High Thoughts: Can I Overdose on Cannabis?

Cannabis is a drug with a plethora of effects and purposes. For centuries, different groups of people have harnessed this drug for its euphoric and medical benefits. Rastafarians use it in their religious practises to encourage oneness, the ancient Egyptians would inhale it from burning rocks during ceremonies and, now, people can utilise it for its medical purposes.

The world of cannabis is, undoubtedly, complex and varied. Not only that, but the effects can be positive for some, whilst negative for others. Nonetheless, usually one effect will take place for the majority. This effect is the ‘high thought’. High thoughts are triggered by cannabis and cannabis only. The specific kind of ideas and questions that pop into your head during a THC high are one of a kind. Some can be lighthearted and fun, or inquisitive, spiritual and sentient, or even sometimes anxious in nature. In this article, we’ll be exploring one of the latter, and one that is particularly common among novice users. This question being: can I overdose on cannabis? Let’s delve into the truth and myths behind it. 

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What are High Thoughts?

The types of thoughts that can come into someone’s head during a high are, in want of a better word, special. They can be limitless. They can be sad. They can be happy. They can be basically anything. However, the high questions that can really boggle people’s brains are what we’re going to be focusing on today. These are the types of questions that when they’re asked, leave the high person dumbfounded. It can also leave them in a state of existential crisis. But where do these come from and why are they triggered by cannabis?

Science Behind High Thoughts

Cannabis is first and foremost a natural growing plant. Whilst many creative products and ways of consuming it have been created over the years, it begins as a plant. This plant contains around 400 compounds, 100 of these being terpenes and 100 of these being cannabinoids. The terpenes are responsible for the aromas and flavours of the specific cannabis strain. For example, Myrcene can be slightly musky, Limonene often smells of lemon and Caryophyllene can give herbal scents. 

Then there are cannabinoids, which are responsible for the effects of cannabis. These include the well-known CBD and THC, as well as the lesser known THCV and CBN. As research improves, more information is being found out about the many various cannabinoids within the cannabis plant. The cannabinoids react with the endocannabinoid system in the body and can alter the immune system, mood, memory, the muscles and appetite. THC, which is the most prominent psychoactive cannabinoid, alters the state of the mind and triggers the well known ‘high’ experience. Common effects of THC include: 

  • Euphoria
  • Relaxation
  • Giggliness
  • Increased appetite 
  • Deep thought
  • Openness 

Deep Thoughts 

Deep thoughts or high thoughts are triggered by cannabis. But why? Why do we have deeper thoughts and questions when we’re high? Well, some argue that this is due to the relaxation caused by CBD, mixed with the brain enhancing effects of THC. When you consume cannabis, your body and mind relaxes, allowing you to focus on the thoughts you may have usually ignored or found unimportant. It’s these questions that can suddenly come to the surface. Trips, caused by psychedelic drugs, create crazy thoughts and hallucinations. However, whilst a cannabis high is less potent, it can still have those same deep thoughts and questions. It’s like your brain, for the first time, is allowed to stop working so quickly and sit with one idea or concept at a time. 

However, there’s also suggestions that your brain works harder when you’re experiencing a high. 

Maxim states:

Cannabis enhances neural activity in the frontal cortex of your brain, which is essentially command central. It handles everything from attention and problem solving, to personality and temperament.”

And Growth Op also adds:

“Involving 32 volunteers who reported having previous experiences with cannabis, they were given either a placebo, or two intravenous doses of THC. MRI scans showed increased cerebral blood flow in several regions of the brain when THC was injected, while the placebo group demonstrated no detectable change.”

Therefore, the reason for high thoughts is not completely known. Nevertheless, they most definitely occur. That’s why, in this article, we’ll be delving into one that may come up more often than people will like to admit. ‘Can I overdose on cannabis?’

Can I Overdose on Cannabis?

It’s not uncommon for someone to ask this question when they’re high. Afterall, when most news articles or drug education sites speak about drugs, they’ll usually mention a collection of horrible stories of overdose. These stories are all valid and devastating, but the weaponization of them to discourage drug use can sometimes be more political and sinister than people think. The truth is, young people will probably always be interested in exploring themselves and substances, so surely the main priority should be to educate them in using them safely rather than avoiding the topic altogether.

Cannabis is a schedule II drug in the US and a class B drug in the UK. It’s not surprising then that people often wonder whether cannabis could also cause an overdose. The answer is, of course, yes. But before answering this question, we will first need to define the concept of overdosing, as the education behind this word is often skewed. 

The Definition of Overdose

What does overdosing actually mean? With mass hysteria often surrounding the world of drugs, sometimes the real definition of this word can be easily forgotten. Well, according to the Cambridge dictionary, the definition is: 

“too much of a drug taken or given at one time, either intentionally or by accident

Many people will assume that drug overdose means fatality. Whilst this is a type of overdose, overdose can also refer to someone taking a drug and experiencing unpleasant effects. This is why it’s so important to first define what the word ‘overdose’ actually means, otherwise cannabis users may not understand why they don’t always enjoy using a specific strain of weed. Overdosing is basically taking too many drugs, beyond the point of enjoyment.

Myths Vs Facts

There are many myths surrounding the idea of cannabis overdose, which we are here to debunk. Firstly, it’s definitely possible for someone to have an unpleasant experience, whilst using cannabis. Therefore, with the definition being what it is, it is of course possible to overdose. However, VeryWellMind states:

Marijuana doesn’t come with a clear definition of overdose. In fact, doctors aren’t entirely sure how much tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) it takes to overdose.”

The only way to measure an overdose is to ask the consumer how they feel. If they begin to feel unpleasant effects, then, in a sense, they are experiencing an overdose. In addition, THC isn’t the only psychoactive substance and causer of a potential bad experience. There are many other psychoactive cannabinoids, which have yet to be fully researched. In fact, some of these are reported to even be stronger than THC

Risk of Unpleasant Effects

Overdosing and experiencing negative effects is definitely common when consuming cannabis. Some experience it heavier with strains consisting of higher percentages of THC. 

These effects include:

  • Increased heart rate
  • Vomiting 
  • Decrease in blood sugar
  • Anxiety
  • Paranoia 
  • Psychosis 

As we’ve said, any negative experience using cannabis can be referred to as an overdose. Overdose doesn’t always have to link to deaths. These after-effects are common, especially for people who are unsure how much to take and what their body reacts well to. In addition, with cannabis education being so limited in certain countries, many people don’t fully understand how various strains can react differently with certain people. 

Cannabis & Alcohol

It’s also common for people to experience worse effects when mixing cannabis and alcohol together. Ever heard the common phrase: ‘weed before grass you’re on your ass. Grass before beer you’re in the clear’. Well, there’s some truth to it. People often experience nausea and can ‘throw a whitey’ when mixing the two substances. This is because alcohol can enhance the effects of THC, making the entire experience far more potent. This type of overdose is hard to blame entirely on cannabis, as it’s actually alcohol that is responsible for increasing THC’s effects.

Can Cannabis Be Fatal?

Some only consider an overdose to mean death. As we’ve discovered, overdosing simply means having an unpleasant experience after consuming a substance. Nevertheless, this does of course include potential death. Methamphetamine, cocaine, and heroin use have all been surrounded by news of devastating fatalities. What about cannabis? Healthline states:

“Most medical experts agree that while marijuana can have negative health consequences, it’s unlikely to cause death. The psychoactive effects of marijuana can be concerning, but not necessarily harmful.”

Some argue that cannabis can have adverse long-term effects that can cause mental health issues, which could end in death. However, when it comes to an instant death overdose, cannabis is very unlikely to cause this. In fact, many people would argue that this has never happened. Nonetheless, it’s a long running debate. It is certainly true however that cannabis is not a drug – much like some stimulants and opioids – that can commonly cause death by overdose. 


High thoughts are a common part of being high. Many questions will pop into people’s heads and leave them wanting to know more. Well, in this article, we’ve tackled the age old question of cannabis overdose. It’s mostly important to realise that overdosing doesn’t always mean fatality. In fact, overdosing can just mean an unpleasant experience. Therefore the answer is yes. You can overdose on cannabis. But, if you do your homework, learn what you like, then your experience with cannabis should be full of joy, not displeasure.

Hello to everyone..! Thanks for dropping by CBDtesters.co, the #1 internet source for cannabis and psychedelics-related news, offering up current and relevant stories from the industry today. Join us daily to stay on top of the fast-paced universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletterso you never miss a single thing. 

Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post High Thoughts: Can I Overdose on Cannabis? appeared first on CBD Testers.

Is CBD Stronger When You Eat It, Like THC?

Every state with legal marijuana has limits set for the amount of THC in edible products, and this makes sense. Not only do edibles take a while to kick in (allowing for time to take too much), but when THC gets metabolized, it actually becomes a stronger compound. So what about CBD? Is CBD also stronger when you eat it, like THC?

If CBD is stronger when you eat it, we don’t know about it just yet. But we know that’s the case with THC, and that means if you’re eating edibles, you’re experiencing 11-hydroxy-THC. When it comes to cannabis, there are tons of options, even outside of standard THC. Now, users can try delta-8 THC, THCV, HHC, and more. It’s a new year, and a great time to try something different, so check out our deals to get your year flying right. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


Although we want to know if CBD is stronger when you eat it, it’s best to look at its half-brother delta-9 THC first. When I say half-brother, its because CBD and delta-9 share the same exact chemical formula of: C₂₁H₃₀O₂, but vary in the structure of their molecules, which provides for different effects from the two compounds. During research in the early-mid 1900’s, the difference between high-THC and low-THC cannabis wasn’t understood, or the role that CBD played, as neither had been isolated. In fact, discovering delta-9 THC was extremely difficult because scientists were often given hemp plants to work with out of confusion over where THC could be found.

CBD and delta-9 are what are called structural isomers because of the shared chemical formula. This means: “two or more organic compounds have the same molecular formulas but different structures.” There are different kinds of isomers that vary in different ways. Sometimes they are mirror opposites of each other, sometimes they are double bond stereoisomers like delta-9 and delta-8 which vary solely in the placement of a double bond, and sometimes there are other configurations as well.

Delta-9 THC is generally associated with getting high and psychoactive properties. In reality, though CBD is often considered non-psychoactive, this goes against the idea that it can be helpful with things like anxiety control and mood regulation. Though the idea of CBD causing some kind of high can be argued, it most certainly causes psychoactive effects, as those psychoactive effects are often the reason for taking CBD. This reputation of being non-psychoactive seems to be more in line with marketing campaigns used to separate CBD from THC in the minds of consumers. Or simply the confusion over what it means to be ‘high’, vs a ‘psychoactive’ effect.


