Episode 368 – Schumer & Co. Push the CAOA

Taylor West and Jahan Marcu join host Heather Sullivan to talk about the Cannabis Administration and Opportunity Act, recently introduced by its three main sponsors Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.), Senator Cory Booker (D-N.J.) and Senator Ron Wyden (D-Ore.), as well as movement at the federal level on advancing medical research into the benefits of psychedelics. Produced by Shea Gunther.

Photo: Don Goofy/Flickr

Wesana Health to Acquire PsyTech, Emphasizing New Shift to Psychedelics

If you haven’t been paying attention, medical psychedelics are on the rise, with the new industry gaining an impressive foothold even before legalizations occur. In this new move, Wesana Health will acquire Psytech, Inc., giving the company new strength to dominate this new emerging market.

The world changes quickly. Not only is Wesana Health about to acquire PsyTech, Inc., signaling even more growth in the medical psychedelics industry, but our favorite psychedelic – cannabis – has more options for consumers than ever. Take Delta 10, THCV, THC-O or Delta-8 THC for example. This half-brother of delta-9 THC provides users with a slightly less intense psychoactive high, doesn’t produce anxiety, and leaves users clear-headed and energetic. This is amazing for anyone who wants a different option. Check out our array of delta-8 THC products – along with tons of other compounds offered, and take advantage of new drug technologies and formulations.

Wesana will acquire Psytech, Inc., what will this mean?

Wesana Health Holdings, is a life sciences company that specializes in developing and delivering therapies for neurological health issues. The Chicago-based company looks to help patients overcome the damage of physical brain trauma which results in neurological, psychological, and mental health problems. The company was founded recently, in 2020, and looks to develop therapeutic solutions using psychedelic therapies including drugs like: Ketamine (and esketamine, which is currently legal), mescaline, MDMA, and psilocybin.

Psychedelitech, Inc. (PsyTech, Inc.) is a company specializing in the medical psychedelics industry, which provides clinical tools and education, as well as clinical care. The company promotes psychedelic-assisted therapy, novel methods of care and the tools to go along with them, and integrative ways for mental healthcare delivery. The company focuses a lot on the use of psilocybin therapies. The company has three parts: Tovana Solutions – a SaaS platform, Tovana Clinics – which provides a psychiatric care network, and PsyTech Connect – a community for psychedelic practitioners.

It was announced on June 13th, 2021, that Wesana Health would acquire PsyTech for $21 million, making PsyTech a completely owned subsidiary of Wesana. This will give Wesana access to all three parts of PsyTech. Wesana is looking to expand its efforts into neurological healthcare. According to CEO Daniel Carcillo (who is also a former NHL hockey player and two-time winner of the Stanley Cup), Wesana is working on new treatments and medications to treat traumatic brain injuries. He made this statement about the acquisition:

medical psychedelics

“The acquisition of PsyTech will greatly accelerate our ability to understand, analyze and improve neurological health and performance by providing a data platform on which to build our technical strategy, clinics in which to apply and accelerate our neuroscience research and relationships with many thousands of the practitioners who will leverage our medicines, diagnostics, and technology to heal people.”

The three arms of PsyTech

PsyTech has three components that Wesana will be taking over. Tovana Clinics – soon to be Wesana Clinics is a chain of mental health clinics which specialize in the delivery of psychedelic-based care, which currently involves esketamine therapy (as this is the only currently legalized psychedelic medication), and looks to incorporate new compounds as they become legal. The chain currently involves two locations, with a third set to open later this year, and about 12 more in the works that should be operational by this time next year.

PsyTech’s Tovana Solutions platform provides data collection, tracking in real-time, patient management, and general analysis tools. It also provides healthcare professionals the ability to learn current protocols and track effectiveness. The platform will be renamed Wesana Solutions.

The last arm, PsyTech Connect, is a network of over 8,000 professionals who tune in to find out about best clinical practices and protocols. Besides the network of practitioners, it also provides conferences, and educational material. The idea for Wesana is to integrate with psychiatrists across the US to expand the company and its therapeutic model.

Wesana founder and Executive Chairman, Chad Bronstein, reminds: “There are over 50,000 psychiatrists and 15,000 psychiatric practices in North America alone who will require solutions to adopt the novel and effective psychedelic-assisted therapies that already exist and are currently in development.”

Both the boards of Wesana and PsyTech have approved the acquisition unanimously. In order for it to officially go through, 2/3 of PsyTech’s shareholders must also approve. With 67% of shareholders already signed onto an agreement of support for the measure, there shouldn’t be anything getting in the way of the acquisition happening.

What psychedelic medications are already used?

Esketamine therapy

The medical psychedelic movement is massively picking up speed, even if it hasn’t quite filtered through to mainstream media just yet. There are, by the way, reasons that news of this industry’s growth hasn’t made major headlines in major publications. As of right now, there are a lot of smaller biotech companies like Wesana and PsyTech getting in on it, and that means competition for the major pharmaceutical companies, which so far do have the only legal offering. Until large pharmaceutical companies can fully profit off the industry, I expect it will be kept quiet, despite major growth.

So what is currently legal? Only one medication is out called esketamine. What is this compound? Esketamine, as the name implies, is a close relative of the dissociative and psychedelic party drug, (and animal tranquiller and human anesthetic), ketamine. In 2019 the FDA approved esketamine for treatment for major depression.

In 2020, the FDA updated the approval to cover prescription for suicidal thoughts as well because of how fast-acting the compound is. Esketamine is the first new medication approval for depression which does not fit the standard model of antidepressants, as its not an SSRI, tricyclic antidepressant, or MAO inhibitor. In fact, it entirely goes against the current model for the treatment of mental illness, meaning it does not work with monoamines.

Esketamine is sold under the name Spravato, being marketed by Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies. It has been approved as an anesthetic under other trade names like ketanest. Esketamine is a Schedule III substance in the US.

What psychedelic medications are on the way?

