Wednesday, February 26, 2020 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News

Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Wednesday, February 26, 2020 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// Presidential Candidates Clash Over Marijuana Legalization At Democratic Debate (Marijuana Moment)

// Massachusetts Regulators Warn That More Pot Shops Mean More Weed on the Streets (Merry Jane)

// Smokable Hemp Bill Heads To Virginia Governor’s Desk And Lawmakers Approve Legal Marijuana Study (Marijuana Moment)

These headlines are brought to you by MJToday Media, publishers of this podcast as well as our weekly show Marijuana Today and the most-excellent Green Rush Podcast. And check out our new show Weed Wonks!

// Mexican Senate Committees Meeting This Week To Finalize Marijuana Legalization Plan (Marijuana Moment)

// Eaze Raises $35 Million As Company Pivots To Plant Touching (Green Market Report)

// Paraguay issues first 12 medical cannabis production licenses (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Chart: Montana medical marijuana patient count continues rapid growth (Marijuana Business Daily)

// How old do you need to be to legally sell cannabis? In Canada it depends on where you live (Growth Op)

// Pennsylvania approves four firms to grow cannabis for research (Marijuana Business Daily)

// GW Pharma Generates $109 Million Revenue in Q4 (New Cannabis Ventures)

Check out our other projects:
Marijuana Today— Our flagship title, a weekly podcast examining the world of marijuana business and activism with some of the smartest people in the industry and movement.
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Photo: CBS News

The Art of Choosing A Medical Cannabis Strain

With so many options out there, online shops and dispensaries with seemingly limitless variety in products, how exactly do we pick a cannabis or hemp strain? And how do we know which strain is best for anxiety, or pain…

At this point, most people are familiar with CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), and medical cannabis in general. Whether someone has personal experience with a form of it, knows a person who uses it, or is simply familiar with some of the information out there, the thought of these compounds has become rather ubiquitous.

If you asked people to describe what CBD is, you might hear answers like it’s a cannabinoid, or that its non-psychoactive, or that it’s found more heavily in hemp than other forms of cannabis. Same with THC: it’s found in cannabis, it gets you high, it’s good for glaucoma, etc. If you asked what cannabis in general does, you’d likely hear about some of its medicinal properties like as an anti-inflammatory, or to help with anxiety, as an aid in pain management, or to help regulate blood sugars.

But if you asked a more specific question, like, does any CBD or THC product or flower do all of these wonderful medicinal things? You might be left staring at a confused face. And if you asked which specific cannabis flowers are best for a particular issue, you’d be likely to get nothing but a blank face.

We might all know about the general medical benefits of CBD, THC, hemp flowers, and cannabis in general, but that’s just part of the story. The reality is that there is a massive variation between plants, and these variations often determine which type of flower is best for which ailment.

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How do strains differ?

Most cannabis users are already quite familiar with the idea that different plants can create vastly different experiences. While one strain might make a person feel light, happy, and motivated, another might make a person so tired and comfortable that the only thing they want to do is lay on their couch watching Netflix.

Still yet, another strain might make a person more anxious, or even create paranoia. Most cannabis users know that at the most basic level, plants are split into sativas or indicas indicating their general nature of leading to a more lively or sluggish high. Pretty much all strains at this point are actually some kind of mixture of the two, with wide variation in how they are mixed.

At one point the story might have ended there, but now we know there’s even more to cause even deeper differentiation. Like terpenes – a range of organic compounds that work in concert with cannabinoids to create synergistic effects.

The makeup of the terpene profile associated with a particular strain also plays into the effects the user will feel. As do flavonoids – plant metabolites that play into the overall medicinal attributes of a strain. So, what does all of this mean? It means there are an endless number of specific kinds of flowers out there, with new ones being made every day in nature and in laboratories, often with the specific purpose of encouraging a particular medical antidote.

While this example used cannabis, hemp is just as varied with a world of difference between hemp flowers and what they are able to do to help a person medicinally.

Hemp Flowers vs Cannabis Flowers

Now this is where things can get confusing for many people. Cannabis flowers have all the cannabinoids including THC, and is what you will often what you’d find in a medical cannabis dispensaries and recreational stores. Because they have THC, the do produce psychoactive effects. The intensity of these effects varies based on how much is consumed, the THC content in the strain that’s being used, and individual tolerance levels.

What’s The Difference Between Cannabis And Hemp?

Hemp, on the other hand, is classified as having less than 0.3 percent THC content and often used for more industrial purposes. Some hemp plants grow flowers similar to cannabis, but they contain only trace amounts of THC and no other psychoactive compounds. Most hemp plants are CBD-dominant, although an increasingly popular alternative is CBG-dominant buds.

For the purpose of this article, we will be discussing medical cannabis flowers, as that is where most of the existing research has been conducted.

What do we know?

While we know – and are constantly learning – plenty about cannabis as a whole, the benefits of different cannabinoids, and the roles of terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds found in cannabis plants, it is still extremely difficult to point to a specific strain and say ‘this is best’.