THC when eaten

The whole question of whether CBD is stronger when you eat it, comes from the idea that delta-9 THC converts to a metabolite which is stronger, when its eaten. For anyone who was unaware, the type of THC that makes us high when we eat edibles, is actually a variation of the type of THC that makes us high when we smoke a joint or use a vape. This is because when delta-9 is eaten, it goes through the digestive tract and is broken down by the liver.

This breakdown converts C₂₁H₃₀O₂ (also the chemical formula for CBD, remember) into C21H30O3, also known as 11-hydroxy-THC. This slight tweak to the chemistry makes a world of difference in the THC experience. As explained by Leafly researcher Nick Jikomes:

“The real difference between edibles and smoking or vaping is that with edibles, a much larger fraction of Delta-9-THC makes it to the liver first. There it gets converted to 11-hydroxy-THC.” He goes on, “So in other words, if you smoke or vape, the ratio of 11-hydroxy-THC to Delta-9-THC is quite low, and if you take an edible it’s much higher.”

When smoked, delta-9 gets into the bloodstream through the alveoli of the lungs. As blood is water based, the THC doesn’t break down well in this way. It binds to endocannabinoid receptors instead, and isn’t metabolized by the liver in large amounts. However, when eaten it goes through the digestive tract, and binds to a glurononide compound to create 11-hydroxy-THC. This version of THC is more water soluble, and therefore better at crossing the blood-brain barrier and getting around the body. Many believe this is at least partly why 11-hydroxy-THC can seem more potent, and explains why edibles cause a different reaction.

How is 11-hydroxy-THC different? Well, for one thing, the process by which THC is metabolized, slows down the onset of effects, and it can take 1-3 hours to feel the full results. This is in contrast to a near immediate effect when smoking. The effects of smoking peak within 30-60 minutes and then peter down, whereas 11-hydroxy-THC can produce a high that lasts for 4-6+ hours before starting to fade out.

While judging potency can be a little difficult, a 1973 study compared the effects of equivalent one mg doses of delta-9 and 11-hydroxy-THC, which were given intravenously to casual smokers. It was found that 11-hydroxy produced a quicker and more intense reaction. Whether 11-hydroxy is actually more potent is hard to say, as some research points to the two compounds being comparable. Whether or not it produces stronger effects, it most certainly produces longer effects, and the feeling has been noted to be much more of a body high.

cannabis edibles

Is CBD stronger when you eat it?

All of this now brings up the question of whether CBD is also stronger when you eat it, like delta-9 THC. So to understand better, we’d need to take a look at what happens to CBD when its ingested. Truth is, there isn’t research at this point covering all aspects of the topic, which is probably why it doesn’t come up very often. Research, in the form of a systematic review, has pointed to half-life estimates for different routes of administration:

CBD in oromucosal spray produced a half-life of 1.4 – 10.9 hours, chronic oral administration made for a half-life of two–five days, IV CBD produced a half-life of 24 hours, and the average half-life for smoking it was 31 hours. Bioavailability for smoking was put around 31%, but no other administration method was investigated. It should be noted that though it doesn’t say anything about potency, oral administration also has a much longer half-life than smoking, which is similar to the elongated half-life of THC when eaten.

The main metabolite of THC when metabolized through the digestive tract, is 11-hydroxy-THC, although this exists along with tons of other metabolites that show up in smaller amounts. In terms of CBD, “Due to extensive Phase I metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of CBD is complex and the bioavailability of oral CBD is low across species. In general, the most abundant metabolites are hydroxylated 7-COOH derivatives of CBD that are excreted either intact or as glucuronide conjugates. The route of administration affects the pharmacokinetics of CBD and high intra- and intersubject variability is common in humans…”

The same study goes on to point out: “In an early study with healthy volunteers who were given 20 mg [3H]CBD by intravenous injection, 7-COOH-CBD was the most abundant metabolite in the plasma, while 7-OH-CBD was only a minor biotransformation product (in the original publication, the compounds are referred to as 11-carboxy-CBD and 11-hydroxy-CBD, respectively).”

This is interesting because 11-hydroxy-CBD is the equivalent metabolite of 11-hydroxy-THC, the stronger (or at least longer lasting) form of THC. Is this CBD metabolite also more intense, or does it provide a different effect? Is it even the reason for the longer half-life when eaten? Honestly, hard to say from what’s online. This demonstrates the still large black hole that exists in the cannabis research world.

If a comparable metabolite of delta-9 provides stronger (or at least different/longer) effects than delta-9, then wouldn’t we want to know the same about CBD metabolites? Perhaps 11-hydroxy-CBD – whether coming with different effects or not, doesn’t show up in large enough quantities to make a difference anyway. What we can see from half-lives, is that something similar must be happening with CBD as with THC, because the half-life is elongated when eaten. What this means exactly though? Jury is out.

Into the future…

CBD edibles

I find it interesting that while we know delta-9 converts in the body to 11-hydroxy-THC, that less has been examined regarding CBD’s counterpart 11-hydroxy-CBD, or the other CBD metabolites formed. In my mind, the immediate question is, is there a different or more intense form of CBD which is created when CBD is metabolized? If so, it could provide new ways of using CBD for treatment.

While the medical world likes to seem sure of itself to consumers, when looking closely into a topic like this, it becomes clear how many black holes there are. This makes sense as research into these compounds was stymied for so long due to prohibition antics, and also makes clear the need to not create these black holes again, by keeping research veins open on topics of concern. Had research bans not been instated, we might have had the answer to this question already.

CBD might not be the cure-all it was originally touted as, but it sure does come with some great benefits. With research re-opening on these topics, we can finally start to catch up to where we should have already been. And part of that is establishing exactly what happens to CBD when ingested in different ways, and whether active metabolites are formed that can change the way we use the compound.


This topic does best to highlight the need for further research into the idea of whether CBD is stronger when you eat it, or when its taken in any specific way. It also highlights the need to not shut off research topics, and to always keep moving forward in terms of information collection and use.

Welcome! Thanks for joining us at CBDtesters.co, your one-stop-shop for the most important and thought-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news around the world. Check us out daily to stay aware of the ever-changing world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletter, to ensure you never miss a single story.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Is CBD Stronger When You Eat It, Like THC? appeared first on CBD Testers.

Rhode Island 1st State to Open Safe Use Sites for Drugs

You read it right! No, it’s not a real legalization, or even decriminalization. But for two years, Rhode Island is operating a pilot program with safe use sites that allows legal drug use. What will come after is hard to say, but for now, here are some details of this kind of cool – and necessary – new legislative move.

The new Rhode Island policy for safe use sites is meant to target extreme drug users. Luckily, cannabis doesn’t cause overdose deaths, so while smokers can take advantage of the sites, they don’t have the same concerns as opioid users. In fact, cannabis is often eyed as a tool for harm reduction from major drugs. But its also just a great plant that provides tons of useful compounds, not just standard THC. These days, there are tons of options available, so remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!

Rhode Island to open safe use sites for legal drug use

Rhode Island isn’t a legalized state, though its certainly known to be a more liberal one. While 18 states have legal recreational cannabis (which should be 19), Rhode Island isn’t immediately going in that direction. But it is doing something very forward thinking and cool. Especially considering that there are major drug issues in America, which are causing massive death rates. Though these issues don’t involve cannabis, what Rhode Island is doing will help out cannabis users as well.

On Wednesday, July 7th, 2021, Rhode Island’s governor, Dan McKee signed into law a bill designed to combat the ongoing and growing opioid epidemic. This issue can be seen in Rhode Island, as well as the rest of the US, and around the world as well in smaller amounts. The new Rhode Island bill is a two-year pilot program aimed at preventing overdosing by providing safe injection/safe use sites. Rhode Island recorded 384 overdose deaths in 2020, and 322 through November of 2021. These sites will focus mainly on helping those who inject heroin and methamphetamine.

Rhode Island is the first US state to adopt a policy that allows legal drug use in designated areas as part of this two-year pilot program. This policy was not instituted with the thought of cannabis in mind, even if it proves useful to cannabis smokers. What the pilot program is most intended for, is providing a way for the hardest of drug users, using the most dangerous of drugs, to have a safe place to get high around professionals who can help if there is a problem.

safe use sites

What will the Rhode Island safe use sites entail?

These safe use sites, also known as “harm reduction centers,” and “safe injection sites”, will provide clean needles, drug testing, and other services like recovery assistance. Each site is to be staffed by medical/qualified personnel, who are trained in CPR, overdose protocols, and the administration of drugs like naloxone, an opioid antagonist. Each site will have all the necessary supplies to carry out these functions. Sites will operate under the control of a medical director to oversee clinical practices, and a harm reduction center director who oversees the administrative management of the location.

Apart from all this, the sites will function partly as social services, providing referrals for housing, employment, and legal assistance, if necessary, while also offering basic health services. Each center is required to report deaths and overdoses to the medical director as well as to the state Department of Health, with a mandate to report all overdoses and other causes of death within 24 hours. Non-fatal overdoses must be reported within 48 hours of the time they occurred.

All sites in Rhode Island must get licensing from the state, and an approval from the city or town in which the site will operate. Mobile units will exist as well, and must provide very specific schedules for where they will be including complete addresses and operation times. Licenses can be denied to operators, suspended if there are issues, or completely revoked if regulators see fit.

One of the interesting things to be offered at these sites, is drug testing. But not the kind of drug testing most are used to. This isn’t drug testing to see if someone used something, but a way to actually test the drugs about to be taken, particularly for the presence of fentanyl. Fentanyl is an extremely strong opioid drug which people take on purpose, but which is also often a reason for accidental overdose due to it being used as an adulterant in other drugs.

Is this new?

This is new for the US, yes, since no other programs like this currently exist. Detractors like Arthur Corvese, a Democratic Rhode Island State Representative, called the idea a ‘moral oxymoron’ since legal use is now going to be permitted in an otherwise illegal state. The idea of encouraging such legal use of illegal drugs has been criticized by opponents, who believe this will somehow increase crime in surrounding areas…although I haven’t seen an explanation of how this is thought to be the case.

In reality, outside of America, this isn’t new at all. And not only that, while detractors shoot their mouths off to a US audience which is probably unaware of comparable programs in other countries, those comparable programs have already been cited for their positive influence on drug using culture. Something that Americans should really be informed on, and considering in this.

drug overdose

Canada, Australia, and different parts of Europe, for example, have cumulatively opened around 100 comparable safe-use sites. The Netherlands has the largest number, with just under 40 locations. Its first was opened in 1996, and the country was able to reduce overdose deaths by ensuring users were getting pure heroin, rather than a heroin/fentanyl mix. Canada’s first site opened in 2003, in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver where there are many IV drug users.

