

Are synthetics dangerous?

This is an interesting question, and requires a bit of critical thinking and general logic. Now if you ask the US government, it’ll tell you ‘yes’. Of course, the US government also likes to say that there’s an ‘epidemic’ of vape deaths, which actually only equals 68 confirmed deaths over nearly 20 years of time – which is laughable compared to the 480,000 that die a year from smoking cigarettes. If anything, their attempt to demonize vaping really only highlights what a safe alternative it is. In fact, the best the government has actually been able to do, is point the finger at vitamin-e-acetate and/or other additives, which don’t have anything directly to do with the cannabis plant.

Dealing with synthetics is similar. While the US government – and other governments around the world that bow to big pharma – like to go on about how dangerous ‘Spice’ and ‘K2’ are, and how synthetics are bad, it has no problem allowing synthetics that pharmaceutical companies profit off of. Perhaps the reason the Spice synthetic is so badly demonized, is nothing more than saltiness on the part of a pharmaceutical company that lost out on the profits.

There have been stories about people getting sick from synthetics like Spice. In 2016, about 70 people in Connecticut ‘overdosed’ on synthetic cannabinoids. Only, it had nothing to do with the synthetic cannabinoids, but, rather, the fact that the synthetic marijuana was laced with what they thought was fentanyl. Kind of a big difference. In the same year, about 300 people in the Washington DC area had a similar result. And this too was due to contaminated products. Now the thing about synthetics of this nature, is that they aren’t themselves plant material, but generally a liquid solution that can be sprayed on plant material to create a marijuana-like substance.

When I lived in Tel Aviv about 10-11 years ago, a synthetic dubbed ‘Mr. Niceguy’ became very popular. If it was really that dangerous, there would be an entire dead city, as we were all smoking it, partly because at the time, regular cannabis was hard to find. On the other hand, I myself had a very negative experience with another brand that came out a bit later, and which stopped me from using these products again. Basically, I got very sick from smoking it.

It could have been a pesticide, or fentanyl, or who knows what. Whatever gave me that reaction, was certainly not related to cannabis, either synthetic or regular. And that seems to be the case with most/all of the injuries mentioned, meaning just like with vapes, the danger issue has nothing to do with the cannabis plant, or the synthetics made from it. It also makes it highly unethical, and misleading, that the government publicizes big statements about the dangers of such compounds, when the danger has nothing to do with the plant. In fact, I have yet to see a complaint or death count associated with the actual plant, or the synthetics made directly from it.

More stories

In another story also from 2016, many people in New York had to be hospitalized after smoking a synthetic called AMB-FUBINACA, which was also made by Pfizer in 2009. It was somehow decided that this was because the synthetic had caused it to happen, since a metabolite was found in all the people hospitalized. And while it almost sounds like it could mean that this really was caused by a dangerous synthetic, it also happens to be that this particular synthetic, was the one most found in drug seizures in 2017, and part of 2018, indicating extremely wide use, and pointing to the idea that the New York issue was likely not about the synthetic cannabinoids, but something added in, like in the other cases. Otherwise, the New York story would have been an everywhere story, and it wasn’t.

smoking synthetics

In 2017-2018 there were also about 60 deaths in New Zealand, but once again, this wasn’t an ongoing issue, but something isolated in a specific time period, indicating once again that the issue related to specific batches, and not the synthetics. The same synthetics are still out there, so without added issues, it clears the synthetics of being the cause of the problem.

Does this mean a synthetic can’t be dangerous? Some might be, but it doesn’t look like that’s what has caused any issues thus far. If so, the problem would be more continuous, and not in isolated incidents in isolated locations. When someone cuts a batch of heroin with fentanyl and people die, it doesn’t mean all heroin will do that (although its also really not a good idea to do heroin). But what it does mean, is that that particular batch will cause problems to whoever uses it. This is the same concept. And much like in tainted heroin cases, the problem shows up in an isolated place, and then isn’t an issue anymore.

For me, the bigger concerns are making synthetics of compounds that don’t actually exist in nature, because then it becomes hard to know how it will behave in nature. And the idea that harsh chemicals could be used in the production of these compounds for which there is no regulation.