Obviously, if one psychedelic drug has been approved, which already breaks with the idea that all psychedelics are illegal (obviously not the case), then why shouldn’t it be expected that more are on the way? In fact, they most certainly are, and to show how clear it is these legalizations are coming, the US government is actually pushing for them through its own Food & Drug Administration. In fact, the two compounds its currently pushing, are specifically Schedule I drugs at the moment, but will not be for much longer. Here’s why:

In 2017, the FDA earmarked the drug MDMA as a ‘breakthrough therapy’ for the treatment of PTSD. What does this term mean? According to the FDA, “A breakthrough therapy designation is for a drug that treats a serious or life-threatening condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement on a clinically significant endpoint(s) over available therapies.” This designation isn’t blindly made, but generally comes at the request of a drug company, which is currently doing research that shows the compound is more promising than current options.

mdma therapy

This description is meant to quicken research and get products to market faster. What this means, is that the FDA is pushing for a Schedule I substance – defined as a highly dangerous compound with no therapeutic value, to be on pharmacy shelves sooner, rather than later. To make it even more clear, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) – which is the organization that won the designation for its research, is currently in phase 3 trials for an MDMA drug, which were put together in conjunction with the FDA to ensure the trials and outcomes would be in line with FDA regulation. Is there a better way to say the US government wants this drug out to consumers?

The thing is, MDMA isn’t the only drug being backhandedly pushed by the US government. In 2019, the FDA gave two separate ‘breakthrough therapy’ titles to psilocybin from magic mushrooms, for use with major depressive disorder. The first granting of this designation was given to Compass Pathways, which looks to treat the most severe treatment-resistant depression, and the second time around it went to Usona Institute, which has ongoing trials to test the efficacy of just one dose of psilocybin to treat major depression.


That Wesana Health is about to acquire PsyTech, is just another indication of the growing magnitude of this new industry. The acquisition also highlights not only the growing appeal of psychedelic compounds to treat mental illness, but of the networks now being put together, which will set up the entire framework of how these therapeutic services will run.

Hello and welcome! You’ve arrived at CBDtesters.co, your #1 spot for all the most thought provoking, and relevant cannabis-related news globally. Take a read-thru of the site daily to stay abreast of what’s happening in the exciting universe of legal cannabis and medical psychedelics, and sign up for our newsletter, so you never miss a thing.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Wesana Health to Acquire PsyTech, Emphasizing New Shift to Psychedelics appeared first on CBD Testers.

Magic Mushrooms Heal the Brain, According to New Yale Study

While cannabis is slowly creeping out of the shadows to be the new pharmaceutical darling, another class of drugs is patiently waiting its turn. Psychedelics have already shown great promise in the past for help with neural issues, and now evidence demonstrates just how magic mushrooms can help heal the brain, according to a new Yale study.

How cool is it to think that magic mushrooms can actually help heal your brain? Just as cool as it is to think that cannabis can quell your anxiety, or stop your tremors. We don’t know all the benefits of psychedelics, but we sure know a lot of the benefits of cannabis at this point, and both drug classes are highly promising. With cannabis, just like psychedelics, there are tons of options, and one of the best these days is delta-8 THC, since it gets around the issue of causing anxiety, fogging up the brain, and couch locking a person. With delta-8, the high is less intense, and more energetic, making this beneficial for many users. Check out our array of Delta 10, THC-O, THCV & delta-8 THC deals, and keep your ears open for the real start of the medical psychedelics industry.

What are psychedelics?

Psychedelics are a subclass of hallucinogenic drugs, which themselves are a type of psychoactive drugs. Whether made in a lab, like LSD, or produced by nature, like peyote, hallucinogens are known for creating a certain kind of experience. As per the name, the whole idea is that the experience encompasses things that do not actually exist. A person on hallucinogens is likely to see, hear, feel, smell, and taste things that are not there.

The Psychedelic Side of Weed: THC-O-Acetate, And Military Testing

Beyond the actual hallucinations, these drugs are also known for promoting feelings of connectedness between people and with the universe, bringing a sense of spirituality to the user, feelings of euphoria, and an overall sense of wellbeing. While most research indicates the general safety of these compounds (despite ongoing government smear campaigns), dosing is incredibly important, with larger than necessary doses sometimes leading to a ‘bad trip’ in which the user experiences negative feelings and hallucinations, often accompanied by physical symptoms, like an irregular heartbeat, dizziness, chills, and nausea.

Psychedelics – for the most part – are globally illegal, having been put in Schedule I of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971, a UN treaty meant to regulate the production and consumption of psychoactive substances. Each country has its own code, as well, with different countries allowing different things. Sometimes an individual country breaks with the Convention, and sometimes the laws can be confusing.

Can magic mushrooms heal the brain?

Take magic mushrooms, for instance. While the two main psychedelic components are generally stated as illegal – psylocibin and psilocin, the mushrooms themselves are often perfectly legal, creating a bit of a conundrum. This was exemplified in September of 2001 when the Secretary of the Board for the INCB – the organization which monitors how UN drug treaties are implemented, made the following statement to the Dutch Ministry of Health:

“As a matter of international law, no plants (natural material) containing psilocine and psilocybin are at present controlled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. Consequently, preparations made of these plants are not under international control and, therefore, not subject of the articles of the 1971 Convention.” 

How do magic mushrooms heal the brain?

There has been more research into psychedelics than most people are aware of, and I’ll get into it soon. But let’s start with what just came out. In February, 2021, Yale researchers put out this study: Psilocybin induces rapid and persistent growth of dendritic spines in frontal cortex in vivo, which was published in the journal Neuron in July, 2021.

The study was not on humans, but used mice, and investigated through chronic two-photon microscopy, the apical dendritic spines, in medial frontal cortex neurons. The basic translation of this, is that the scientists used imaging to look at one type of dendrite (from which neurotransmitters are fired) in a part of the front of mouse brains.

Here’s what they found. After one dose of psilocybin, the spines of the mice increased by 10% in size and density. This was motivated by an increased formation rate of the spine, and happened in an astonishing 24 hours! Not only that, changes were still valid one month after administration of the psilocybin. This is truly amazing in and of itself, but there was another benefit. The psilocybin worked to improve behavioral deficits related to stress, as well as dealing with increased excitatory neurotransmissions. This means that behavioral issues related to stress were minimized, and over-firing neurons were quieted. The gist of it, is that the study results show how psilocybin can help rewire the brain in the cortex, and how it can do so very quickly, and with lasting results.