Canada, between 2017-2019 alone had around two million visits to safe use sites. The country had 39 sites open as of last year, with an expected daily visitor amount of 3,000 people. The busiest sites in Canada can have up to 500 visits a day, according to Health-Infobase.  

Will this happen elsewhere in America?

Opioid overdoses are a massive issue in the US, and this is not debatable, even if specific numbers are. For example, in 2019 hhs.gov, said there were close to 71,000 overdose deaths, whereas drugabuse.gov, put the number at 50,000. Either way, it’s a ridiculous number of avoidable deaths. hhs.gov provided more statistics, saying there were 14,480 heroin overdoses that year, over 10 million people misusing pain killers, and 48,000 synthetic opioid deaths. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, total opioid overdose deaths went up to 93,000 in 2020.

It gets grosser. In 2017, over 191 million opioid prescriptions were written out in the US, meaning that 58.7 prescriptions were written for every 100 people. 45% of these were given by primary care physicians who are not supposed to write such prescriptions at all. The economic burden of this epidemic in terms of health care, emergency care services, addiction programs, lost productivity, and dealing with the criminal justice system, costs about $78.5 billion every year. Who do you think pays for that? That’s right, the same taxpayers who were put on these pharmaceutically pushed medications that the government allows through regulation, now have to pay for the damage they’re doing.

So, yes, these sites will likely be popping up all over the place in the future. In fact, this was not the first try. Back in 2020, Philadelphia went ahead with plans to open Safehouse, a safe injection site. This was ruled against in January, 2021, by the Philadelphia-based U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, stymieing the effort.

However, seven months later, the nonprofit behind the venture was already pushing back legally, announcing in the summer of 2021 that it would be filing a petition to take the case to the Supreme Court. Unfortunately, the US Supreme Court refused the case (likely something it will be sticking its foot in its mouth for later), in October, 2021.

safe use

This hasn’t deterred proponents, who are planning on relaunching the case at the district court level, with new arguments. Given Rhode Island passing this legislation, and increasing opioid deaths, I expect this time it will go through. While that’s just my opinion for now, that California and Massachusetts are also currently considering plans to implement a similar structure, indicates that this is actually a new trend being established in the fight against opioid addiction.


The whole thing is horrifying if you take a step back. The government fully approved and allowed these medications to be sold, and then didn’t respond to its people dying. In fact, it still hasn’t stopped the ability to write prescriptions for these medications. In fact, prescriptions haven’t gone down at all.

So not only did the government support – and is continuing to support – its people being killed by big pharma, but it’s working to stymie any progress in the fight against it, least of all anything related to helping citizens be safer with their pharmaceutically-induced drug issues. So here’s to Rhode Island, for being the first state to start the process of recovery through safe use sites, and for giving access to safe ways to use drugs for those who need it. No thanks to the federal government at all.

Hello and welcome to CBDtesters.co, the internet’s one-stop-shop for all the most relevant and ground-breaking cannabis and psychedelics-related news going on worldwide. Stop by regularly to stay informed on the quickly-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletter, so you’re the first to get all the news.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Rhode Island 1st State to Open Safe Use Sites for Drugs appeared first on CBD Testers.

2022 Predictions for the Delta-8 THC Industry

The new year is upon us, and that means a restart to the business year, and all new things to look forward to. What will happen this year? Sure hard to say at the moment, but every new year comes with new stories of legalizations, court cases, innovative products, events, and medical findings. What about our newly discovered cannabinoids market? Here are some 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC and the rest of the lot.

My 2022 prediction for delta-8 THC is that the market will survive the year just fine. If you’re looking to try out delta-8 THC and the rest of the cannabinoids, you can do so, even outside of legal markets. In fact, since these products exist outside of regulation, you can buy them online as well. We’ve got great offers for the new year, so check out our deals to find your perfect product. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!

What is delta-8 THC and the cannabinoids market?

If we’re getting into 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, best to know what we’re talking about first. Delta-8 THC is a naturally occurring isomer of delta-9 THC, which means they have the same chemical formula, but a different chemical structure. They are double bond stereoisomers since they vary only in the placement of a double bond.

While the exact way that delta-8 THC shows up naturally is still only theorized, its expected that delta-8 is a less-occurring degradant of delta-9, making up a tiny percentage, which doesn’t become CBN (the main degradant). Delta-8 is more stable than delta-9, having already oxidized, which gives it a longer shelf-life. Delta-8 occurs only in tiny amounts, and though it does show up on its own, it doesn’t in big enough quantities for product production. Thus, to be used in products, delta-8 must be made from delta-9 THC or from CBD, both of which require some amount of synthetic processing.

Perhaps none of this would matter, but delta-8, with its double bond on the eighth carbon atom, seems to have slightly different benefits from delta-9, which can make it preferable to some users. For example, it’s said that delta-8 causes less anxiety than delta-9, which is great for users who have an issue with this. It’s also said that it causes a more clear-headed high, which is slightly less intense than a delta-9 high, and without the couch-locking of standard weed. Medical patients especially, who want treatment without a cloudy head, may find delta-8 a better option.


You’ll notice, when I mentioned 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, that I included the rest of the cannabinoid offerings. Along with delta-8 THC, a range of other synthetically produced cannabinoids have been making it to the unregulated cannabis market.  This includes THCV, CBN, THC-O-A, HHC, and a bunch of others with varying letters to denote their similar-to-THC chemical makeup.

Why are we talking about delta-8 and other cannabinoids?

Also before getting into 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, its best to know why we’re talking about it, since the whole reason we’re talking about it, can be a reason why the current situation might change. Delta-8 THC is produced under the misconception of legality due to the 2018 US Farm Bill, a misconception that seems to be spurred along by the industry itself, likely in an attempt to continue to sell products without regulation.

The 2018 US Farm Bill legalized the production of industrial hemp only, by simply changing the definition of ‘hemp’ in order to separate it from the rest of cannabis. ‘Hemp’ now refers to lower-THC cannabis, while ‘marijuana’ refers to higher-THC cannabis. Both the US and Europe make the cutoff at .3% THC by dry weight as the divider.

This new definition for hemp, which has led to this mass confusion in the press (but which is soundly understood by any legal professional), is: “The plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of the plant, whether growing or not, including the plant’s seeds, and all the plant’s derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomers, acids, salts, and salts of isomers, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.”

The 2018 Farm Bill moved regulation of hemp from the FDA to the USDA, but retained FDA oversight for medicines, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages, meaning anytime a compound is sold for any of these purposes, it requires a pass through the FDA. As such, even CBD in supplements and food products, is not legal, let alone delta-8 and the rest of the cannabinoid crew.

This is partly because synthetics weren’t legalized by the Farm Bill either, meaning once a synthetic process is used to create a compound, it no longer fits under the definition of hemp. Synthetics of Schedule I substances (like delta-9) are also considered Schedule I, which means all these compounds are illegal under the Federal Analogue Act.

delta-8 laws

2022 predictions delta-8 THC

Now that the legal situation is understood, here are my general 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, and rest of the cannabinoid market.

  • Delta-8 will continue on. As a part of the no-one-will-do-anything-about-it loophole, delta-8 enjoys being in a position where there doesn’t seem to be an ability to go after it by the federal government. And if there is an ability, but the federal government is choosing not to at the moment, I don’t think anything will explicitly happen in 2022 that will change this situation. Best to keep an eye on the news to ensure no sweeping legal updates, or increased law enforcement in this area.
  • Delta-8 will not threaten the standard cannabis industry. Though delta-8 created a lot of press stories about the possibility of threatening the regular weed market earlier on, this seems like media overkill on the wrong point. Truth is, weed is a standard, and its existed for thousands of years in its own market that never required synthetics to be made. People want the regular thing, and the regular thing is not delta-8 THC. Plus, regular cannabis can be grown by a user, meaning its far more accessible, and easier to get a clean product.
  • Delta-8 sales might go down by year’s end. Though I expect it to continue on just fine, my 2022 prediction for delta-8 is that by year’s end this fad will be fading out. I don’t think it has to do with illegalization either, simply with the fact that temporary fads are temporary fads. Delta-8 is up against regular cannabis, and its hard to imagine such a seismic shift in a stable industry.
  • The delta-8 market will get increasingly dirty, and this says something as it already operates as a pretty dirty industry. How dirty? These companies aren’t being regulated which means they can put anything they want in their products, or use any processing techniques desirable. In fact, the industry is so dirty, that it developed its own black-market testing to give the illusion that testing is going on, when in reality this has been exposed as a sham. With a mad dash to get any income from it, I expect companies will get seedier and seedier in their attempts to seem like the good guy in a sea of criminals.
  • More states will create legislation specifically banning this market. Technically this is overkill since no state allows synthetics in their markets legally. Even so, state after state has been setting specific legislation, possibly at the behest of the US government, which doesn’t appreciate untaxed items being sold. I expect more will follow this pattern in 2022.
  • Little to no regulation will be made. The previous point goes along with this point. While states will likely be making legislation to ban the market, this will be done instead of regulating it to ensure no bad chemicals or processing are used. Since these products are being sold outside of regulation, it would make way more sense to simply regulate them, and bring them to the above board market. The lack of regulation hints at the federal government looking to simply wait out the fad (or to wait for a tank out and then pharma/corporate buyout of the current industry, which it might be more excited to police).
  • More fear stories will come out. Whether about people getting sick from adulterants put in, or stories of faked lab results, I expect more and more news on the dangers of delta-8 and the other cannabinoids, will fill the press. These stories will not be centered around the dangers of the compounds, but the dangers of what can happen to them in an unregulated market. They won’t be framed as such though, but rather they’ll be framed to give the story that the compounds themselves are dangerous.
no additives
  • I think the rest of the cannabinoid market will start to peter out. Delta-8 is one thing, but when a new compound comes out everyday, there’s no way consumers can keep up, or care. THCP, THCVA, CBDVA…I mean, come on, it starts to look shady, and untrustworthy. And it’s not very smart. Focusing on a couple cannabinoids might have worked, but inundating the masses with compound after compound, when these compounds aren’t even understood in the world of science, is a great way to scare people off them entirely.
  • CBD might finally get some legalization. CBD is essentially just as illegal as the other compounds mentioned, not because its synthetic, but because its already an active ingredient in a pharmaceutical medication, and in the US, that makes it a no-no for use in supplements or food products. There has been a push to get some level of legalization for CBD, and I think 2022 might see some progress in this vein, particularly because the UN already gave CBD a pass as a medicine. It should be remembered that what qualifies as a ‘medicine’ in one place, can qualify as a ‘supplement’ in another.
  • The last 2022 prediction I’ll make for delta-8 THC and the cannabinoids market, is that I think people will realize more during this year that these products can’t change their lives, if they aren’t going to make changes outside of them. With any fad that comes without the lasting power to stay, once people realize the answer isn’t as easy as they think, they generally decide to try something else instead. Does this mean people will start making bigger changes to the rest of their lives? Well, maybe not, but I expect they’ll start looking for a new easy answer.