As of yet, there is no definitive research into definitive strains for definitive problems. Any listings found online are merely subjective guessing by writers, though often based on oft repeated assertions, like that CBD heavy or 1:1 ratios are better for pain, or high THC strains can be bad for anxiety. Of course, even these assertions will not always prove true. This is twofold:

  • Even
    when two different entities offer the same strain, it is never going to be
    identical which, of course, creates issues with consistency between retailers,
    making it harder for customers to know what version of a strain they might be
    purchasing, and how useful it will be for them.
  • The
    often subjective nature of cannabis compounds. Truth is, a high dose of THC isn’t
    going to make everyone paranoid, and a strong 1:1 ratio might not be applicable
    for all kinds of pain. It is not uncommon in either the pharmaceutical world or
    the natural medicine world for a compound to elicit different effects in
    different people, meaning that a person’s needs might be specific to them, and
    not reflected in a more generalized overview.

The farther we get into what we DO know, the more it becomes relevant that simply being able to measure what we DO know is a task unto itself.

The start of measuring

One of the most popular uses of CBD and hemp flowers these days is for the treatment of anxiety. In a quest to find which strains were best at treating anxiety, this study investigated this topic by looking for correlations between cannabis chemotypes and the effectiveness of different kinds of cannabis to treat anxiety symptoms.

All plants have chemotypes, or chemically distinct entities

Chemotypes are subspecies of a plant or microorganism that are chemically distinct but show differences in the composition of their metabolites. The investigators looked at the reporting of cannabis patients, and then at the similarities or differences of the strains picked most. In doing the study the researchers essentially set a benchmark for future investigators looking to do the same thing.

After all, it’s great to ask the question, ‘what works best?’, but before it can be answered, there has to be a system for comparison and measurement. This study was very interesting in that it set what is likely the first groundwork for making real assessments into cannabis strains, rather than having endless articles written based on subjective reasoning.

The study was performed by way of survey. It included 90 questions that covered patient health, personal patterns of medical cannabis use, perceived effectiveness for symptom alleviation or management, and strain preference for different symptoms.

More than half of all participants reported using cannabis daily for anxiety management, while only 15% reported an actual diagnosis of anxiety or a related disorder. 14% of participants named anxiety as an unwanted reaction to cannabis. All participants were users of a specific brand to ensure consistency, with 25 common varieties to choose from. They were asked to explain which strain worked best for which symptoms, and which worked least.

In the event that they wanted to list a strain that was not a part of the 25, there was also an ‘other’ option. Participants were also allowed to name more than one strain if applicable. In this particular study, the following four strains were picked as the best for dealing with anxiety from most to least:

  • Bubba
  • Skywalker
    OG Kush
  • Blueberry
  • Kosher

The four least effective strains for dealing with anxiety were:

  • Chocolope
  • Blueberry
  • CBD
  • Tangerine

It is, perhaps, very telling of how different we really are from one another, that Blueberry Lambsbread showed up on both lists!

The researchers didn’t stop here though, because they wanted to know if there was a correlation between the chemotypes of these different strains and their effectiveness in anxiety treatment. In this way, the specific terpenes and cannabinoids could be weighted as per how their respective strains were voted, and then compared. When looking at the final analysis, it was found that the most abundant terpene in the most effective strains was nerolidol, and the most abundant terpene in the least effective category was myrcene.

The pain issue

Aside from anxiety, probably the most common reason people medicate with cannabis is for issues of pain. Once again, the question arises of which strains are best for dealing with pain. In 2018, this study came out to asses cannabis use for those suffering from migraines, headaches, arthritis, and other forms of chronic pain, and to see which strains they preferred to treat their symptoms.

The Role of Cannabinoids in Treating Chronic Pain

In this study, as well, the participants filled out a survey about their use, preferences, and experiences, with migraine sufferers filling out an ID Migraine™ Questionnaire. This study had 2032 respondents that covered 21 illnesses treated with cannabis. Among the respondents:

  • 42.4%
    pain syndromes
  • 29.4%
    chronic pain
  • 9.3%
  • 3.7%

The general results relevant to this topic were as follows:

  • Hybrids
    were preferred across all pain subtypes
  • OG
    Shark was the preferred strain in migraine and headache groups

This second point is interesting in that OG Shark is a high THC, low CBD strain which makes it not the assumed answer for those trying to guess it. Its most prominent terpenes are β-caryophyllene and β-myrcene, and it could very well be its terpene profile that gives it strength, once again making the chemotype of the specific plant extremely important when looking at its capabilities.

How to pick your cannabis

Truth is, if you wouldn’t pick your own antibiotic, or blood pressure medicine, it might be good to get some input on your best cannabis option. When looking for a specific remedy, it’s a very specific chemotype that’s necessary, and it won’t always show up where we expect it to.

If your medical issue is very specific, I recommend speaking to your doctor, and if your doctor is not certified in dealing with cannabis (as no standard MD will be), then find one who is. A non-cannabis certified MD will not know anything about it, and could very easily provide the wrong, and even harmful, information.

This is not pharmaceutical medicine and when looking for guidance, understand where to look. While a naturopathic doctor is always preferable – as this is their specific field of study – an MD with active cannabis certification is a close second. If your medical issue is less specific, or you are already more informed on how to treat it, give our product reviews a read-through to see if anything sounds good to you.

While we are not medical professionals here at CBDtesters, we are happy to provide any information we can on the use of cannabis, CBD, and the newest and best products out there. We promote healthful ways of solving medical problems, and encourage our readers to find the right cannabis products for them. Please see our product reviews for further information.

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Aside From Cannabis, Where Else Can You Find Phytocannabinoids?

With all this attention on various cannabinoids and their medicinal benefits, the new question being asked is where else it can be found? The answer seems to be that in nature, phytocannabinoids abound!