Associate professor of psychiatry, and neuroscience, Alex Kwan, who was also the senior author of the study, said “We not only saw a 10% increase in the number of neuronal connections, but also they were on average about 10% larger, so the connections were stronger as well.” He went on to say, “It was a real surprise to see such enduring changes from just one dose of psilocybin… These new connections may be the structural changes the brain uses to store new experiences.”

magic mushrooms heal brain

The FDA and breakthrough therapies

Not only are magic mushrooms being studied for their ability to help heal the brain, but they are seemingly so effective for issues like major depression, that the US Food & Drug Administration earmarked psilocybin as a breakthrough therapy in 2019. A ‘breakthrough therapy’ is defined as a: “drug that treats a serious or life-threatening condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement on a clinically significant endpoint(s) over available therapies.”

This designation is literally meant to spur on research so that products can get to market. Now, consider that the FDA is a US governmental agency, that just earmarked a Schedule I substance in order to get products out faster. Kind of sounds like the US isn’t that much against it, so long as it’s a pharmaceutical product. Considering MDMA was similarly earmarked in 2017 for use with PTSD, anyone who actually believes these drugs will remain illegal, is not paying attention to what’s going on. As soon as there is a product to be sold pharmaceutically, these compounds will be legalized. And we know this because the government is already pushing for it through the FDA.

Is all of this new information?

Not. At. All. The idea that psychedelics can be beneficial has been known since the mid-1900’s when LSD was studied for its ability to help with addiction, anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic diseases, with a particular focus on helping hardcore alcoholics stop drinking. And it seemed to do pretty well for alcoholism in particular, especially as a part of psychedelic assisted therapy, or therapy that involves the use of a psychedelic drug during the therapy session, with guidance from the psychiatrist.

This was exemplified by the work of Humphrey Osmond and the Saskatchewan trials in Canada in the 50’s and 60’s, in which it was consistently found over a decade of time, that approximately 40-45% of test subjects could abstain from drinking for at least a year, after LSD treatment.

This was mirrored around that same time in the UK by Ronald Sandison, who published a study in 1954 with his findings of how LSD helped with a full or partial recovery of nearly every one of the 36 psychoneurotic test subjects used. Sandison had a slightly different method than Osmond, though both methods can likely be used optimally in different situations. Whereas Osmond’s research centered around giving patients one big dose of LSD, Sandison’s model was for multiple smaller doses to be given over time.

Several other studies came out during the 1950’s-70’s, mainly centered around LSD. Of course, that all stopped in 1968 with the Staggers-Dodd bill in the US, which formally illegalized both LSD and psilocybin. This was followed within a few years by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, making both compounds illegal worldwide.

psychedelic-assisted therapy

The Staggers-Dodd bill came into play years after smear campaigns were started, much of which was meant to simply drive attention away from the Vietnam war, and the senseless violence being played out on the backs of the Vietnamese, and paid for with US tax dollars. This demonization was made clearer in 1994 when John Ehrlichman, the former Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under Nixon, made this statement:

“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course, we did.”

THC-O Acetate: More Potent, Psychedelic and Spiritual Than Delta 9 THC

THC-O Vape Cartridge Maui Wowie
THC-O Vape Cartridge Maui Wowie

Magic Mushrooms & Your Brain: Conclusion

That psilocybin will be legalized soon, might not be a direct fact, but it sure seems likely. After all, how often does a US government agency work to get research done and products made, without a plan to sell them. In that sense, it is a sure thing, so long as nothing weird – or political – happens to change the trajectory. Not only will psilocybin and MDMA likely be legalized in the next few years, but with all the information on how compounds like psilocybin from magic mushrooms can heal the brain, it will also fully disrupt the current model of mental illness, and the current pharmaceutical model of anti-depressants.

Translation? Within a few years, you’ll probably be prescribed psilocybin to treat your major depression, over anything else. This is where things are going, and it’s not likely to change course right now.

Hello there! Welcome to CBDtesters.co, your best online spot for the most thought-provoking and relevant cannabis and psychedelic-related news globally. Read-thru the site frequently to stay on top of the ever-changing world of legal drugs, and sign up for our newsletter, so you never miss a story.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Magic Mushrooms Heal the Brain, According to New Yale Study appeared first on CBD Testers.

The Psychedelic Side of Weed: THC-O-Acetate, And Military Testing

Pretty much every other day, we’re finding about some new part, or some new invention, of the cannabis plant. One of the more interesting ones to make news recently? THC-O-Acetate. Here, we’ll go into what this psychedelic compound is, how THC-O-Acetate was discovered, and the military abuses that went along with it.

The psychedelic THC-O-Acetate sure sounds interesting, and goes to show just how many different products can be made from cannabis. Compounds like that one, THCV, Delta-8 THC and Delta 10 are the newer face of the cannabis industry. We support the expansion of cannabis use, and have some really great deals for delta-8 THC and many other compounds. Take a look at our selection, and join the cutting edge of marijuana use.

What is THC-O-Acetate?

THC-O-Acetate is what’s called an acetate ester of delta-9 THC.  Let’s break that down. So, we’ve got our standard delta-9 THC to begin with. This is the main psychoactive part of the cannabis plant, which is produced naturally through the decarboxylation of its parent compound THCA. We also already know of slightly different versions of this compound. We know that if you move the double bond in delta-9, that it creates a stereoisomer like delta-8, or delta-10, or delta-7 THC. We know that if you eat it, it gets metabolized into something slightly different – 11-hydroxy-THC. We even know that CBD is a direct isomer of delta-9 sharing the exact same chemical formula, but with a different configuration of atoms.

So, what does it mean to have an acetate ester? Well, this is where it gets to slightly higher-level chemistry, which might be hard to understand, but which should be gone over briefly. Interested parties can investigate further for a better understanding. Basically, an acetate ester is a product of a form of decarboxylation called LTA decarboxylation. We know decarboxylation means losing a carboxyl group, but there are different ways for this to happen.

The one we are most familiar with when dealing with cannabis, is heat/time induced decarboxylation, but there are other processes by which decarboxylation happens using chemicals instead. One is LTA decarboxylation, which uses lead tetraacetate (very toxic), a compound that promotes oxidation, to create oxidative decarboxylation. One of the byproducts of this, is acetate ester. This acetate ester does not occur naturally in nature, and must be synthesized from the chemical processing of delta-9, or THCA. THC-O-Acetate is a synthetic analogue of delta-9.

Best THC-O Carts: Top THC-O Vape Cartridges of 2021
Best THC-O Carts: Top THC-O Vape Cartridges of 2021

It is said that this compound is 2-3X the potency of standard delta-9, and that unlike other known cannabinoids, there is a psychedelic effect produced by THC-O-Acetate. Also, unlike standard delta-9, THC-O-Acetate’s effect can take about 30 minutes to kick in. So where did this compound come from, and why do we know about it anyway? Well, that sure is one messed up story!