Maybe I’m right on some of these points, and maybe I’m wrong. When it comes to 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, we can all have our own, but in the end, we just have to wait and see what happens.

Hello and welcome… Thank you for stopping by CBDtesters.co, your #1 web source for the most relevant and interesting cannabis and psychedelics-related news going on globally. Check us out daily to stay in-the-know on the fast-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletter, so you’re first to get every news story.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post 2022 Predictions for the Delta-8 THC Industry appeared first on CBD Testers.

Did Psychedelics Help Our Brains Evolve?

There are tons of theories of evolution that attempt to explain how we went from single-celled organisms to the highly complicated structures we are today. I’m not getting into that entire process, but instead, am focusing on the more recent changeover from early cave-dwelling humans to the 21st century beings we are today. What happened to make us what we are? And did psychedelics help our brains evolve?

If psychedelics helped our brains evolve, there’s no telling how useful they could be in the future. It could even mean that we’re not done evolving yet!! For more articles like this one, remember to subscribe to the our Psychedelics Weekly Newsletteryour top source for everything related to this growing and important industry.

What are psychedelics?

It’s quite a question of whether psychedelics did help our brains evolve. Before getting to that, let’s identify what we’re talking about in general. Psychedelic drugs go under the heading of hallucinogens, which are a part of the psychoactive drugs grouping. Psychedelic compounds can be found all over nature in the form of magic mushrooms, DMT, peyote, and ayahuasca. Or, they can be made in a lab like LSD, DXM, and ketamine.

Psychedelics are associated with hallucinations, though different compounds cause varying effects. Hallucinations include a sensory experience that isn’t actually there, like seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, or feeling something that doesn’t exist. They are also widely known for causing spiritual experiences for users; making users feel more connected to each other, and the universe as a whole; inciting feelings of euphoria, and wellbeing; altering perception, and mood; and affecting cognitive function. This all includes what users have repeatedly called ‘life-changing experiences’ connected to life and consciousness, when on these drugs.

While psychedelics have repeatedly shown to be safe, and without a death and disability count, there is the possibility of experiencing a ‘bad trip’. A bad trip is as it sounds. A generally not fun incident wherein users experience negative hallucinations, and physical symptoms like anxiety, paranoia, nausea, raised blood pressure, erratic heartbeat, vomiting, chills, and dizziness. There are several things a person can do to avoid a bad trip, which is mostly about getting the dosage correct. However, there are other things that can be controlled for, like taking the trip in a place that’s comfortable, or being around the right people.

magic mushrooms

Psychedelics have been used widely throughout ancient history, but were essentially banned after the creation and marketization of LSD in the mid-late 1900’s. The Vietnam war was likely a catalyst, as drugs were used to denigrate the anti-war movement which was tightly tied to counterculture and draft-dodging. In the US, the Staggers-Dodd bill was passed in 1968 specifically illegalizing LSD and magic mushrooms, and this was followed up by the passing of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. Globally, the UN’s Convention on Psychotropic Substances in 1971 made these compounds illegal all over the world.

What is evolution?

For most people, the idea of evolution is understood, though many see it as truth, and many see it as a lie. In all honesty, regardless of how much this answer is liked, it really is only a theory. The theory of evolution is “The scientific theory explaining the appearance of new species and varieties through the action of various biological mechanisms (such as natural selection, genetic mutation or drift, and hybridization).” This includes the “descent with modification from preexisting species: cumulative inherited change in a population of organisms through time leading to the appearance of new forms: the process by which new species or populations of living things develop from preexisting forms through successive generations.”

Essentially, it’s a theory that seeks to explain how life might have changed on this planet over time, allowing one form of living species to become something else. It doesn’t propose this happened randomly, but as a response to different factors like mutation, or the right attributes helping some survive over others in a particular environment.

I was on a message board once, where whether the theory of evolution was ‘true’ or not was being discussed. I was personally disgusted by how many medical and scientific research professionals touted it as a truth, when indeed our history cannot be tested, meaning it’s not a provable theory by default. Though changes have been identified in more recent times (like sherpas, and their acquired ability in recent history to use oxygen more efficiently at high altitudes) the reason the theory of evolution is called ‘the theory of evolution’ and not the ‘law of evolution’, is because like it or not, and whether it’s the best answer we have or not, there is no hard proof that this theory is true.

We learn a lot through history. It’s always good to remember that it was once thought the sun moved around the earth, or that tiny people were in our bodies making things function, or that letting out blood could cure illness. We constantly find new ruins and artifacts that change the story, like that neanderthal DNA can be found in our DNA, something ruled out previously. So though I myself see evolution as the best answer, unlike the scientists erroneously saying it ‘has to’ be true, I also understand it’s a huge topic for which we don’t understand everything.

While many detractors choose a more religious, god-centered story to explain how we came to be, others point to possibilities like genetic material landing on earth from a meteor, while others propose that aliens had something to do with it. And like it or not, we as a people can’t technically rule any of this out, even if the go-to answer has become evolution.

brain evolution

Did psychedelics help our brains evolve?

Now that psychedelics have been described, we can get more into how they might have affected the human brain through time. In fact, psychedelics are under much investigation at the moment for help with things like depression, anxiety, and drug addiction. LSD studies from the mid-1900’s did well to draw out the possible ability for the compound to help hardcore drinkers stop in their tracks. The FDA is supporting research into MDMA and psilocybin through giving ‘breakthrough therapy’ designations to both. These designations are given when research is underway on something that shows to be a better answer to a problem than a standard remedy.

All of the things mentioned denote the idea that psychedelic compounds can help change the way the brain works. In fact, esketamine, (the legalized version of ketamine), as well as ketamine itself which is widely used in clinics for therapy as an off-label product, have both shown to be great helps with major depression. More so than monoamine antidepressants, which have been the pharmaceutical answer that realistically never worked. Psychedelics seem to be able to allow the brain to make new connections, and essentially, reformulate parts of itself.

Early humans did not function like we do today. Their brain capacity was much more limited, which is known by their limited abilities to establish societies, or live outside of basic, wild, animal means. We know the brain would have had to change extensively to allow us to be what we currently are (assuming evolution is the answer), meaning, something led to that happening. Maybe it was just mutation, or natural selection. Or maybe, early humans ate some plants that helped them expand their minds, and grow their brains.

More on the theory that psychedelics helped our brains evolve

So where is this idea backed up? In more and more places these days. First off, before worrying about evolution specifically, and whether psychedelics did help our brains evolve, the first thig to understand is that psychedelics may change the structure of brain cells. In 2018, Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity was published in Cell Reports, which found four key points of interest:

  1. That serotonergic psychedelics (most psychedelics are in this category) increase neuritogenesis (the sprouting of neurites from a cell, which is the first step in the development of a mature neuronal morphology), spinogenesis (the development of dendritic spines in neurons), and synaptogenesis (the formation of new synapses).
  2. That psychedelics promote plasticity (the brain’s ability to change and adapt as a result of experience) via an evolutionarily conserved mechanism.
  3. That TrkB (receptor), mTOR (protein kinase), and 5-HT2A (receptor) signaling underlie psychedelic-induced plasticity. As in, these three help psychedelics to change the brain.
  4. That noribogaine (primary metabolite of ibogaine), but not ibogaine (psychedelic compound found in many plants), is capable of promoting structural neural plasticity.

The study was conducted on several different animals, from rats and other rodents, to zebrafish embryos. These studies were not done on humans, which should be considered when looking at results. It should be remembered, however, that we regularly rely on animal studies to give us information about what will work for humans. According to the study investigators:

psychedelics brains evolve

“Here, we report that, like ketamine, serotonergic psychedelics are capable of robustly increasing neuritogenesis and/or spinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These changes in neuronal structure are accompanied by increased synapse number and function, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology. The structural changes induced by psychedelics appear to result from stimulation of the TrkB, mTOR, and 5-HT2A signaling pathways and could possibly explain the clinical effectiveness of these compounds.”

Going further into the possibility that psychedelics helped our brains evolve

Yet another recent study got into this idea. On September 29th, 2021, Psychedelics, Sociality, and Human Evolution was published in Frontiers in Psychology. The study authors start out by saying: “Our hominin ancestors inevitably encountered and likely ingested psychedelic mushrooms throughout their evolutionary history”, which they relate back as far as the Pliocene age.

According to researchers, “Psilocybin and similar psychedelics that primarily target the serotonin 2A receptor subtype stimulate an active coping strategy response that may provide an enhanced capacity for adaptive changes through a flexible and associative mode of cognition. Such psychedelics also alter emotional processing, self-regulation, and social behavior, often having enduring effects on individual and group well-being and sociality.”

They go on to say, “A homeostatic and drug instrumentalization perspective suggests that incidental inclusion of psychedelics in the diet of hominins, and their eventual addition to rituals and institutions of early humans could have conferred selective advantages.”

Finally, they break it down to, “the evolutionary scenario put forward suggests that integration of psilocybin into ancient diet, communal practice, and proto-religious activity may have enhanced hominin response to the socio-cognitive niche, while also aiding in its creation. In particular, the interpersonal and prosocial effects of psilocybin may have mediated the expansion of social bonding mechanisms such as laughter, music, storytelling, and religion, imposing a systematic bias on the selective environment that favored selection for prosociality in our lineage.”

They broke this into four aspects:

  1. Management of psychological distress and treatment of health problems
  2. Enhanced social interaction and interpersonal relations
  3. Facilitation of collective ritual and religious activities
  4. Enhanced group decision-making
brain evolution


How we really got to be who and what we are is a massive question that no one has a definitive answer to right now, no matter what they may think they know. Recent research has certainly opened the door to the exploration of psychedelics as a factor in our growth and development through history, but much more needs to be learned. If there is truth in this, it speaks volumes to what we can do with psychedelics, and how useful they can potentially be in our future growth and development.