CBD – cannabidiol – is one of many phytocannabinoids that is generally associated with the cannabis plant. Much like its counterparts THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol), CBN (Cannabinol), CBG (Cannabigerol), and CBC (Cannabichromene), and as of yet to a greater degree, CBD has been the focus of intense medical research into different properties.

Researchers are looking at their ability to help with depression, sleep issues, anxiety, pain management, as an aid in dealing with inconsistent blood sugars, cholesterol issues, addiction, digestive issues, as an anti-cancer agent, and so on. There are so many applications, and possible applications, of these cannabinoids that it’s almost mindboggling.

With all this attention on cannabinoids, and with them showing to be a better option than standard pharmaceutical treatments for many issues, and often with less side effects (think phytocannabinoids as an alternative to pain killers like opiates which are wreaking such havoc on the American population that the industry has instituted all new laws in its effort to curb the growing addiction problem they’ve created), it’s understandable that the question of where else it can be found would be asked. And what about similar compounds, where can they be found, and how might they be beneficial?

When thinking about this topic, and going through the research, it’s best to first remember that this is plant medicine, not pharmaceutical medicine. In plant medicine – or naturopathic medicine – it is already well understood that the same or similar compounds can be found in multiple places, as plants of different families can often be structurally similar. That cannabinoids could be found elsewhere is not a once in a blue moon occurrence at all, but rather a very real expectation in the world of plant medicine.

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The Research Says…

In this 2010 study looking into the topic of cannabinoids that exist in other places, investigators first looked at the definition of a cannabinoid to establish what they were looking to find. The definition at that time was that they were “the terpenophenolic constituents of Cannabis sativa L” which, it points out, were until recently the only known molecules to directly interact with cannabinoid receptors, and only found in the cannabis plant.

It goes on to state that in more recent years, other non-cannabinoid plants have been found to have constituents that also interact with those receptors. Due to these findings, the investigators on this study used this definition for phytocannabinoids: “any plant-derived natural product capable of either directly interacting with cannabinoid receptors or sharing chemical similarity with phytocannabinoids or both.” The general term for when a compound is similar to a cannabinoid without actually being a cannabinoid, is cannabimimetic.

The investigators looked at different compounds when doing this study. Here are some of the basic findings:

  • Fatty Acid Derivatives – While it was already understood that some plant compounds like N-acylethanolamines, won’t interact with cannabinoid receptors, they have been shown to have other effects which in turn were shown to affect the endocannabinoid system, thus making an indirect connection. Compounds found in foods like chocolate and herbs like Echinacea have been found to contain compounds that have this indirect effect leading the investigators to say “it has been proposed that certain dietary fatty acids, which can also be found in plants, can modulate the ECS by influencing the availability of phospholipid biosynthetic precursors of endocannabinoids.” These compounds aren’t phytocannabinoids in the way we generally think about them but can indirectly affect the endocannabinoid system.
  • Terpenes – One of the most interesting is β-caryophyllene found in the essential oils of cloves, rosemary, hops, black pepper, and cannabis as well, and which has been shown to selectively target CB2 receptors. In testing, this compound showed high anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in mice. Another, salvinorin A, found in salvia, may interact with cannabinoid receptors, which may be formed during inflammatory conditions.

The investigators on this study found that though they haven’t found in nature as many compounds that can activate CB1 receptors, they have found a great deal that interact with CB2 receptors. This implies that while the psychomodulatory effects are less easily identified in nature, the more therapeutic benefits associated with CB2 receptors (anti-pain, anti-inflammation etc.) can be found more easily.

A study done in 2012 looked at flax fiber and found a new terpenoid compound that was not known about before. While the linseed and oil of flax have been studied quite a bit, the fiber was not until more recently. The new compound found has been described as cannabinoid-like, with the closest comparison being CBD. This compound was found to influence anti-inflammatory responses in mice and fibroblasts (which make up connective tissue) in humans.

The new evidence suggests flax as a source for biologically active compounds similar to phytocannabinoids that are able to positively influence immunological response. The implications of it are interesting in that CBD itself is not hurt in the industrial process of fabric making, and these compounds seem not to be either, leading the way for flax fabrics to be used in wound dressing.

In 2017, a study was done looking at the connection between omega-3 fatty acids and cannabinoids. While we know that omega 3’s aren’t actually cannabinoids, these research findings indicate a large number of chemical processes that internally convert omega-3 fatty acids into endocannabinoids (cannabinoids naturally produced in the body), and that this might help explain the anti-inflammatory aspects of omega-3 acids. The research in general shows how omega-3’s can produce some of the same medicinal effects as marijuana, but without the high.

When looking into this topic, the research actually goes back further than expected. As early as 1979 a study was done on the South African flowering plant family known as Helichrysum. The study found eleven resorcinol derivatives, with the majority being closely related to CBG (cannabigerol). Resorcinol is an organic compound found in plants and can be made from resin or prepared synthetically. Finding the CBG-like compounds was surprising for the investigators who at that time assumed that at least some of them were formed through a combination of different biological processes.

Another plant that comes up in research a lot is liverwort. In fact, according to research from 2002 regarding New Zealand liverwort (Radula marginata), a new cannabinoid type was found called perrottetinenic acid, as well as known cannabinoid perrottetinene. Perrottetinenic acid is more structurally similar to THC. This is the first time such compounds have been isolated from Radula marginata, though similar cannabinoids have been found in close relative Radula perrottetii already.