Edgewood Arsenal human experiments & the US Military

Much like many other compounds we’re only widely hearing about now, like delta-8 and delta-10, THC-O-Acetate was discovered several decades back, sometime between 1949-1974. In 1974, the above referenced instructions for synthesis were put out by Dr. Gold, in which he dubbed the compound with the name THC-O-Acetate. If it seems like 1949-1974 is quite a big window, and not terribly specific, there is a reason why.

As stated, this is not a naturally occurring compound, and non-naturally occurring compounds have to be discovered. It’s hard to pin down a direct date, which is probably because the compound was used between the years of 1949-1975 by the US military, in what was called the Edgewood Arsenal Experiments. As the US military generally performs its human-rights abuses under the cover of night, its not shocking that when exactly it was made, is hard to say.

What were these awesome, and secretive-enough-that-barely-anyone-knows-about-them-even-today studies? The Edgewood Arsenal Human Experiments were conducted between 1948-1975 in the Edgewood Arsenal facility in Maryland. Testing was run by the US Army Chemical Corps, with the stated reason being to assess how chemical warfare agents in low doses, can affect military personnel, as well as testing protective clothing, vaccines, and other pharmaceuticals.

Part of these studies had to do with psychochemical warfare, studied under the ‘Medical Research Volunteer Program’ which existed from 1956-1975. The psychedelic THC-O-Acetate was looked at as a possible non-lethal method of incapacitation, and was compared alongside drugs like LSD and benzodiazepines. All told, the Edgewood experiments subjected around 8,000 people (military and not) to three decades of experimentation, with no follow-up ever planned to assess damage to participants, even as test subjects experienced symptoms of exposure to agents.

If it all sounds horribly shady and terrible, it was. Enough that in 1975 the experiments were abruptly cut off, and all test subjects removed from the facility. The doctor who founded and directed the program, Dr. Van Murray Sim was called before congress and yelled at by law-makers, particularly for not providing any follow-up care to participants. The army investigated it and didn’t find any injury, but considering the army ran the experiments, expecting the same entity which performed the human rights abuses, to fairly investigate into them, is about as useful as having a pharmaceutical company put out its own test results, as fact.

The reality, which has trickled out over time, is that soldiers weren’t exactly given the choice about being in these experiments, but were forced through threats of jail or Vietnam. And the idea that no one was hurt is ludicrous considering what was being tested, like tear gas, sarin gas, and the deadly BZ. Soldier stories do not in any way match the army line of ‘no one was hurt.’ This whole study represents the awfulness and gravity of US military abuses, and the complicity of the US government.

What does this mean about the psychedelic THC-O-Acetate?

The weirdest part about THC-O-Acetate, and its initial creation, is that there doesn’t seem to be any information released on it. Not on how it was found, the reasons it was being synthesized, or what it even does. Whatever the military learned about it, was never shared with the rest of us. While we spend a lot of time being unsure of this compound, and what exactly it does, the military already knows, and simply never released the information.

An interesting note about THC-O-Acetate… It was actually being used recreationally for quite some time, and is one of the only analogues of THC that has been used recreationally in smokable form. My guess? It was likely released by the army at the time of testing, to either sell to the public, or to see what would happen to the public. In fact, it seems like the army might well have conducted two experiments with this particular compound, one in-house, and one on the street. This, of course, is just my supposition.

Best THC-O Carts: Top THC-O Vape Cartridges of 2021

As more time goes on, and other entities besides the army study this compound, more can be said about it. As of right now, the lack of information available to the public is paltry at best, with the best evidence of some sort of safety being that it has been used for years as a recreational drug, without any awful stories attached. Although its also quite possible that if there was a big negative story, that it would have been suppressed by the military.

Is this psychedelic THC-O-Acetate compound legal?

No, and hardly up for debate, though I obviously can’t make that statement outright, and realistically, it could probably be argued in court to some degree. However, the basics are that its not legal, and the reason is pretty straightforward, and not without reason. THC-O-Acetate is a synthetic analogue of delta-9 THC. All analogues of illegal substances, are automatically illegal under the Federal Analogue Act. Plus, it’s a synthetic, which means it doesn’t matter where it’s sourced from, its illegal.

Now, like I said, it doesn’t mean someone can’t take it to court, but unlike delta-8 THC, where there’s a grain of reasonability, there unfortunately is not with THC-O-Acetate. Does this mean there won’t be a THC-O-Acetate industry? Not at all, and it seems that not only has one been around for awhile, but it’s only growing bigger with more public knowledge of its existence. In fact, much like delta-8 THC, THC-O-Acetate looks like it will continue to bolster the cannabis black market.

cannabis black market

Why did I say the illegality is not without reason? It’s very easy to think that whatever comes out of a plant like cannabis has to be okay, but synthetics don’t come directly out of the plant, and don’t exist by themselves in nature, and we don’t know why. It could be that compounds like delta-10 and THC-O-Acetate simply happened to not be compounds produced by the plant in those configurations, but for no particular reason. But it also could be that when we don’t see something show up in nature, that there is a reason.

Maybe some particular formulations could actually be poisonous, or cause nerve damage, instigate heart attacks, or lead to sudden death. Maybe they don’t exist in nature, because nature doesn’t support their existence. And without testing, we don’t know. While it’s a safer bet to trust a synthetic of a compound that does exist, it is very questionable to assume that anything made as a synthetic from the plant, will have the same level of safety. For this reason, interested buyers should do what they can to ensure their own safety by knowing the processing details, chemicals used, and the site/store they are buying from.


There’s actually not much to say about THC-O-Acetate in the end, because almost nothing is known about it. I mean, sure, the army knows a lot by now, but that doesn’t help the rest of us. In a way, it’s very cool that psychedelic effects can be obtained from a delta-9 analogue like THC-O-Acetate, but THC-O-Acetate also represents the awfulness of the government and the military, how far those entities will go for their own purposes – regardless of the threat to the public, and the overall secretiveness employed even about general research topics.

This could be a promising synthetic, but like all synthetics, it’s not about to be legalized. If THC-O-Acetate has a real future, it’ll most likely be as a pharmaceutical product.