Welcome readers! Thanks for joining us at CBDtesters.co, your one-stop-shop for the most important and relevant cannabis and psychedelics-related news happening now. Read-thru the site regularly to stay informed on the constantly-in-motion universe of cannabis, and medical psychedelics, and sign up for the The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter, so you’re always on top of what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Did Psychedelics Help Our Brains Evolve? appeared first on CBD Testers.

DIY: How to Make Your Own CBN

There’s a lot of talk about different cannabinoids, and the growing unregulated cannabinoids market. One of the cannabinoids of interest is CBN, for its possible ability to help with sleep. Unlike many cannabinoids which require synthetization, CBN can be made pretty easily, and not as a synthetic. Read on for tips on how to make your very own CBN.

With a wide-ranging cannabinoids market out there, there are now tons of ways of enjoying cannabis besides standard THC. Whether you’re interested in delta-8 THC which causes less anxiety, CBN which might be good for promoting sleep, THCV which has shown as a possible aid in weight loss, or HHC a minimized version of THC, options abound, and we’ve got plenty for you. Check out all our deals on these compounds, and find the ones that work best for you.

What is CBN

Before getting into how to make CBN, we need to know more about what it is. The cannabis plant is made up of many components including flavonoids, terpenes, chlorophyll, lipids, cannabinoids, and other compounds. In fact, the main association with cannabis, is the cannabinoid delta-9 THC, sometimes erroneously called ‘THC’. This term actually stands for ‘tetrahydrocannabinols’, which can involve more cannabinoids than just delta-9, but somehow that slang term has prevailed, even showing up in medical literature. However, what we are actually speaking of, is delta-9 THC.

Cannabis plants can be split into two general types of plants, though both categories fit under the umbrella of ‘cannabis’. One, which we refer to as ‘hemp’ has lower amounts of delta-9 (which actually shows in a live plant as the acid THCA), and higher amounts of CBD (which shows in a live plant as the acid CBDA). On the other hand, ‘marijuana’ is now the term used for plants higher in THCA than CBDA.

Both THCA and CBDA are ‘phytocannabinoids’ because they appear in the plant. And both convert in the presence of light and heat to their respective cannabinoid counterparts THC (delta-9) and CBD. But this is not the end of the story. Once converted to delta-9 and CBD, these new cannabinoids can eventually degrade further into what we call ‘degradants’. These degradants can be entirely new cannabinoids. And this is where CBN comes in. CBN is the main degradant of delta-9, for which the vast majority of delta-9 will become. This makes CBN a rather prevalent cannabinoid in comparison to others like delta-8 or THCV, which only ever show in miniscule amounts. The chemical formula for CBN is C21H26O2, and it’s considered only minorly intoxicating.

make CBN

While it’s hard to say exactly what CBN is capable of, there is a growing belief that it could be related to properties like the ability to help with sleep and anxiety. This thought came around because of the noticed effect of older cannabis (which is more degraded than a new flower), making people more relaxed and tired. Plenty of research is currently being done into the possible existence of these properties. Apart from a sleep aid, CBN has many other similar benefits to delta-9 THC and other cannabinoids.

The history of CBN

Weirdly enough, CBN was the first cannabinoid of the cannabis plant to be discovered. This was not the goal at all, though, as the goal was to find the intoxicating element of the plant, for which CBN was confused. This research to establish the intoxicating element was already underway in the late 1800’s, being led by different scientists, namely Thomas Easterfield. And it was his discovery that led to the finding of other cannabinoids like CBD and THC.

To find this intoxicating element, cannabis was distilled into what was referred to as a ‘red oil’, and this was the first form to be studied in modern times. This red oil was discovered by Dr. Thomas Easterfield, who was a member of the Cambridge Group, and a lecturer at Cambridge University. When he first wrote about this ‘red oil’, he gave it the name ‘cannabinol’. These days we know that term to specifically mean the compound CBN, but at the time, it was related to the red oil distilled from the plant, as well as what was thought to be the intoxicating factor.

It was thought at that time that cannabinol was a narcotic substance, which was later clarified to be untrue. Easterfield was the first to isolate cannabinol, which, he stated in his late 1800’s writing, as being the intoxicating factor. Perhaps Easterfield would have gotten further, but a couple incidences got in the way of research.

One involved the accidental death of two collaborators in a lab accident. The other is a strange story of the voluntary ingestion of a large dose of CBN by another guy, leading to this guy getting extremely high and somehow catching on fire. Don’t worry, it was extinguished and he was fine, but research stopped upon media reports exaggerating the circumstances for smear campaigns against cannabis (started that early!) Research was halted for decades.

Things didn’t really pick up again until the 1930’s when Dr. Robert S. Cahn began studying CBN again. Cahn started calling the red oil ‘crude cannabinol’, and started using the term ‘cannabinol’ for the actual cannabinoid compound. Through his research he was able to validate that CBN was not the intoxicating factor. Cahn did map the structure of CBN, but many questions were still left unanswered until future scientists finally discovered CBD and THC. Separately, Easterfield and Cahn made the initial discoveries into CBN.


How to make CBN

When it comes to how to make CBN, the important thing to remember is that it’s a degradant of delta-9 THC, and that means you can make CBN from regular marijuana. Though it can be made from a hemp plant, since a hemp plant has considerably less THCA, it would require synthetization, rather than being made naturally. The best way to make CBN, therefore, is by using high-THC marijuana plants.

So how do you make CBN? It’s actually quite easy. Just add the things that naturally convert THC to CBN, light and/or heat. Both of these options essentially speed up time, allowing for a quicker degradation process that allows for CBN to be made. When made industrially, CBN is often created using solvents and metallic catalysts. However, if you do it yourself, not only do you know you’re getting the right product, but you can actually make a cleaner product. This can go for many cannabis products, where DIY methods can often net a better result when done correctly.

Heating: If you want to use the heating method (and you probably do as its more defined), you need to go through the regular process of decarboxylation that turns THCA into delta-9. However, in this case, you need to go a little further, to degrade the delta-9 in order to make CBN. Regular decarboxylation to convert THCA to delta-9 is usually done for no more than 20-40 minutes at a temperature of 230-250°F. These temperatures are low enough that the further conversion to CBN and degradation of other plant compounds, isn’t a problem. In this case, though, you would decarb at higher than 302º F, for a total of 15 minutes, although some publications say that 300º F for one hour also works. And that’s it. After this, you can go on to use the bud to make oil, butter, or whatever other product you know how to make, or can find instructions for.

UV light: The other option to age the plant in order to make CBN from delta-9, is with UV light. Unfortunately, less has been published about the specifics for this method, apart from the fact that a very intense light would need to be used. How intense, and for how long, is harder to say. Perhaps in the future, as CBN becomes more popular, this topic will get further flushed out.

There is, however, plenty of information about how light effects the cannabis plant, and much can be gleaned from this explanation:

“In cannabis, Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) naturally degrades to cannabinol (CBN) over time. Light exposure supplies energy and speeds up this process. The ratio of THC to CBN in a stored sample of cannabis can actually be used to indicate age and quality of storage.

Lindholst (2010) examined tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa) in cannabis extracts. Samples exposed to daylight degraded at a half-life of 35 days, while those kept in darkness degraded at a half-life of 91 days (an approximate 250% difference).”

Cannabis UV light

While this is not specific, it does indicate that if you leave your weed out in bright sunlight, or put it under a UV light, that the process of converting delta-9 to CBN is much faster. I didn’t see an exact consensus on how to do this online, but several message boards contained different instructions by different people, and interested parties should check through to find more specific information if this is a desirable method to try. Personally, I suggest using the heat method.

How this differs from other minor cannabinoids

The cannabinoids market of today offers tons of options of both naturally occurring and synthetic cannabinoids. What’s the catch? Even the naturally occurring ones (besides THC and CBD) don’t occur in high enough amounts for extraction without synthetization. Meaning if you’re buying a product, even if it’s something like delta-8, which most definitely is naturally occurring (as likely another minor degradant of delta-9), your product will have gone through processing. This likely means the involvement of harsh chemicals or processes that may not be safe, and which aren’t currently being regulated.

Beyond that, the lack of regulation means its hard to know you’re getting the product you’re paying for, and that it’s not a fake, or filled with adulterants. For this reason, this has become a questionable market in terms of safety and product quality. And this goes for any cannabinoid product that fits the category of requiring synthetization. It also goes for many other cannabis products, but minor cannabinoids in particular we already know cannot be easily and directly extracted for use.

The difference with CBN is that it can be made to appear in large enough amounts, by simple methods that don’t involve synthetic processing. However, for the other reasons mentioned, this doesn’t mean that because you’re buying a CBN product, that it will be real. And that brings us to the other difference with CBN and other minor cannabinoids. Much like delta-9 itself, it can be made DIY style, giving users the ability to make a clean product, and to know for sure what that product is.


CBN likely has plenty of medical benefits, and one seems to be the ability to help with sleep and anxiety, though this is not formally stated. Research has been inconclusive, and is ongoing, but message boards are already filled with people talking up these qualities. Perhaps in the future we’ll know more. Let’s remember one thing. The government never likes when people can make their own products, or buy them outside of regulation, since it means less money in taxes for the government.

The push to say CBN isn’t effective for sleep could be more related to trying to save it for the pharmaceutical market, or simply to keep people from buying it, than trying to help people find a safe method to promote sleep. This is supposition, but something to consider in the whole ongoing cannabis debate, and with the rapid growth of the government backed pharma market.

Hello and Welcome! Thanks for making it to CBDtesters.co, the internet’s preeminent location for the most important and though-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news globally. Visit us whenever you can to stay on top of the always-in-flux universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out The THC Weekly Newsletter, to ensure you always know what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post DIY: How to Make Your Own CBN appeared first on CBD Testers.

Magic Mushrooms and Truffles in Amsterdam – What’s the Difference?

Some people see the Netherlands, and more specifically Amsterdam, as a drug-utopia. A place where everything is legal, allowed and thriving. A place where you can smoke cannabis on the street, walk along the red-light district, and munch on some magic truffles. But what are magic truffles? And are they as potent as magic mushrooms? In addition, why is one legal but the other is not? Although Amsterdam may seem like an unapologetically open city, it’s far more nuanced than that. Using Amsterdam as a reference point, let’s take a closer look at what the true difference is between magic truffles and magic mushrooms.

Remember to subscribe to The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter for more articles like this one and all the latest, most exciting industry news. And save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10THCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!