While chocolate was briefly mentioned before, it deserves a bit more of a mention here. The study referenced a lot on this topic was done in 1996, with nothing more recent easily available. In this particular study the investigators were able to isolate anandamide from the chocolate. Anandamide is a lipid that binds to cannabinoid receptors and actually mimics the psychoactive effects. In fact, it is widely believed that chocolate can enhance the effects of marijuana for this reason. This might, in fact, explain the oft experienced chocolate craving. One implication of this finding is that chocolate may reduce the amount of cannabis that a person needs medicinally.

Anandamide – The “Bliss” Molecule of the Endocannabinoid System

Speaking of anandamide, chocolate is not the only place it can be found in the plant world. Another plant producer of this compound is truffles. In a 2014 study it was found that truffles depend on melanin for their reproductive elements to mature. Knowing this, the scientists considered that since anandamide is responsible for melanin synthesis in normal human skin, that it might be present in truffles, and they confirmed this assumption as well as finding endocannabinoid system metabolic enzymes.

One of the more interesting implications of this research is that the endocannabinoid-binding receptors may have developed after anandamide and endocannabinoid system metabolic enzymes, and that anandamide might have been used in the ancient world by plants to attract truffle eaters which  already had an endocannabinoid system.

Where should you get your cannabinoids?

The world of cannabinoids is much bigger than just cannabis or CBD. In fact, it might be quite possible in the future for interested persons to get their fix without consuming any part of the cannabis plant at all. As research continues into where to find cannabinoids and cannabimimetic compounds, we’ll be sure to keep you updated on the best possible applications and products.

For now, until the product market catches up to the medical research, best to buy high quality CBD oils, CBD flowers, CBD isolates, and other relevant CBD products and phytocannabinoids.

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Cannabinoids 101 – Spotlight on CBN (Cannabinol)

If you’ve been following recent updates in cannabis research, you’ve probably noticed there has been a lot of talk about new cannabinoids lately.

Everyone knows about the two major players – CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) – but now it’s time for some of the minor cannabinoids to shine. Today, CBN (cannabinol) is in the spotlight.

Just like every other plant compound, this cannabinoid has unique properties and carries its weight when it comes to medicinal benefits. So let’s take a closer look at CBN.

What is CBN?

CBN is a phytocannabinoid that becomes prevalent as the cannabis plant ages. It actually originates from THC, so as your flowers are exposed to the elements (oxygen and heat), THC molecules begin converting into CBN.

Freshly cured buds, the ones that are typically more sought after, are generally very low in cannabinol. Older, dry flower that’s been sitting around for a while will have much higher levels of this cannabinoid. That said, letting your buds dry out until they’re barely desirable is not necessarily the best way to get CBN, although it’s probably the easiest.

CBN can also be manufactured in a lab from THC that’s extracted from fresh cannabis plants. More and more brands are beginning to utilize this compound to create tinctures, edibles, and softgels. There are numerous medical benefits to using CBN, although there is often a lot of false advertising associated with this cannabinoid (more on that later).

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What are the medical benefits of CBN?

Cannabinol has many of the same benefits as CBD and THC, however, it’s believed that CBN might be more effective for treating certain ailments than the aforementioned cannabinoids. They can also be combined for a more potent, entourage effect.

Bear in mind that studies on CBN are very limited, even by industry standards. But since this cannabinoid is non-intoxicating and can be sourced from old cannabis that may not have any other valuable use, it’s an important compound to continue exploring. That said, let’s discuss what the existing research does have to say about it.

  • Antibacterial – CBN can be a potent antimicrobial. Researchers found that it effectively killed 3 different strains of MRSA – a type of staph bacteria that’s become dangerously resistant to traditional antibiotic medications.
  • Neuroprotectant – In a rodent study, researchers discovered that could be used to delay the onset of ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease), as well as treat existing cases. ALS is a nervous system disorder that weakens the muscles.
  • Appetite Stimulation – Rats exposed to CBN increased the amount of food they ate per sitting – AKA, the munchies. The implication here is that CBN can be used to boost appetite in situations where a patient can’t use THC, whether for legal reasons or to avoid intoxication.
  • Glaucoma – A study on rabbits found that CBN reduces ocular pressure, which is the root cause of vision loss from glaucoma. THC has this same effect on the eyes. While CBN hasn’t yet been shown to be more effective than pharmaceutical drugs, it could be a viable natural alternative for those who want to minimize their use of standard medications.
  • Anti-Inflammatory – Just like pretty much every other cannabinoid, CBN seems to be a worthwhile anti-inflammatory agent. A study on mice showed that CBN could reduce arthritis, as well as other conditions stemming from inflammation.

Over the next few years, we can expect to learn a lot more about CBN and what kind of impact this cannabinoid will have on human medicine.

Sleep Aid.. or not?

If you have heard of CBN already, it’s likely that you’ve seen it promoted as a sleep agent or sedative. I really couldn’t tell you why it’s marketed this way, but research doesn’t seem to fall in line with this particular claim.

What Are The Best CBD Hemp Flowers For Sleep?

“We found that CBN slightly prolongs the sleep time in
barbiturate-induced sleep in mice. There is no current information that I am
aware of that proves CBN is a sedative, even though it is already being
marketed as such,” says Zoe Sigman one of the principal researchers
at Project CBD,
in an interview with Forbes.