Hello! Welcome to CBDtesters.co, your best online spot for the most relevant and interesting cannabis-related news globally. Check the site out frequently to stay current on the quickly changing world of legal cannabis, and sign up to receive our newsletter, so you never miss a thing.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post The Psychedelic Side of Weed: THC-O-Acetate, And Military Testing appeared first on CBD Testers.

THC-O Acetate: More Potent, Psychedelic and Spiritual Than Delta 9 THC

THC-O gets very little attention in the cannabis industry and most consumers are probably completely unaware of its existence, but wrongfully so as it is many times more potent than Delta 9 THC and said to produce very uplifting and spiritual experiences. The purity, strength, and consistency of this compound could have several implications for both the medical and recreational markets.

The emergence of THC-O can take the world of cannabis into a whole new direction. However, we know way less about it than we do about delta-8 THC, another newcomer to the cannabis products market. Delta-8 is interesting because it functions much like delta-9 THC, but without producing anxiety and paranoia, or couch locking users. In fact, delta-8 is associated with a more clear-headed high and more energy in general, which makes it preferable for many cannabis users. Are you one of them? Check out our assortment of Delta-8 THC deals and order some today.

What is THC-O?

THC-O is short for THC-O-Acetate, or THC Acetate/ATHC. Most of the time, you’ll see it written as THC-O or ATHC. It’s important not to confuse ATHC with THCA. In tetrahyrdocannabinolic acid, or THCA, the A stands for acid (not acetate like with ATHC). THCA is the parent molecule of THC, found in raw plants that have not yet been decarboxylated.

THC-O is a synthetic cannabinoid that can only be produced in a lab. While it may be tempting to try and make some at home, the process can be volatile and dangerous, so it’s best left to the chemists. In short, THC-O is an analog of THC, meaning is has a similar chemical structure but, as is the case in chemistry, minor differences often lead to substantial changes.

Because it’s an artificially produced cannabinoid, what you see is what you get – meaning all you get is THC-O and none of the beneficial terpenes and flavonoids that are found in natural oils. This is an obvious issue for whole-plant advocates and proponents of the entourage effects, but when it comes to pharmaceutical formulations, isolated cannabinoids are always preferred.

The purity of these compounds means that 1 milligram of isolate equals measures out to exactly 1 milligram of cannabinoid, whereas 1 milligram of full-spectrum plant extract might have 0.5 milligrams of THC, 0.3 milligrams of CBD, and 0.2 combination of other terpenes and compounds. This makes isolate very easy to use for specific dosing and product production.

According to Serge Chistov, the inventor of Nanobidiol Technology, says his team has found a safe and efficient method to acetylate THC using only approved solvents. Chistov says his team “developed the analytical standard for testing for THC-O, as well as being in the final stages of introducing products to retail outlets.” So, if everything stays on track, we can expect to see THC-O therapeutics relatively soon.

The THCA to THC-O Conversion

Back to the THCA vs ATHC/THC-O. We covered the difference between the two (acid vs acetate), now it’s time to discuss how THCA can be converted to THC-O. Again, it’s a complex chemical process that should only be attempted in a professional laboratory setting, this is NOT something that can be done safely at home.

Carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups are both polar and hydrophilic, meaning small amounts of THCA (or any other cannabinoid acid) are water soluble. Using two chemicals – sulfuric acid and acetic anhydride – begins the conversion process.

When THCA is converted to THC-O- Acetate, the polar C-OH becomes C-O-CH2C=O-CH3. The carboxylic acid group is hydrolyzed (forms water) by the heating with the sulfuric acid, which then reacts with excess anhydride to produce acetic acid. This acid reacts with regular THC at the hydroxyl group and becomes the potent THC-O-Acetate.

THC-O is 300 Percent More Potent Than THC

We already know that THC and THC-O are chemically similar, but that small variation in molecular structure translates to a huge difference in potency. To be specific, THC-O is about 300 percent stronger than regular Delta 9 THC (a 300 percent increase would be 4 the original value). It really makes you appreciate the tremendous impact of these tiny molecules.

There are times when THC, despite how amazing it is, doesn’t seem powerful enough to accomplish the task at hand, especially when used for pain, digestive disorders, and other chronic health conditions. THC-O is not only much more potent, but our bodies recognize it as a completely different compound, so although you may have developed a tolerance to THC, you can still use THC-O and experience the full effects.

“The prodrug [THC-O] enters the system as a Trojan horse. The body sees the horse, the body tries to destroy the horse, keeping the insides of the horse available for the body to process. This means the THC inside of the prodrug preparation will not be metabolized into 11-hydroxy-THC at the same rate and speed as the native THC molecule. That change in the metabolic perception of the body is what is partially responsible for the effect that most people describe as different,” Chistov explains.

Even recreationally, it has its place and definitely sounds like fun. There is a huge market of people searching for more potent cannabis products, which is exactly how concentrates came to be. It might sound intimidating to some, being considerably stronger than D9 THC, but for people who like to experiment with psychedelics (myself included), it sounds like something worth trying at least once.

Those who have had the opportunity to try it have state that it’s a much more spiritual, psychedelic, and introspective high than what they are used to from regular THC. Even regular cannabis users noticed a difference. This alone has me sold, and I know many other people who feel the exact same way (hey subscribers, stay tuned for when products begin to launch).

Final Thoughts

Although THC-O is very tempting and highly beneficial, you’re unlikely very many products containing this compound just yet. Some online retailers are selling THC-O vape carts and similar, but without knowing much about these companies it’s hard to say whether the products are legit or not. When it comes to cannabis, especially newer compounds, it’s best to stick to the most reputable retailers you can find. If you need guidance, you can always check with your local dispensary to see if they have any leads, although it is not guaranteed they will know where to find any.

Regardless, if you can find it, THC-O is a wonderful cannabinoid for both therapeutic and recreational purposes. The acetate version of THC can be helpful when the real compound doesn’t work as expected. And, since every human is at least slightly different biologically, some patients need different products to achieve the desired effect. “Because THC-O-Ac affects the receptors differently, the effect might be beneficial to people who might not receive relief from conventional THC or other formulations,” Chistov says.

As cannabis legalization measures continue to progress throughout the world, more will be available to us in both the recreational and pharmaceutical sectors. Once the research floodgates open up completely, we can look forward to some incredibly pure and potent cannabis products hitting the store shelves. For now, remember to check out or Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for more articles and exclusive deals on legal psychoactive cannabinoids.