Netherlands Drug Laws


It’s a common misconception that drugs are legal in the Netherlands. In fact, even cannabis, which is sold publicly on the streets of Amsterdam, is still an illegal drug. This means that Luxembourg was actually the first country in Europe to officially legalize cannabis for growing and consumption. But how can this be the case? Well, CNN Travel elaborates:

“You may be surprised to learn that recreational drugs are illegal in the Netherlands. Yes, even pot. But an official policy of tolerance emerged and in 1976 the Dutch parliament decriminalized possession of less than 5 grams of cannabis.”

What occurred after this decision was a new culture of coffee shops where you could buy up to 5 grams of cannabis flower, under the guise that it was not illegal, only decriminalised. That evolved and now Amsterdam is known for its cannabis culture, with over 160 coffeeshops in the city center. There are a wide range of cannabis products on sale in Amsterdam, these include: edibles, high-THC buds, tinctures, and more. 

Magic Mushrooms

So, what about other kinds of drugs? How about magic mushrooms? Almost all other drugs are dealt with harshly. Much like the rest of the world. Cocaine, heroin and MDMA are all illegal and only sold unlawfully on the dark web or from street dealers. It’s only cannabis that has seemed to find its own loophole. Well, interestingly, before 2008, magic mushrooms actually were a legal drug in the Netherlands.

Magic mushrooms are wild growing fungi found all over the world. Mushrooms can be poisonous, so it’s important to know what exactly magic mushrooms look like if you decide to go searching for them. The magic kind look like an ordinary mushroom except they have a longer stem and smaller head. Magic mushrooms contain psilocybin, which is a naturally-occurring hallucinogen and psychoactive ingredient. It’s the psilocybin that is responsible for the well-known effects of shrooms. These effects include: 

  • Distorted sense of reality 
  • Euphoria
  • Sensory enhancement
  • Hallucinations
  • Introspection

Magic mushrooms are usually placed in the top tier of drug categories around the world because they are a hallucigen. In the USA, they are considered a Schedule 1 and in the UK they are considered a Class A, meaning they’re believed to carry a high risk of abuse and addiction. Any drug that twists and re-shapes reality are often considered to be the most dangerous drug by most nations, although this is not necessarily accurate. And this is despite the fact that psilocybin has been found to have numerous different medical benefits. In 2016, a John Hopkins study found that psilocybin could help treat people with anxiety and depression.

In the Netherlands, it wasn’t until recently that mushrooms were made illegal.This was a headline for an NBC News article, written in 2007:“The Netherlands will ban the sale of hallucinogenic mushrooms, the government announced Friday, tightening the country’s famed liberal drug policies after the suicide of an intoxicated teenage girl.”

After a girl under the influence of mushrooms jumped out of a window in 2007, protests against hallucinogens took place and resulted in the drug being made illegal. Consequently, the majority of magic mushroom types were banned. All, except one: the truffle. 

What are Truffles? 

So, in order for us to understand why truffles were left legal, we first need to understand what they actually are. And, of course, how they differ from magic mushrooms. Truffles are mostly spoken about in relation to the Netherlands because most other countries do not allow them. In addition, when people visit Amsterdam, many are surprised by the ease of purchasing truffles. They can be bought in coffeeshops and smart shops and usually come in colourful packaging with names like: ‘mexicana’, ‘atlantis’ and ‘high hawaiians’. All claim to be stronger than the next. But really what are truffles? 

Magic truffles are nothing like the kinds of truffles you cook with, except they do have one similarity: they grow underground. Magic truffles are sclerotia, which is essentially a hardened mass of fungal mycelium that grows beneath the surface. Magic truffles are from the psilocybe mushroom mycelium and contain psilocybin. Psilocybin is a hallucinogenic compound and gives both truffles and mushrooms their psychedelic effects. 

Taste & Look

Magic truffles are essentially magic mushrooms that never made it to the surface, and this is exactly what they look like. They look like mushrooms that have never seen the sun and haven’t been able to grow. This means they taste a little like soil and dirt. In addition, they’re very dry so eating them without liquid can be quite difficult.  

Magic Mushrooms vs Magic Truffles

So, what are the differences between these two fungi, and why is one legal and the other is not in the Netherlands? 


First up, let’s take a look at the scientific differences between the two substances. So far we know they both contain psilocybin, which is a psychedelic compound. But also, this is what the National Library of Medicine has to say:

“Magic mushrooms is the most common name given to hallucinogenic fungi containing the psychoactive alkaloids psilocybin and psilocin. In recent years, fungis’ sclerotia, commonly called “magic truffles” have become a form of supply of psychoactive Psilocybe alkaloids since Psilocybe sclerotia are not specifically included in the laws banning the sale, the purchase and the use of such substances and mushrooms containing them”

What this means is that magic mushrooms and magic mushrooms are essentially the exact same thing. However, magic truffles are simply at an earlier stage of development. They are at a more embryonic stage, hence why they are ‘picked’ whilst they’re still underground. Known also as sclerotia, hallucinogenic truffles are a younger fungus, which stores food reserves in a hard mycelium. These then grow into magic mushrooms after time. 


Magic mushrooms and magic truffles do not look the same. In fact, truffles look like what they are: stunted mushrooms that never made it to the surface and never saw the sun. They also resemble a darker-looking bit of ginger. Whatever you want to liken them too, they definitely don’t look appealing. Magic mushrooms – on the other hand – look the same as usual mushrooms, except with longer stems and smaller heads. 


Some believe that truffles must be less potent than mushrooms because they are legal and less formed. This is not necessarily correct. Both contain psilocybin and the same chemical compounds, therefore they should technically have the same potency. However, due to the fact that magic truffles are standardised and commercialised, they have been able to create and package various strengths and potencies. Therefore, you can purchase weak, mild and strong magic truffles in Amsterdam. It’s harder to do the same with magic mushrooms as they are illegal and are usually sold by people who do not have various types. Both magic truffles and magic mushrooms are digested, they usually kick-in after around an hour and their effects can last from 4-8 hours. Overall, magic truffles and magic mushrooms have the same level of potency, but truffles can be bought to have less if customers require it. 


If all this is the case, then why have the Netherlands decided to illegalise magic mushrooms but not magic truffles? Well, it’s first important to understand that countries like the UK and the USA have banned the substance of psilocybin which, as a result, has made anything containing this substance also illegal. This includes both magic mushrooms and magic truffles. However, in the Netherlands, they decided to illegalise magic mushrooms as a substance, rather than what they contain. This left room for magic truffles to slip through the cracks. 


Magic mushrooms and magic truffles are both essentially the same drug, except they are both at different stages of growth. The Netherlands, in particular, have decided to treat each drug individually rather than the substances that the drug contains. Whatever you believe to be right or wrong, the situation is that magic truffles are potent and extremely easy to purchase in Amsterdam. So, if you’re looking for an exciting and legal experience, make sure to head over there and try them out.

Hello all! Welcome to CBDtesters.co, your ultimate online destination for the most relevant and thought-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news globally. Read through the site regularly to stay on top of the constantly-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletterso you never miss a thing.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Magic Mushrooms and Truffles in Amsterdam – What’s the Difference? appeared first on CBD Testers.

Psychedelic Industry Predictions for 2022

It’s been a whirlwind rise for psychedelics in general in the past few years, with tons of research into medical properties, and new legal policies being set in different parts of the country to allow medical use, or decriminalize recreational use. What’s in store for this class of drugs? Here are my 2022 predictions for psychedelics.

My 2022 predictions for psychedelics are mainly that the industry will grow more with steps toward legalization, which is the same for the cannabis industry, which should also see growth in many ways in 2022. This can already be seen in the new cannabinoids industry, which allows the sale of compounds outside of regulation, and outside of dispensaries. For more articles like this one, remember to subscribe to the our Psychedelics Weekly Newsletteryour top source for everything related to this growing industry.

What are psychedelics?

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs, which are themselves a subset of psychoactive drugs. Psychedelics can be naturally occurring like magic mushrooms or DMT, or made in a lab like LSD and ketamine. Either way, these compounds are specifically related to producing hallucinations, wherein a user experiences a sensation (hearing, seeing, feeling, tasting, smelling) of something that is not there.

Along with hallucinations, these drugs are known for inciting spiritual experiences in users; bringing on feelings of connectedness between users, and between users and the universe at large; stimulating feelings of euphoria, and wellbeing; and causing alterations in perception, mood, and cognitive function. Users have throughout time reported life-changing experiences regarding life and consciousness when on these drugs.

While psychedelics are generally safe, with no actual death or disability count directly related, there is one aspect to be wary of: the bad trip. In a bad trip, a user can experience negative – even frightening, hallucinations, and have physical symptoms like anxiety, nausea, erratic heartbeat, vomiting, chills, dizziness, paranoia, and raised blood pressure. This seems to be a big aspect of dosing, with correct dosing, or the use of micro-doses, eliminating the majority of these problem. People more sensitive to these drugs might want to try in smaller quantities.

magic mushrooms

The illegalization of psychedelics

Psychedelics gained momentum in the mid-1900’s after LSD was synthesized by Albert Hofmann in 1938 (but more formally realized in 1943), in Sandoz laboratories in Switzerland. This set off a cascade of LSD products being sold throughout the world. By the 1950’s it had been adopted by the world of psychiatry, with over 10,000 studies published between 1943-1970 according to the Oxford Press. LSD was the basis for the Saskatchewan trials in Canada led by Humphrey Osmond and Abram Hoffer, where it was shown to help alcoholics quit the juice. It was also big in England, where Ronald Sandison showed the benefit of LSD with psychoneurotic patients.

All of this ended by the late 1960’s when the US forged a campaign against psychedelics, likely in response to the unpopular Vietnam was, as a way of targeting counter-culture folks who were known for peace-loving and draft-dodging. This was done in the US with the Staggers-Dodd bill in 1968 followed by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act in 1970. It was done in England through the 1973 Misuse of Drugs Act. The Convention on Psychotropic Substances in 1971 made psychedelic compounds illegal globally.

How do we know about drug smear campaigns in relation to the war and racism? In 1994, John Ehrlichman, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Nixon, released this statement:

“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.”

My 2022 predictions for psychedelics

The class of psychedelics is gaining momentum, possibly inspired by the success of the cannabis industry, and its ability to change perceptions about the plant in the last couple decades. There’s a lot going on in the industry, so here are my 2022 predictions for what can be expected with psychedelics.