Conclusion

To me, one of the more interesting aspects of Spice, and cannabis synthetic HHC, is that they were created by pharmaceutical companies which chose not to use them, just to have them swiped out from under, to be sold illegally with no gain to the companies. I like to think of that as poetic justice for a pharmaceutical company. And in a sort-of coming full circle way, not only is Spice being sold out there, but so is its predecessor HHC.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Where Cannabis Synthetic Spice Came From and Is It Related To HHC? appeared first on CBD Testers.

Making Delta-8 THC From CBD – How It’s Done

Delta-8 THC is a popular cannabis product which offers slightly different benefits from its half brother delta-9. Though delta-8 is a product of delta-9 in nature, it’s also quite possible to source delta-8 THC from CBD. Read on to find out how its done.

Let’s be honest, you’re probably not going to set up a science experiment to make delta-8 THC at home from CBD. And that’s okay. Unless you’ve got a chemistry degree, or some incredible natural know-how, it’s just not a beginner’s activity. On the bright side, you don’t need to! Plenty of delta-8 products abound, as well as even newer offerings like THCV, delta-10, and THC-O-Acetate. We’ve got a bunch of great delta-8 THC deals, and way, way more. So take a look at our constantly expanding catalogue, and buy your finished product without worrying about a chemistry set.

First off, what is delta-8 THC?

Delta-8 THC is growing in popularity, but what it is, isn’t always understood. Delta-8 is an isomer of delta-9, meaning it shares the exact same chemical formula of: C₂₁H₃₀O₂, but with a different configuration of atoms. Delta-8 and delta-9 (and all other delta-THCs) are stereoisomers of each other, meaning they differ on nothing more than the placement of a double bond. For delta-9, the standard THC associated with marijuana, it’s on the 9th carbon atom in a chain, for delta-8, its on the 8th.

Delta-8 is a naturally occurring cannabinoid, which is produced in nature through the oxidation of delta-9 THC. When delta-9 comes into contact with oxygen, it loses electrons, thus creating delta-8, a more stable compound with a longer shelf life, since further oxidation is not an issue. Delta-8 only transforms from delta-9 at extremely low rates, meaning what occurs naturally is not in a high enough volume for any kind of product. In order for enough for actual use, it requires synthetization by humans, which we’ll get to soon.

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The two isomers, delta-8 and delta-9, share many of the same medicinal characteristics, but differ in a few important ways, which can greatly affect both user experience, and user preference. Delta-9, for starters, is known to cause anxiety in many users. Delta-8 does not, meaning it’s a better treatment for anxiety, as well as not as likely an agent to produce it, in those not attempting to treat it. Delta-9 is also known for an intense high, cloudy head, and couch locking – when a person is so stoned they literally feel like they can’t move off the couch.

Delta-8 produces less psychoactive high, with studies pointing to about 2/3 the intensity of delta-9. It’s also said to produce a clear-headed high, leaving the user with more energy, and less feeling of being stuck to the couch. For these reasons, especially for medical patients who might not be looking for an extreme high, delta-8 could well be the optimal choice. This goes too for regular smokers who have a hard time dealing with the anxiety, cloudy head, and couch locking of delta-9.

couchlocked
Use Delta 8 instead of Delta-9 THC to avoid getting couchlocked

Making delta-8 THC from CBD

Delta-8 THC converts naturally in small amounts from delta-9 THC, which doesn’t require any outside help. However, in order to get greater quantities of delta-8 THC, it can actually be converted from CBD. If this sounds kind of weird, that CBD could be used to produce a THC, its best to keep in mind that CBD also has the exact same chemical formula as the delta-THCs, meaning it is a natural isomer of both delta-8 THC and delta-9 THC. This means they’re already structurally very similar, so it’s not quite as shocking that one can be made from the other. There are a couple ways to do this.

In this first process, the thing to understand, is that this is very much a synthetization process, in which a chemical solvent is used, meaning it automatically comes with all the dangers associated with using such chemicals. The process goes something like this:

  • One gram of CBD is dissolved in 10ml of .005 molar H2SO4 (conc. sulfuric acid), creating glacial acetic acid.
  • After approximately three days, the CBD will have converted about 15% to delta-9 THC, 54% to delta-8, and 10% to a compound called delta-8-iso-THC. This leaves about 10% which remains unchanged.
  • This solution is then put in water, along with sodium bicarbonate, which is added to raise the ph level above 7.
  • The cannabinoids are then extracted from the solution using petrol ether.
  • The cannabinoids are washed in water.
  • After being washed, everything is heated to evaporate out the solvents.