Anyone feeling drowsy after smoking older cannabis is likely feeling this way because of residual amounts of THC remaining in the buds. It’s also possible that CBN and THC have synergistic effects when consumed together, meaning the CBN might actually boost the effects of the lower levels of THC.

Will it get you high?

There is some confusion about whether or not cannabinol will have intoxicating effects. The answer is; it depends. If you’re consuming products with CBN that has been completely isolated from the other plant compounds, then no, CBN alone won’t get you high. However, when combined the THC, CBN can actually increase the psychoactive effects, making one feel stoned from flowers that might not actually have that much THC anymore.

This is because of a process known as the Entourage Effect. Simply put, the entourage effect refers to the way different compounds in the cannabis plant interact with each other, and thus, how these combinations have different effects on the body.

Within the cannabis plant you will find:

  • Cannabinoids: Naturally occurring compounds, such as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), CBD (cannabidiol), CBN (cannabinol), etc., that interact with the endocannabinoid system in mammals.
  • Terpenes: A diverse group of organic compounds found in most plants that give them their specific fragrances.
  • Flavonoids: These are important antioxidants that give plants their pigments and attract pollinator animals. In cannabis they’re referred to as cannaflavins.

Cannabis has hundreds of different therapeutic compounds, most of which are stripped out when using products that contain cannabinoid isolates. This isn’t to imply that individual cannabinoids aren’t beneficial, because they certainly are; and in specific cases it can be advantageous to treat patients with only one compound. Isolated compounds are also required for use in pharmaceuticals and they’re better for research purposes.

However, there are many instances where a patient could  from the synergy of whole plant medicine. The most popular way to reap the benefits of the entourage effect is by simply smoking the buds. However, there are numerous extracts and products on the market thee days that retain a great amount of naturally-occurring compounds.

Where to find CBN products

As a consumer, there are two ways you can get CBN products. First, probably your initial go-to will be to look online for a reliable retailer that sells these kinds of products. There are a few these days, but you’ll have to make sure their products are lab-tested and the company is well-reviewed.

Second, you can set aside a few buds out of your stash next time you re-up and just let nature take its course. At the moment, there’s no established timeline for when your flowers will become CBN-dominant. If it’s gotten to the point that the buds are dry and powdery, and you don’t feel much of a high anymore, it’s safe to wager that you now have CBN flowers.  

If you’re in the B2B sector, we have partnered with some of the top companies in the world to offer you wholesale deals on kilos of cannabis and hemp extracts. We have CBN distillate and isolate available. It’s EU (European Union) GMP-certified and listed in the Eudra Database. We ship globally. This can be used to make legal, medicinal products, supplements, and cosmetics.

Click here to buy CBN isolate and distillate.

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Monday, January 27, 2020 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News

Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Monday, January 27, 2020 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// Trump Says Marijuana Makes People ‘Lose IQ Points’ In Secret Recording (Forbes)

// Cuomo amends marijuana legalization plan, but not enough yet for lawmakers (Buffalo News)

// Missouri licenses 192 medical marijuana dispensaries (Marijuana Business Daily)

These headlines are brought to you by MJToday Media, publishers of this podcast as well as our weekly show Marijuana Today and the most-excellent Green Rush Podcast. And check out our new show Weed Wonks!

// Aphria Lands $100 Million Investment From Single Institutional Investor (New Cannabis Ventures)

// Massachusetts to sell $900 million worth of weed in 2020, says analyst (Market Watch)

// Cannabis REIT Raises $217 Million with Equity Offering (New Cannabis Ventures)

// CSU Grad Who Owns Medical Marijuana Company Grants $1.5 Million Toward School’s Cannabis Research (CBS Denver)

// Cannabis Industry: 2020 Predictions (Forbes)

// Adult use ‘permit’ to be removed from USVI cannabis bill (Vibe High)

// I Saw the Future Standing in Line for Weed in Illinois. Then I Drove Back to the Past. (Esquire)

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Marijuana Today— Our flagship title, a weekly podcast examining the world of marijuana business and activism with some of the smartest people in the industry and movement.
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Photo: Joe Flood/Flickr

Newest Cannabinoid Powerhouse – CBC – What Can It Do for You?

The ever-increasing cannabinoid family has new members coming in every day, and there’s reason to be excited as new research comes out about CBC.

In the last couple of years, CBD (cannabidiol) – a cannabis cannabinoid, has risen to prominence as an effective treatment for many suffering from medical issues like insomnia, anxiety, pain, depression, seizures, high blood sugars, pathogenic diseases, ADHD etc., and a possible answer to many other issues that still require more research like: different forms of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and even prion diseases. It seems like every day a new breakthrough is coming out about the use of CBD as a treatment.

It’s easy to forget that CBD, along with THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) – the main cannabinoid of cannabis plants – are just two of the possibly hundreds of cannabinoids that are present in cannabis plants. In fact, by now, well over 100 cannabinoids have been identified, and each one – though sometimes only appearing in extremely small concentrations – has its own medicinal benefits. One of these lesser known cannabinoids that is starting to make it into the mainstream is CBC, or Cannabichromene.

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What is CBC?

Cannabichromene, which also goes by the names cannabichrome, pentylcannabichromene, cannabinochromene, and cannanbichromene is a phytocannabinoid that is structurally similar to other cannabinoids like THC, CBD and CBN, and the second most prevalent cannabinoid in cannabis.