  • More states, cities, and individual locations will continue to pass laws like Oregon and Detroit to decriminalize recreational use, or legalize medical markets. These may be done through ballot measures during elections, or made as legislation by local governments.
  • In terms of ketamine, this might be the biggest standout of 2022. Ketamine clinics are already becoming very popular, which can be seen in the government’s attempt to divert the market to a pharmaceutical one by way of the legalization of esketamine. Esketamine will likely do nothing to stop the ketamine clinic industry, which, since it offers a seemingly better answer to monoamine antidepressants, should take off even further in 2022.
ketamine therapy
  • The tide will continue turning with psychedelics in the mainstream, with more and more people changing tack as they did with cannabis. This will likely be from the growing body of research into positive benefits, with the lack of negative results that were cried about for so long, becoming more obvious.
  • Having said this, since the government will badly want to keep a handle on it, there is also likely to be a continuation of smear campaigns aimed at driving fear and confusion into users. This in an effort to point them toward pharmaceutical options, rather than having the masses attempt to obtain these compounds illicitly or grow them on their own.
  • My 2022 predictions for the illicit psychedelics market, are that this will grow as well, with tons of illicit online retailers popping up, and a dirty, unregulated industry taking over. This is similar to the current state of affairs in the cannabis industry, exemplified by the unregulated cannabinoids market. This will help drive fear campaigns by targeting stories of seedy operators and adulterated products.
  • Magic mushrooms and psilocybin will be another big winner according to my 2022 predictions for psychedelics. As one of the compounds more immediately up for legalization, magic mushrooms also present the situation of being the most cannabis-like drug, in that they can be grown easily at home by users. Not only will magic mushrooms creep closer to a federal medical legalization, but I expect 2022 will see a huge push in home growing of these mushrooms.
  • MDMA is the other compound nearing legalization in the states, and 2022 should also be a year of progress for this drug, with further research getting it that much closer to a medical legalization. Though this is unlikely to happen in 2022, by the end of the year we might have a clearer picture of when this can be expected.
  • Another of my 2022 predictions for psychedelics is that we’re going to start seeing more legislation being floated in congress for federal legalization measures. This isn’t to say that any will succeed, but by the end of 2022, I expect several different bills for different purposes related to psychedelics, to come up and be discussed.
  • Lastly, I believe more politicians will come out openly supporting psychedelics and their uses in 2022. This will likely be on both the medical and recreational fronts, making upcoming legalizations that much more government-accepted.

What is the state of psychedelics currently in the US?

To give an idea of where things are now with psychedelics in the US, here is the basic rundown. Seattle didn’t exactly decriminalize legally, but in October of 2021, the city council unanimously voted on a non-binding resolution meant to discourage law enforcement from going after psychedelics users. It is not, however, a legal mandate. The most recent city to fall legally was Detroit, which decriminalized psychedelic (entheogenic) plants in November 2021 through Proposal E passed by voters.

entheogenic plants

Other specific locations that have set legal mandates include Denver, Colorado, which was first in 2019; and Oakland and Santa Cruz in California which made their own measures that same year, and the following year respectively. In 2020, An Arbor, Michigan; and Washington DC set decriminalization policies. This was followed by Washtenaw County, Michigan; Somerville, Cambridge, Northampton, and Easthampton in Massachusetts; and Arcata, California in 2021.

Of course, the biggest psychedelics champions right now is Oregon, which was the first state to adopt a statewide policy, with two ballot measures in 2020: Measure 109 – to legalize the medical use of psilocybin, and Measure 110 to decriminalize many drugs statewide. Both measures passed making Oregon the first state to allow legal medical use of a psychedelic, as well as the decriminalization statewide of many recreational drugs.

Two other states did institute lesser policies. On Thursday February, 4th, 2021, New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy signed a law that reclassified magic mushrooms to be a ‘disorderly persons offense’ so long as the amounts don’t go over one ounce. The maximum fine is now $1,000, and the maximum jail sentence is six months. While this pales in comparison to what Oregon did, it does greatly reduce penalties from $15,000 and five years in prison.

Rhode Island, on the other hand, signed into policy on July 7th, 2021, a law that allows for consumption sites for illegal drugs, where they can be accessed safely. This is a two-year pilot program that aims to give medical supervision to drug use, and individual municipalities are charged with authorizing facilities for this to happen. What will happen in the future, or if this will continue after two years, is hard to say, but for now it allows the use of drugs – including psychedelics – in specialized locations, without the threat of arrest.

In the works…

Currently there are two other statewide initiatives to legalize psychedelics. California has been working on the California Psilocybin Legalization Initiative, which is possibly slated to appear on the November 2022 ballot as a referendum, and which seeks to “legalize psilocybin, including psilocybin mushrooms, truffles, sclerotia, and mycelium, in California.” This would allow the “cultivation, manufacture, processing, distribution, transportation, possession, storage, consumption, and retail sale of psilocybin mushrooms.”

Michigan has also made strides in this direction, introducing Senate Bill 631, in September, 2021. This bill floated would legalize psychedelic compounds recreationally statewide, and has been referred to the Committee on Judiciary and Public Safety for further review. The bill would legalize the cultivation, delivery, creation, possession, and communal use of plant-derived recreational psychedelics. This would not allow sales, except in the cases of “counseling, spiritual guidance, or a related service that is provided in conjunction with the use of an entheogenic plant or fungus under the guidance and supervision of an individual providing the service”, in which case a fee can be charged.

Beyond this, while psychedelics are federally illegal, apart from esketamine and DXM (found in cough syrup), both MDMA and psilocybin have been given a ‘breakthrough therapy’ designation by the FDA in reference to research being conducted. Compass Pathways, and Usona Institute won this designation for research into psilocybin for major depression, while the organization MAPS not only got this designation for research into MDMA, but designed its phase three trials in conjunction with the FDA to ensure results meet regulation. Which means a federal government body is pushing for these legalizations.


With everything on the cusp of explosion, 2022 predictions for psychedelics can certainly be blown out of the water easily. It will be an interesting year to watch progress and see what happens, and it could very well be that some unexpected big moves could happen before year’s end.

Hello and welcome readers! You’ve arrived at CBDtesters.co, the best web source for the most interesting and essential cannabis and psychedelics-related news going on worldwide. Stop by regularly to stay abreast of the always-in-motion landscape of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out the The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter, so you never miss an important story.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Psychedelic Industry Predictions for 2022 appeared first on CBD Testers.

Marijuana Company Curaleaf Pays Out For Tainted CBD Products

CBD is a dicey subject because of laws relating to the legality and sale of products. This extends to most retailers as no regulation exists federally, and is not always followed by states. As an example of the growing issues in the industry, well-known company Curaleaf, just had to pay out as a result of lawsuits about tainted CBD products.

Curaleaf and its tainted CBD products highlight a major regulation issue in the legal cannabis industry, but this doesn’t mean there aren’t good products, just that consumers must do their due diligence. This is also true of the cannabinoids market which contains products like delta-8 THC, THCV, and HHC. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!

What’s the news?

The Massachusetts-based company Curaleaf, which also operates out of facilities in Oregon and as well as being on the Canadian stock exchange as CURA, found itself in hot water this year with 10 lawsuits waged against it for selling tainted CBD products. How were they tainted? They contained a large dose of THC, which was not listed on the packaging, and not a part of the marketing for the products.

The products in question are Curaleaf’s Select brand CBD Wellness Drops, which the company says workers in a Portland facility managed to confuse with THC drops. The CBD drops are made from hemp, and are not supposed to have THC in them, or at the very least, not in the large quantity that apparently made it in.

Curaleaf paid out $50,000 to settle a case in September, brought on by Ayuba Agbonkhese, an Idaho resident who claimed he ended up in an emergency room after ingesting the drops without knowing their THC content. Agbonkhese specifically wanted the public to know all the terms of this deal, in order to bring more awareness to this tainted products problem. He is, in fact, quite correct about the size of the problem, and the need for more attention on it. In his words:

CBD settlement

“It was important for me to make sure that the company, as well as other companies like this, become more accountable. I want a safer community. That is my main reason for doing this in this way… I want them to be better and I want the industry to be better.” Apparently, though Curaleaf did pay out, it did not see fit to formally apologize.

Agbonkhese is not the only person to have an issue. At least four others had to be treated in an emergency room after using the same tainted CBD products. Agbonkhese’s case was the only one where the terms were made public, but nine other cases total have been settled by Curaleaf for its tainted CBD products.

Is that it?

Nope. Three other cases remain open, including a wrongful death suit. Honestly, while Curaleaf represents a huge issue in the CBD industry, the wrongful death case does seem to be a stretch, and also likely representative of opportunism for a payout. In that particular case, the person died weeks after ingesting the drops, and was otherwise sick, making the claim not only a bit silly, but unwise considering it dilutes what are actual and legitimate claims.

The Oregon Liquor and Cannabis Commission (OLCC) is currently investigating Curaleaf. Curaleaf acquired Cura Cannabis (Select), in 2019, and has sold hundreds of tainted CBD products throughout Oregon in the past year. It should be mentioned, that while an unexpected THC overdose is certainly not fun, and in these cases, 100% unexpected, it is also non-lethal. But the whole idea of tainted CBD products begs the question of whether there could be other issues with Curaleaf’s products, and similar products on the market.

Curaleaf did recall both the products in question, the Select CBD Wellness Drops, and the high-THC drops. But this happened because they were forced to by Oregon regulators. The OLCC has been investigating the situation since that time, as it represents the first time this has really become a large news story.

While Curaleaf has said very little about the settlements, it has stated that the cause of these issues was ‘human error’, and that processes have been updated as a result of the incidences. The company has not stated whether anyone was held accountable, or how these mistakes were actually made. As it was an ongoing issue with this company that spanned months of time, these questions are very relevant, along with what else could be wrong with these products if they haven’t gone through the testing they were supposed to.

tainted CBD products

The problem with the CBD industry

The main issue with the CBD industry at large, is that it’s not federally legal, and therefore not federally regulated. The reason CBD is technically illegal for food, as a supplement, or a non-prescription medicine, is that CBD is already the active ingredient of an approved pharmaceutical medication (Epidiolex), and under US law, once a compound is an active ingredient in an approved medication, it can no longer be marketed as a dietary supplement, or be used in food products. Therefore the CBD industry in the US at large (with a few exceptions), isn’t legal, and products on the market are not being regulated for what is in them.

However, this doesn’t actually apply to Oregon as a legalized state. Since Oregon set laws counter to the US federal government, though it is breaking federal law with these sales, it’s legal due to state laws. And that means CBD sales are perfectly legal in Oregon, and able to be regulated!

There is a lot that’s said about the growing cannabinoids industry in the US, which includes CBD as well as minor cannabinoids like delta-8 THC, THCV, and HHC. There is increasing wariness of the industry, and for good reason, as it operates 100% as an unregulated black market, selling products outside of legal dispensaries, offering illegal merchandise online, and creating black market testing facilities to give the illusion of regulation, though these have repeatedly shown to be scams.