The above-mentioned percentages of cannabinoids are what is gained after three days using this process, meaning over 50% of 1 gram of CBD can be turned into delta-8 in three days, along with some by products depending on how well the solvent is evaporated out. Different ratios of the different delta-THCs can be created, depending on the chemicals used for processing.

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The other way of making delta-8 THC from CBD

Using harsh chemical solvents can be effective, but they also bring a level of danger, since they potentially expose users to poisonous elements. Luckily, delta-8 THC can be made from CBD in yet another way, which doesn’t use solvents. In this method:

  • ½ gram of CBD is heated together with .09 grams of zinc chloride (anhydrous ZnCl2) at about 150º.
  • The best way to do the above step, is in a vacuum, to avoid oxidation during the process.
  • The mixture should be stirred during the process.
  • After approximately 2-3 hours, 40-50% of the CBD will have converted into delta-9 and delta-8.

If you’ll notice, this method is much quicker, converting nearly the same amount, in a fraction of the time. However, it should also be noticed that its hard to tell how much CBD will convert to delta-8, and how much to delta-9. So, while it goes faster, it’s less precise.

CBD to delta-8 THC

Does this make delta-8 legal if it comes from CBD?

It’s become a moot point. Whether delta-8 is ever ruled legal or illegal officially, it probably won’t do much to inhibit the growing market. Realistically, its not like the war on drugs ever actually removed any drugs from recreational use, which means all it did was waste a lot of money. Like, over a trillion dollars in the last 50 years. How many starving children could have been fed for life on that? Kind of seems like poverty issues – some of the biggest motivators for hard drugs – could have actually been lessened using that money, which instead went to tear apart neighborhoods and jail people, often for meaningless drug crimes like smoking pot.

It would be insanely ludicrous for the federal government, or any state government, to put money into stopping a compound that has not been ruled dangerous. And while the chemicals used for processing are often called out for this reason, (a la Colorado, and its recent d8 ban), those same chemicals, or similarly dangerous ones, are used to make all kinds of products freely sold on dispensary shelves. Which makes the idea that any of this is being done for our safety, as ludicrous as the government going after it.

Technically, it would seem that delta-8 is illegal without much question. It’s on the US government’s list of Controlled Substances, with regulation under criminal code 7370, as a Schedule I substance. And since any product containing it in any kind of useful amount must be synthesized, its prosecutable under the Federal Analogue Act, since any analogue (which delta-8 is) of an illegal substance, is also automatically illegal. Synthetics and analogues are simply not covered by the definition of hemp, so it also doesn’t matter where the d8 is sourced from, it’s not definitionally legal.

But it’s also not being stopped. Sure, there have been a few isolated incidences, likely to drive fear, but let’s be honest, there’s no way that any US government body doesn’t know they’re fighting a losing war by going after it. And considering how much power the US government lost in its inability to stop cannabis in the first place (to the point of it now being legalized all over the place), the idea of a real concerted effort to go after delta-8 is laughable at best.

failed war on drugs

So why not just legalize and regulate it?

Amazing question, right? If the stated issue is because of processing dangers, then simply putting in a little regulation would solve it. Right? That obviously makes the most sense in a case like this. But that’s so completely not happening. It could be that the federal government doesn’t want to give in after all these years, and allow legal THC. But that also doesn’t make much sense, considering legalized locations – like Colorado, are also banning it. Why would a state which allows legal delta-9, have any issue with delta-8? It sounds nonsensical.

The more relevant answer in my mind, is that anything that requires something like synthetization, and laboratory processing, is specifically being held off for pharmaceutical companies. After all, delta-8 makes a pretty awesome medicine since it does nearly the exact same things as delta-9, but without some of the more unwanted side effects. It seems to me that the whole outward demonization – which is inconsistent at best – is just to try to ensure that a market doesn’t explode before big pharma can find a way to control it.

Of course, I could be wrong. But what I’m saying is the best answer I can think of to explain how legalized locations are pushing through bans, especially when the only complaint is something that can be regulated for safety.

Conclusion

So, there you have it, delta-8 THC can be made from CBD, both with and without solvents. It might not be the best at-home activity, but for the scientists out there, its also not the hardest. Realistically, its not the type of processing an ordinary person would do in their house, but it’s nice to know that the compound can be formed in ways that offer less danger to consumers. Now, all we need is for government entities to just catch up.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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