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Texas First State to Say ‘No’ to Delta-8 THC Criminalization

Delta-8 THC has been the center of controversy in the United States. While the US government did officially illegalize it, and while many states are following suit independently, Texas is not. In fact, Texas is the first state to officially say ‘no’ to delta-8 THC illegalization.

We’ve known that delta-8 is pretty awesome for a while now. After all, it’s another form of THC that has benefits like less psychoactive high, no anxiety or paranoia produced, a clear-headed energetic high, and no couch locking. We’re not the only ones who think that either, as Texas just said no to delta-8 THC illegalization. We’re dedicated to bringing you the best products available, so take a look through our Delta-8 THC deals and give this new-fangled version of THC a try.

Recap of what’s been going on in Texas

Last month, I reported on four different cannabis-related bills that were making their way through Texas’ Congress at that time. When I wrote the article, none of the four bills had passed. All bills represent a general loosening in Texas law toward cannabis and cannabis crimes. The following is a brief breakdown of the initiatives in Texan government:

HB 441: This bill would decrease criminal penalties for possession of small amounts of cannabis. Under this new legislation, up to an ounce would be only a class C misdemeanor with no jail time attached, or loss of driving license. While this bill would purportedly terminate the threat of being arrested for small-time possession, it also indicates that in order for offenders to take advantage of this, they’d have to plead no-contest to a charge (meaning there is one), which would then defer the case for a year.


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No criminal record would be attached if a year is completed without incident. All of this indicates that this is not a decriminalization, as it implies a defendant will still face criminal charges if this exact procedure isn’t followed. Defendants would also be required to pay fines up to $500.

HB 1535: This bill would expand the medical cannabis program in Texas by including all cancer and PTSD patients. In an edit of the bill, chronic pain was left off, even despite growing issues with the opioid epidemic. A provision to allow Department of State Health Services to add qualifying conditions as needed was removed as well. And so was a provision that would have increased the THC cap to 5%, instead of 1%.

drug laws - Texas Delta-8 THC

HB 1802: This isn’t actually a cannabis bill, but since both cannabis and psychedelics are enjoying new legislative freedoms, I thought it should be included. This bill would institute a requirement of the state to study psychedelics, specifically for the treatment of veterans. The bill makes specific mention of MDMA, psilocybin from magic mushrooms, and ketamine (the close cousin of the already FDA approved esketamine – Spravato.) Passage of this bill would put the responsibility of the research jointly between the state of Texas and Baylor College of Medicine.

HB 2593: This bill would also lower penalties for cannabis, but this time centered on THC concentrates and infused products. Both are currently felonies right now, but this bill would enable the possession of two ounces as a class B misdemeanor – the same penalty for flowers. This bill came with another provision which was not originally there, but which was added on by the Senate after the House approved without it. This provision creates a definition for ‘total THC’, which then automatically includes all isomers. This provision would therefore mean a criminalization of delta-8 THC. This update sent the bill back to the House to either approve, or create a committee to come to an agreement.

Update on these bills

HB 441 cleared the House – as per the last article, but still has not entered the Senate. HB 1535 has officially cleared both the House and Senate, and was sent to the governor on May 31st, 2021. It does not appear to have been signed into law just yet. HB 1802 ALSO passed both the House and Senate, and was sent to the governor’s office where it awaits signing. And last is HB 2593, which is an interesting story.

As mentioned before for HB 2593 – the bill that would lower penalties for concentrates and extracts, but which would also criminalize isomers like delta-8 THC, the provision that would illegalize delta-8 THC was added by the Senate after the House already passed the bill. And this meant the House had to either accept the revisions or create a commission to work on a resolution. The House decided on the latter, with the last action taken that the House would convene a conference committee to form a resolution.

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The latest news to come out about HB 2593, will sure make those in the delta-8 industry take a sigh of relief. The House was not happy with the ‘total THC’ provision which would illegalize delta-8 THC, and removed it from the draft. The House conference committee then approved it once again without this provision in a 95-44 vote. However, the Senate did not vote on it again, as the legislative session ended, meaning the bill was adjourned sine die. This term means that since the congressional session ended with no new date given, that all unfinished cases end with it. Thus HB 2593, was killed.

Though this was a positive moment for those who did not want delta-8 to be more heavily restricted, it also means that sanctions have not been lowered for THC concentrates and extracts which therefore remain felonies. The dying of this bill is only partway positive. The other part is actually a major setback.

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And let’s not forget HB 3948

While it wasn’t mentioned in my last article, HB 3948 is yet another bill that would have criminalized delta-8 THC. This bill missed its deadline just like HB 2593, and died the same way last month. HB 3948 related to “the production and regulation of hemp and consumable hemp products; providing administrative penalties; creating a criminal offense.” This bill represents another case where the senate added a provision which slowed things down, and which would have criminalized delta-8 THC by attacking it as a synthetic, as well as limiting delta-9 usage.

A conference committee was called (as was done for HB 2593), and the issue of delta-8 was one of the main motivators to cause gridlock. No resolution was met in time, and the bill died when it didn’t meet the deadline, meaning no update to the hemp program will be made. It also means that two times last month Texas said ‘no’ to a delta-8 THC criminalization.

What is delta-8 THC, and why the fuss?

In short, delta-8 THC is a double bond isomer of delta-9 THC, meaning they share the same chemical formula, but have a slightly different configuration of atoms, specifically the placement of a double bond. Delta-8 is naturally occurring and is produced from the oxidation of delta-9 when it comes into contact with oxygen. Delta-8 has been associated with not producing the anxiety and paranoia that standard delta-9 is often known for, and it’s said that delta-8 creates a high 2/3 the intensity of delta-9. Delta-8 is also known for producing a high that’s clear-headed, leaving users with more energy, and less couch-locking effect. All of this makes delta-8 sound pretty good.

Delta-8 came into prominence with the advent of the 2018 US Farm Bill, which made it appear that delta-8 fit into a loophole that allowed the legal sale of THC. This, because delta-8 can be sourced from the ‘legal’ delta-9 of hemp (delta-9 content no more than .3%). However this was essentially not the case, with several legalities making delta-8 less legal than what people thought.

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A lot of this has to do with the Federal Analogue Act; the cap of .3% THC in flowers, processing, and final products, which applies to delta-8 as an isomer of delta-9; and its definition as being a possible synthetic due to human processing help, which would mean it was never under the definition of hemp.