Much like other cannabinoids, CBC does not actually start out as CBC, but rather as cannabichromenic acid, and is produced over time through decarboxylation. CBC is non-psychoactive, and interacts with the endocannabinoid system differently than both THC and CBD in that it only poorly binds to the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the brain.

In 2019, a study was done looking into the often misunderstood mechanisms of action of CBC, which found that CBC acts as a selective CB2 receptor agonist. As of yet it has not undergone scheduling by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances meaning it is legal to use as of now.

What does the research say about CBC?

The isolation of new cannabinoids means all new
avenues of medical research to go down. The studies on CBC, in fact, go back as
far as a 1981 study that tested the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and
antifungal properties of CBC in rats. According to the research, CBC showed anti-inflammatory
effects superior to phenylbutazone,
an NSAID anti-inflammatory/pain medication. It also showed to be a strong antibacterial
agent and a mild to moderate antifungal.

Then, in a 2006, study into the anti-tumor effects of cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabidiol acid and THC acid, it was found that while CBD had a more expected effect on the inhibition of certain tumor growth in rats, the other cannabinoids tested, including CBC, did as well, leading investigators to point in the direction of further testing of cannabinoids for cancer treatment.

$2 Million Going To Cannabis Cancer Research Led By Professor Mechoulam

In 2010 there was a study investigating how CBD and CBC effect activity of the descending pathway of antinociception in anesthetized rats. It was found that both cannabinoids produce an antinociceptive response by interacting with various targets involved in pain control. A less complicated way of saying this is that both CBD and CBC were found to help alleviate pain caused by nerve damage by the ability to block the detection of pain by sensory neuron cells.

It was looked at again in 2012 as an inhibitor of
inflammation induced hyper motility in rats. The investigators were looking at
CBC as a way to control, or inhibit, the overactive digestive tracts in rats
that was caused as a result of inflammation. The results showed a positive correlation between CBC and the normalization of
intestinal motility.

In the 2013 study, The effect of cannabichromene on adult neural stem/progenitor cells, three different phytocannabinoids were looked at in reference to adult neural stem progenitor cells in rats. These cells are similar to stem cells, but more specified, and play a large role in brain function and overall pathology, making them very important. CBC was found to have a positive effect when looking at the viability of adult neural stem progenitor cells in vitro, indicating neural protective qualities.

An interesting systematic review from 2017 investigated the use of cannabinoids including CBC for the treatment of several different pathogenic diseases. The conclusion was important in that though it showed the use of cannabinoids and the elicitation of the endocannabinoid system to be useful in treating many issues, it also pointed to the idea that simply making the assumption that cannabinoids can help with all issues related to a problem, is quite insufficient.

‘This review was able to point to incidences in research where the application of cannabinoids and the elicitation of the endocannabinoid system was not beneficial, and possibly harmful. While this does not in any way undo, or take away from, the possible positive benefits, it does act as a reminder that it’s important to do thorough investigations that do, indeed, look at everything, and to remember that medications – whether plant-based or pharmaceutical – are often specific to a particular problem, and often times cannot be generalized past that.

shows similar properties to other cannabinoids in its anti-inflammatory, pain
management, neuroprotectant, pathogenic disease fighting, anti-tumor, and
stomach settling properties. Much like CBD and THC, the research into this
compound is ongoing, with new applications coming out all the time. CBC has
been shown in studies to both work alone as a standalone treatment, and in
conjunction with other cannabinoids.

Cannabichromene and the Entourage Effect

Cannabinoids effect us therapeutically by interacting with the CB receptors in our bodies.

While CBD, and cannabis in general, have risen to mainstream medicine, they are different than standard pharmaceuticals because they fall into the category of plant-based medicine. When dealing with plant-based medicine it is often preferable to take just one part of a plant – for example, a cannabinoid like CBC – isolate it, and magnify it for its specific medicinal properties.

This can often be beneficial when a particular property of a plant has been found to treat a precise ailment. Sometimes that’s the best answer. Sometimes it’s not. When dealing with plant-based medicine, the entourage effect can be a powerful force. When looking up the entourage effect online these days, you’re likely to only see articles about cannabis, when in reality this idea is relevant to all plant medicine.

Plants are complicated structures made up of different substances. These substances can provide benefit on their own, or combine with other substances within to create an even more powerful response, we call this the entourage effect, but what it really is, is a full plant effect. Instead of focusing on one isolated part of the plant, it focuses on the combination of parts and the added benefit that these combinations can bring.

When dealing with cannabinoids like CBC, CBD, CBN, THC, etc., the idea of what they can do in concert is often more appealing than what they can accomplish in isolated form. In this 2019 systematic review, researchers took a look at years of research into cannabinoid isolation versus a cannabinoid entourage effect, and the many different applications of both.

They found when reviewing this research that often times the entourage effect far exceeds the effects of a single compound. In this review are examples of cannabis applications for microbial diseases, cancer treatments, anti-inflammatory treatments, anticonvulsant properties, and so on.

CBC Products

has yet to gain the overall popularity of THC or CBD. As medical research
continues to uncover useful benefits, more products and flowers are sure to
make it to the marketplace. As of right now, CBC can be found in hemp capsules
from different retailers, as an isolate, in oils, and in hemp flowers.