But once again, Oregon is a legalized state, so these issues, though still existent since synthetics are not legalized in the state, at least shouldn’t apply to the CBD industry. And yet, we can see they clearly do. If Curaleaf had this ongoing issue for months, then whatever product testing it was supposed to be doing that whole time, obviously wasn’t being done at all. If this is the best we can expect out of a legal company, it really doesn’t imply anything good about any delta-8 company, or any other company not working within legal parameters.

What this means is that there are substantial problems with getting things done properly in the cannabis industry. Whether this is because companies don’t have the money to pay out to testing facilities, whether bribes are being made to pass products illegally, or if this simply represents greed by large companies (we see this literally all the time), is hard to say. But when the legit industry starts looking like the black market, you know there’s definitely a problem.

What this means for buyers

While this problem could be specific to Curaleaf, nothing about this industry indicates it is, and if a bigger company with means isn’t going about things properly, what can we realistically expect of the rest? On the other hand, big corporations are sometimes known for being a lot dirtier in their practices than smaller mom and pops. Perhaps it indicates more a showing of the general corporate attitude of not caring about consumers, let alone their own workers, than an actual inability to create decent products consistently.

know your brands

This undoubtedly creates a big issue for users, when what are seen as legit companies cannot be trusted. Ordinarily I say ‘know your brands’ and perhaps this is still the best answer, but it’s not a great one. With newer industries, after all, the idea of knowing a brand is limited to only the recent future, and sometimes, like with CBD products, without any history of other products to know them by. As such, the idea of knowing your brands is not as easy as it might be when buying other products with more established brands.

It does mean that customers are now really put to the task of doing due diligence. Especially if they don’t want to solely depend on state regulators to decide if a company is safe, and if its doing everything it’s supposed to be doing to ensure safe products, that are what they say they are.


Truth is, I expect there to be more of these cases. The weed industry is a dirty place these days, way dirtier than when it was a 100% illegal industry. So far, legalizations have done nothing but get us overpriced dispensaries, massive fakes markets, and adulterated products. If not for the fact that it might be slightly harder to get arrested in some places, not much really good has been accomplished by all this, with Curaleaf standing as a beacon to this sentiment.

Welcome to CBDtesters.co, your #1 internet spot for all the most important and thought-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news relevant today. Visit us whenever you can to stay educated on the fast-paced universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out The THC Weekly Newsletter, so you never miss a single thing.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Marijuana Company Curaleaf Pays Out For Tainted CBD Products appeared first on CBD Testers.

10 Steps to Becoming the Perfect Trip Sitter

Every hero has their sidekick. Every protagonist needs an assistant. Every train needs a driver. Just like Frodo had his Sam, Harry had his Ron, and Luke had his R2D2… a tripper needs a sitter. A psychedelic trip can be the most amazing experience of someone’s life, full of beautiful hallucinations and euphoric feeling.

However, it can also be horrifically awful, riddled with unwanted thoughts and scary sprites. A trip is always in the balance and could always go either way, and that’s where a trip sitter comes in. Being the perfect trip sitter is challenging, important and it takes time. That’s why we’re going to go through a few integral steps that should be taken when becoming a trip sitter, to ensure the safety and well-being of the person you’re watching over.

Remember to subscribe to The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter for more articles like this one and all the latest, most exciting industry news. And save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10THCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!

What is a Trip?

For hundreds of years our species have used psychedelic drugs as a way to enter into alternative realities. Ayahuasca is used by indigenous people in South America, LSD was used by the Beatles to inspire their music, and Ratafarians commonly use cannabis in their religious ceremonies. But why do people do it? Well, to understand why people trip, we first need to understand one crucial part of humanity: humans have always searched for more. It’s part of our DNA. When the first tribal communities spread themselves across more land and across vast oceans, they were searching for more. When man first landed on the moon in 1966, they were searching for more. When people turned to psychedelic drugs for an alternative way of looking at the world, they were also searching for more. Not only that, but a trip can allow a person to delve deep into their subconscious and deal with someone they’ve unlocked in their mind. In fact, hallucinogens are becoming more popualrly used in the treatment of depression and anxiety. Many report feelings of clarity and contentment after experiencing a trip. That’s not to say that trips are always good things. Nonetheless, a trip is an experiential journey. Here To Help writes:

“When a person says they are “tripping,” it means they are experiencing the effects of hallucinogens. Hallucinogens are psychoactive (mind-altering) drugs that significantly alter our senses and perceptions. Some common ones are magic mushrooms, LSD and ecstasy. Cannabis can also cause hallucinogenic effects at high doses.”

But the question is: what does a trip feel like? Trips can vary depending on which drug you take, but almost always there are certain similarities between trips. When someone is experiencing a trip, it’s almost always due to them taking a hallucinogenic drug. More euphoric drugs like heroin and ecstasy, are not usually considered to cause trips. It is a very specific experience; here are some of the common feelings: 

Positive Feelings

  • Euphoria
  • Beautiful hallucinations 
  • Sensory enhancement 
  • A sense of love towards your surroundings 
  • Giggliness 
  • Sounds and smells become better
  • Mental clarity

Negative Feelings 

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Fear
  • Scary or sad hallucinations 
  • Dissociation 
  • The world can seem cruel 
  • Existential dread

A psychedelic trip does not need to be a negative experience, but it can be. Like with anything, there are certain preparations that should be put in place before you decide to go on a psychedelic journey. One of these preparations is ensuring you have a perfect trip sitter. 

What is a Trip Sitter?

A trip sitter is an important part of the psychedelic experience. Although many people go on a trip without assistance, if it’s your first time then it might be worth getting one. Double Blind Mag writes:

“A trip sitter is a sober person you trust to keep you safe while you’re under the influence of a psychedelic, and having one along for the journey can make the difference between a meaningful and challenging trip. With a supportive presence, you’re much more likely to release your control…and have an insightful, perhaps even transformational experience.“

With a trip sitter you can feel more comfortable and safe letting yourself go and giving into the full potential of the psychedelic experience. In other words, you won’t need to keep one eye on your well-being and the other eye on having a good time. The trip sitter can look after you. That’s why it’s obviously very important to choose someone you trust and someone you know has your best interests at heart. 

So, assuming you’ve chosen that special someone or perhaps you yourself are about to be a trip sitter, let’s delve into how to be the perfect one. 

The Perfect Trip Sitter

Here are the crucial steps to consider in order to become the perfect trip sitter. Remember what Sam said to Frodo: “I can carry you”.

Step 1 – Research The Substance

The first step is to research the substance that your partner on this voyage will be taking. Is it LSD? Is it acid? Is it magic mushrooms? Although many trips are similar, it’s important to understand that all drugs are different and have various effects. If you haven’t taken the drug yourself, then research online the common positive and negative experiences of the selected substance. This will help you understand fully what your tripper is going through. 

Step 2 – The Psychedelic Experience by Tom Leary

The Psychedelic Experience is a popular book by Tom Leary and it’s, sort of, like a trip bible. Becoming aware of its contents could be useful to you when being a trip sitter. Leary splits trips into 5 categories, highlighting the various extremities of psychedelic experiences. Level 1 might include slight sensory enhancement, whilst level 5 will consist of complete dissociation from reality. This book can be used as a dialogue between you and your tripper. It will help you understand.  

Step 3 – Free As A Bird

Step 3 is ensuring everyone has the space and time to complete the trip. You can’t leave and go to work halfway through, and neither can your tripper. Most trips can take up to 6-10 hours so make sure the day is free and time is not at the essence. 

Step 4 – The Perfect Place

Next thing to consider is where this trip will take place. Not only must you ensure it’s safety, but also the correct atmosphere. You don’t want the location to trigger a bad trip. Nature is always a safe bet, although you cannot always trust the weather. Alternatively, indoors with soft surfaces, nice colours, warmth and comfortable blankets is also a good option. Speak with your tripper and decide on the ideal location beforehand. 

Step 5 – Essentials 

Experience a trip can make you hungry and thirsty. But it also can make you forget about drinking and eating all together. That’s where you come in. Ensure that there’s plenty of liquids and tasty food around, so that your tripper does not get too hungry or dehydrated. 

Step 6 – No Judgement or Questions

It’s important to ensure the surroundings are perfect for the trip, but it’s also important to remember how to speak to someone who’s tripping. Avoid judgemental comments and avoid asking too many questions. ‘How are you feeling?’, ‘why are you doing that?’ or ‘you’re acting weird’, these are definitely not good things to say. Instead, be open and allow the tripper to lead the conversation. Be calming and do not encourage fear or too in-depth conversation (unless they need to delve into this). 

Step 7 – Guide Don’t Dictate

A trip sitter is not a trip dictator. Don’t lead the experience, simply guide it. If you feel that the trip is becoming sour or dangerous, lightly try and change the atmosphere and mood of the trip. Encourage playing some games, or looking at some fun lights. Maybe even try giving them some sugar as that can slightly ease the intensity of the experience. 

Step 8 – If A Bad Trip Begins

What if a trip becomes really bad? Sometimes trips can take a dark turn and encouraging games or showing the tripper some cool lights isn’t necessarily enough. In this case, remind the tripper that they’ve taken hallucinogenic drugs and that this won’t last forever. If they keep trying to delve into bad thought patterns, speak to them on their level and help them through their negative thoughts. If the trip is out of your control and you fear the tripper could be in real danger, then don’t be afraid to call someone professional. 

Step 9 – Be Empathetic 

A crucial tip to remember when being a trip sitter is to be empathetic and loving. This trip isn’t about you. It might get boring and it might be longer than expected, but don’t let this turn you into a sour trip sitter. It’s integral that you personify a loving entity for your tripper. This will help them through the experience. If they feel you’re lacking in patience or that you’re getting agitated, this will manifest itself into their trip. Be kind and loving. 

Step 10 – The Aftermath

As the trip comes to a close it’s important not to ease off on your perfect trip sitting abilities. When the drugs wear off, your sitter may start to feel down or introspective. Ensure you’re still being empathetic and non-judgemental. Also, take some time to speak to your tripper about their experience if that’s what they want. It might be the first time they’re able to properly discuss it from an outside point of view. The aftermath is just as important as during when it comes to creating the perfect trip.


A psychedelic trip can be a beautiful experience and one that human being’s have been enjoying for centuries. However, it doesn’t always go to plan. The trip sitter can be the difference between a positive and a negative trip, and that’s why being the perfect one is so important. Hopefully these 10 steps will help you be just that.

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Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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