Though delta-8 appears naturally, this is in tiny amounts, leading to the need for human processing help, which has been taken to mean synthetic by many government bodies at this point, including Colorado, which along with other states, independently illegalized delta-8. As a final nail in the coffin, the US government recently added delta-8 to the Controlled Substances list as an alternate name for ‘tetrahydrocannabinols’ which sits in Schedule I, under criminal code 7370.

marijuana plants

Colorado, when it illegalized the compound, made no bones that it was in regards to health dangers related to processing methods, and NOT the compound itself, which has never showed medically to be dangerous. This implies that simply regulating the processing of the compound would be the more ideal way to go. My guess is that there is a pharmaceutical push to keep delta-8 out of the mainstream, until it can be formulated into a pharmaceutical product for sale. Just a thought.

Texas is the only state thus far to show some kind of understanding that simply illegalizing delta-8 is not necessarily the way to treat it. And thus, in a state with no recreational program, Texas has actually said ‘no’ to a concrete delta-8 THC criminalization. And this despite its federally illegal status. Texas can’t legalize delta-8 without legalizing recreational cannabis altogether. So, the only thing it did, was to not officially criminalize it. This is still progress.


So, there you have it, small wins for delta-8 THC in the most unexpected location of Texas. Who’d have thought that a state still refusing a recreational cannabis program, would work this hard to keep delta-8 from complete criminalization. Well, that’s what’s been happening so far. Texas has legislatively said ‘no’ to delta-8 THC criminalization. At least for now.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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Nature’s Technology: Using the Mushroom Mycelium Network to Grow Cannabis

The mycelium network has been known about for quite some time as the system used by mushrooms to communicate and spawn. Now, this same natural technology can be employed to aid in cannabis cultivation. Indeed, the mycelium network, and its incredible ability for communication, can be used to help grow cannabis.

Some people are happy to cultivate their own, and can employ tactics like the mycelium network to grow cannabis. Other people prefer to buy their products. We support both, but have a range of products – particularly delta-8 THC – for those who prefer to purchase. If you haven’t heard of delta-8 yet, it’s an alternate form of THC that causes less anxiety, and leaves users clear-headed and energetic. We support everyone using cannabis in the form they prefer, so if you happen to be someone who can benefit from delta-8, check out our array of Delta-8 THC deals, and pick the products best for you.

What is the mycelium network?

First off, the mycelium network is relevant to fungi, and some bacterial colonies. Mycelia are tiny thread-like structures that branch out in masses. By themselves they are hyphae, together they form mycelium networks. Each fungal spore produces a mycelium, which is not capable of sexually reproducing until it finds another compatible mycelium. When these two compatible monokaryotic mycelium get together, they form a dikaryotic mycelium, which can then produce a mushroom.

Mycelia can often be found underground, but can be found in other places, like where wood is rotting, or in the roots of other plants. They serve an important service in the ecosystem, breaking down organic material in the soil, so that component parts can be available again as nutrients for other plants. About 92% of plants have interaction with these fungi, creating a symbiotic relationship, called mycorrhiza. Not all types of mycelium connections will form these symbiotic relationships. Saprophyte and parasitic mycelium, which either scavenge for food, or absorb it from a living host while providing no benefit, do not.

Mycorrhiza – broken down from the Greek ‘mukès rhiza’ (fungus root), implies a beneficial relationship for both parties (plants) involved. In a typical mycorrhiza relationship, the plant will provide the fungus with sugars from photosynthesis, and the fungus helps bring water and nutrients from the soil, to the plant. The fungi in these relationships can often act as protection for the plant from pathogens, as well as triggering self-defense chemicals in the attached plant. This allows for ‘priming’, which means quicker and more effective immune responses in the future.

Mycorrhiza fungi

Mycorrhiza fungi can grow either around the outside of the plant’s roots (ectomycorrhiza), or inside them (endomycorrhiza). The latter can actually invade the roots of the plant. In these cases, a mantle is formed around the roots by the hyphae. Plants that have grown accustomed to a relationship with mycorrhiza fungi, depend on it for better growth and higher yields. If the mycorrhiza is harmed, or taken away, the plant will do much worse on its own.

Can plants talk to each other via the mycelium network?

This, of course, depends on your definition of communication. If you’re thinking that two fungi are speaking back and forth to each other, or that a fungus is having a conversation with a tree, you’ll be disappointed by the truth. But the truth is no less amazing, even if the way plants communicate via the mycelium network, is in contrast to our ideas of what communication means.

In 1997, University of British Colombia researcher Suzanne Simard, put out this study, Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field, which explored the ability of Douglas fir trees and paper birch trees to transfer carbon amongst them, via a mycelium network. Since then, it has also been found that plants can exchange phosphorus and nitrogen too, also by way of mycelia.

Simard believes that it goes beyond simple transfers. She thinks that larger, stronger trees, use the network to help out smaller, or younger ones. In her 1997 study, Simard found that seedlings in the shade, which should have had minimal carbon and been short on food, actually gained carbon from other trees that essentially donated it. In a 2011 documentary video Do Trees Communicate?, Simard stated: These plants are not really individuals in the sense that Darwin thought they were individuals competing for survival of the fittest… In fact they are interacting with each other, trying to help each other survive.”

More examples of plant communication

How else have plants been shown to communicate with each other using mycelia? South China Agricultural University researcher Ren Sen Zeng, found in 2010 with his study Interplant Communication of Tomato Plants through Underground Common Mycorrhizal Networks, that when a plant is attached to dangerous or harmful fungi, that the plant will release chemical signals as a warning to other plants, via the mycelium network.

This was done by raising sets of tomato plants, and letting one plant in each set create mycorrhizae relationships. Then, one plant in each pairing was sprayed with a particular fungus that causes ‘early blight disease’, called Alternaria solani. The plants were put in air-tight plastic bags above the soil to ensure no communication could take place above ground. Zeng waited 65 hours before trying to infect the second plant in each set of tomato plants. He found these plants less likely to become infected with blight, with less damage caused when they did, so long as the plants had mycorrhiza fungi attached.