One of
the more well-known high-CBC flower strains is Three Kings: a sativa dominant
hybrid mixing Headband, OG Kush, and Sour Diesel. It has bright green flowers
with tons of trichomes, and an earthy taste of pine and citrus when smoked or

Be sure to search for the newest CBC products on the market. We’ll be sure to hook you up with the best new products as they emerge, while keeping you updated on all groundbreaking CBC news.

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CBG May Be A Leading Defense Against Drug-Resistant Superbugs

Preliminary research suggests that cannabigerol (CBG) may be the best cannabinoid to utilize in the fight against antibiotic-resistant superbugs like MRSA.

Microbiologists from Hamilton, Ontario’s McMaster University compared CBG against THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol) to see which compound was most capable of killing bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). As it turns out, CBG won by a landslide.

Not only did CBG kill the MRSA microbes, but also the remaining “biofilm” that often form on patients’ skin and medical implants. The scientists in this study even went so far as to say CBG was on par with vancomycin, an antiobiotic that so far has the best results in treating drug-resistant bacteria. The study is currently under peer review by the ACS Infectious Diseases journal, but has yet to be certified or published.

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Mark Blaskovich, who studies antibiotic
cannabis compounds at the University of Queensland and is reviewing the study, is
optimistic about this new discovery. He noted that cannabis plants are
particularly rich in antimicrobial compounds when compared to other botanicals
such as tea tree, garlic, and turmeric.

“These are likely made as a defense mechanism to protect the plant from bacterial and fungal infections, but to date have not been very useful for human infections as they really only work outside the body,” he said. “That’s what makes this new report potentially exciting – evidence that cannabigerol is able to treat a systemic infection in mice.”

Using Cannabigerol (CBG) To Destroy Tumors

However promising the results are though, it’s
important to remember that we’re only the beginning stages of research. Lead study author Eric Brown
noted that while cannabinoids are “clearly great drug-like compounds, far more
research is necessary before the results can be tested on human patients or
applied in medical settings.”

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Thursday, January 16, 2020 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News

Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Thursday, January 16, 2020 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// Congressional Hearing Exposes Marijuana Research Limitations Imposed By Federal Law (Marijuana Moment)

// New California-based marijuana strains drew a line around the block in Baltimore. Could more be coming (Baltimore Sun)

// Lawmakers Consider Ending Residency Requirement for Marijuana Workers (Denver Westword)

These headlines are brought to you by Green Worx Consults, a company specializing in project management, workflow mapping and design, and Lean & 6 Sigma process. If you could use help making your business better at business, get in touch with Green Worx Consults.

// Michigan pot shops sold $10 million worth of marijuana in first 6 weeks of legal weed (Detroit Free Press)

// Colorado Finally Files Bill to Protect Weed-Smoking Employees (Merry Jane)

// With a new CEO High Times looks to open dispensaries (Digiday)

// Vermont Governor Seems Open To Legalizing Marijuana Sales (Marijuana Moment)

// New Mexico Governor Calls For Marijuana Legalization In 2020 (Forbes)

// Curaleaf Upsizes Loan Facility To $300 Million Makes Progress in Utah (Green Market Report)

// 16% of cannabis vaping illnesses tied to store purchases CDC says (Marijuana Business Daily)

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Photo: Reizigerin/Flickr

Using Cannabigerol (CBG) To Destroy Tumors

Thanks to the 2018 farm bill and
increased awareness of the benefits of using cannabis and hemp, this plant is
once again being grown on a national scale. One of the most important aspects
of this is of course, the rapid rise of public interest in various cannabinoids.

Although CBD and THC lead the way when it comes to cannabis research, another compound is slowly making its way into the spotlight: CBG, or cannabigerol. Although studies on this cannabinoid are limited for the time being, it has enormous therapeutic potential. One of the most recent discoveries slates CBG as a powerful remedy for diminishing certain tumors.

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What is CBG?

CBGA was discovered in the  1960s by Israeli Professor, AKA the Father of
Cannabis Research, Raphael Mechoulam and one of his partners, Yehiel Gaoni. As
it turned out, CBGA, the version of CBG that still has its carboxyl acidy group
and can be found in completely raw cannabis plants, is one of the most important
cannabinoids in existence – it’s a precursor to all other cannabinoids. It has
since been rightfully dubbed, the Mother of All Cannabinoids.

Specifically, CBGA (cannabigerolic
acid) is a direct line to three main cannabinoids: tetrahydrocannabinolic acid
(THCA), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabichromenic acid (CBCA). Once
exposed to heat or light in process known as decarboxylation, THCA, CBDA, and
CBCA will shed their carboxyl acid group and become THC, CBD, and CBC,
respectively. When it comes to CBGA though, certain enzymes break it down and
it is immediately converted to THCA, CBDA, or CBCA. This is why more THC means
less CBG, because of the unique way these compounds interact and are

Because of this, plants that do covert
to CBG will have their highest cannabigerol content early in the flowering
stage. In most cultivars, if left to fully mature, almost all CBG will be
converted into other cannabinoids. However, as mentioned above, some hemp
strains naturally produce high amounts of CBG rather than CBD or THC.

Anti-Tumor Properties of CBG

A recent press release from Cannabics Pharmaceuticals Inc. announced last week that preliminary findings from their pre-clinical trials conducted in Israel show that CBG has greater anti-tumor effects than CBGA, the acidic from of cannabigerol. Specifically, CBG was found to have an impact on human stomach and bone cancer cell lines.  

According to the study, “the
HTS platform was utilized to screen the necrotic effects of
both CBG & CBGA on various types of cancer cell lines.
Interestingly, CBG was found to induce necrotic effects while
CBGA had no such effect. These findings further support previous research
performed by the company, which has consistently shown differential anti-tumor
effects when using a variety of cannabinoids on human cancer cells, derived
from both fresh biopsies and cell lines.”

This discovery could
open the door for Cannabics Pharmaceuticals to organize additional research
efforts, as well as eventually offer personalized cannabinoid therapy for patients
in the future.

Dr. Yaakov Waksman, the company’s Head of Cannabidiol
Research, had this to say on the subject: “CBG is gaining a lot of
interest as of late by the scientific community due to its potential
therapeutic properties. The recent preliminary findings from our research team
illustrate how purified cannabinoids can potentially yield anti-tumor activity
and enable us to examine the entourage effect of botanical extracts versus the
purified compounds. We are excited by these preliminary findings and plan to
perform additional experiments in the near future to further support

CBG’s Other Benefits

In addition to its anti-tumor
properties, CBG has many other potential medical benefits. Various studies on
this cannabinoid have uncovered its ability to be used as a neuroprotectant, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory
compound. Limited research also suggests that it can effectively treat
gastrointestinal disorders and glaucoma.

 found CBG to be beneficial in
the treatment of MRSA due to its antibacterial and antifungal properties. Its
neuroprotective properties, mentioned above, may help people with Huntington’s
disease, while further research has looked into its potential to treat bladder

CBG is also being used as a safe and effective
antidepressant and its effects mimic those of SSRI medications. It’s also
believed that CBG can boost production of the endocannabinoid Anandamide, which naturally
increases dopamine levels as well as regulates various functions such as sleep,
mood, and appetite.

How To Find CBG

Although some companies
are already advertising CBG oil for sale, the effectiveness (and safety) of these
products remains to be known. As of now, the most popular way to get your dose
of CBG is through good ole’ fashioned flowers. Although CBG-dominant flowers
are anything but old fashioned, the act of smoking of vaporizing natural
cannabis or hemp buds still remains to go-to method for most consumers.

Because this is a
relatively new trend, knowing where to find these flowers can be a challenge.
Of course, you want to find a company that has good quality buds for a
reasonable price. You also want them to be reliable and have good customer
service should an issue arise. Multiple hemp flower retailers are selling
different CBG strains on their websites, many of which have great reviews, but
it can still be difficult to know what is legit and what isn’t in today’s

This is why we’ve put together a couple of newsletters to help you find exactly what you’re looking for. If you’re a consumer, we have the CBD Flowers Weekly to bring you deals on all the best hemp flowers. If you’re buying flowers for resale, we’ve created the CBD Flowers Business Newsletter – a weekly subscription that has various pound and wholesale deals.

Subscribe to the newsletter of your choosing and check your email every Thursday morning to learn more about hemp flowers!

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Space Beckons For The Rocketing U.S. Hemp Industry

It’s safe to say the boom in U.S. hemp growing can now be described as being, literally ‘out of this world’.

For the first time hemp cultures are being fired into space to see how they react to a zero-gravity environment. Around 480 hemp and coffee cultures will be carried on Elon Musk’s SpaceX rocket for cultivation in the International Space Station.

Provided by Front Range Biosciences, their growth will be monitored remotely and they will returned to earth after one month for further analysis.

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‘New Space’ Research

One of the men behind the scheme told CBD Testers that the initiative could play a key role in the further rapid growth of the hemp and cannabis industry.

Peter McCullagh, CEO of SpaceCells USA, which is providing expertise, and funding for the project, said: “It’s the most disruptive force in the world today; Cannabis is moving more quickly than the tech industry…it will become a $2 trillion industry.”

Front Range, SpaceCells and BioServe Space Technologies at the University of Colorado, Boulder, are targeting a March 2020 blast-off on a SpaceX CRS-20 cargo flight.

In a press release the backers say the advent of private space travel has opened up a new area of research known as ‘new space’, which allows researchers to study the effects of microgravity on a variety of organisms.

With the earth’s climate subject to fluctuations the research will look at how crops can thrive in the scenario of shifting temperatures. BioServe says it will work with the NASA astronauts to execute the experiment, with the cultures will be monitored remotely from its payload operations center at the University of Colorado in Boulder. 

Dr. Jonathan Vaught, Co-Founder and CEO of Front Range Biosciences said science supports the theory that ‘plants in space experience mutations’. 

Hemp’s Rapid Growth

Vaught added further: “This is an opportunity to see whether those mutations hold up once brought back to earth and if there are new commercial applications.”  

SpaceCells is on the forefront of the commercialization of that research with Mr McCullagh adding: “These are big ideas we’re pursuing and there’s a massive opportunity to bring to market new Chemotypes, as well as Plants that can better adapt to drought and cold conditions.  We expect to prove through these and other missions that we can adapt the food supply to climate change.”

Since the introduction of the Farm Bill last year the U.S hemp industry has almost trebled in size and this exponential growth is set to continue over the coming years. The International Space Station is a $100 billion science and engineering laboratory that orbits 250 miles above Earth.

Permanently staffed it conducts research into space medicine, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and meteorology.

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