Said Zeng, “We suggest that tomato plants can ‘eavesdrop’ on defense responses and increase their disease resistance against potential pathogens.” This was reinforced in 2013 when University of Aberdeen researcher David Johnson put out this study: Underground signals carried through common mycelial networks warn neighbouring plants of aphid attack, which found that broad beans also used mycelium networks to signal distress to other plants. Johnson and his team found that bean seedlings that were not themselves under attack by aphids, were still able to activate anti-aphid chemicals in defense, so long as they were attached to other plants that were being attached, via a mycelium network. This was found not to be the case for plants unattached to a network.

Benefits of using the mycelium network to grow cannabis

There are currently five known types of mycorrhiza fungi which have been identified: 1) arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, 2) ectomycorrhizal fungi, 3) orchid mycorrhizae, 4) ericoid mycorrhizae, and 5) monotropoid mycorrhizae. The most common is arbuscular mycorrhizal, which is associated with 90% of all other plants on the planet, and this includes cannabis. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, for example, only associate with approximately 5% of other plants, and will not form networks with cannabis plants.

So, if this natural technology is desired, the right fungi must be used. In fact, arbuscular fungi are the only kind to form a relationship with cannabis plants. The following is a list of benefits of using mycorrhiza fungal networks with cannabis:

  • More root surface area – These networks can extend very far, and that means more surface area. This is beneficial because it allows for more water, nutrients, and minerals to be absorbed.
  • Defense – As already discussed, these fungal networks can protect a plant from attacking pathogens.
  • Increases nutrient uptake – This is particularly relevant to cannabis plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi will absorb from the soil, and provide molecules of iron, zinc manganese and other nutrients. This is particularly useful during the flowering stage, when the mycelia help the plants absorb more phosphorus to create bigger buds, and better yields.
  • Increased stress tolerance – Plants with mycorrhiza fungal networks are better at tolerating pH and salinity issues, with the mycelium creating more suitable soil by affecting pH and salinity. It also increases tolerance for droughts, since the plants can use these wide-stretching networks to reach across long distances to find water.

Using the mycelium network to grow your cannabis

What does a grower need to do to employ the help of a mycorrhiza network? There are two important things to understand:

  1. For one thing, they need to make sure the fungi are there from early on. Cannabis plants don’t last a long time like trees, and don’t have years to build up a network. Therefore, growers should introduce these fungi early on. The earlier these fungi are applied, the better chance the plant has later. Products with higher concentrations are also useful here, as it gives the plant the best chance of establishing a network.
  2. Indoor grows especially can benefit from the application of these fungi, as the plants are in separate pots that are not connected, and not in ground soil. These plants therefore have no access to existing networks, and can’t create new ones between each other.
mycelium network grow cannabis

When applying a mycorrhiza fungal product, the following steps should be taken to increase overall efficacy:

  • The fungal product should be mixed into the soil evenly, this will allow consistent amounts of fungi throughout the soil. Specific products should have instructions on the label. As the cannabis roots grow, there will be plenty of fungi there to attach with.
  • When the plant is transferred to another pot, the same fungal product should be put in the hole that the plant will go in. This helps reduce shock, and should be applied at the rates recommended by the product providers.
  • The last thing is also done during transplantation. The fungal product should be put in a bowl that’s big enough for the plant’s roots to fit in. The soil around the plant’s roots should be wet a little, and then rolled around in the product to evenly cover the sides and bottom. When the root area is sufficiently covered, it can be put into the planting hole.

Best Mycelium network products to grow cannabis

Using the mycelium network to help grow cannabis – or other plants – isn’t new, and there are several products to choose from. One of the bigger providers is Dynomyco, which provides its ‘mycorrhizal inoculant’. This endomycorrhizal fungi (which is a type of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) helps “plant nutrient uptake, which translates to healthier, more resilient plants, higher quality, and higher yields!” according to the company. Pouches of this product come in different sizes depending on the grow op. The Mini Pouch is 3.5oz, costs $14, and is good for treating up to 20 plants. The Small Pouch contains 12oz, costs $28, and is good for use with up to 68 plants. The large Pouch has 26.5oz, costs $52, and can be used to treat up to 150 plants.

For much bigger grows, Dynomyco provides the Small Pail, which has 22lbs, costs $500, and can be used with up to 2,000 plants. And for even bigger grows there is the Large Pail, which comes with 44lbs, costs $800, and can be used for up to 4,000 plants.

Other options exist. A favorite of growers is Orca® Liquid Mycorrhizae. Orca includes beneficial bacteria along with mycorrhiza fungi, and helps to build a microbial system in and around plant roots. This formulation can be used in regular watering, or with a hydroponic or irrigation setup. Orca® Liquid Mycorrhizae comes in sizes ranging from 100ml to five gallons, with prices ranging from $9 to $1,114.3 respectively.

Yet another option is Easy Roots – Mycorrhiza Mix by Royal Queen Seeds. This 100% organic blend of over 200 species of glomeromycotan fungi, will help your plants optimize absorption of necessary nutrients. 50 grams of this mix costs $24.32 (€19.95.)



There’s a lot to consider when growing marijuana plants, and a lot to get right. One of the most important factors is allowing plants to be part of a mycorrhiza fungal connection. This is luckily easy to do with the correct products. By allowing your plants to enter into a mycelium network, you can grow your cannabis plants that much bigger and better.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Nature’s Technology: Using the Mushroom Mycelium Network to Grow Cannabis appeared first on CBD Testers.

World Bicycle Day: Albert Hofmann’s bicycle day and the discovery of LSD-25

June 3 is World Bicycle Day. The bicycle is not just a sustainable mode of transportation used the world over, it’s also a symbol of human advancement — in more ways than one On an otherwise ordinary April afternoon in 1943, a chemist ingested 250 micrograms of LSD and rode his bike home. He was […]

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Psychedelic Legalization to Follow in the Footsteps of Cannabis

Just like cannabis gradually became a regular part of the mainstream conversation during the last decade, over the next few years we can expect to hear much more about psychedelics – everything from medical benefits to legalization efforts, societal views to current studies, and beyond. Given the safe and natural element to using these types of compounds, it’s no surprise that psychedelics are following the same path as cannabis: decriminalization and eventual re-legalization on the basis of scientific research and cultural acceptance.

Psychedelic research and legalization is a hot topic right now, and of all the psychedelics, THC is still the most popular one. For THC users who have a problem with the anxiety or experience paranoia, delta-8 THC might be preferable. If you think you could benefit from this altered version of THC, take a look at our awesome delta-8 THC deals, and try it out for yourself.

What are Psychedelics?

Psychedelic drugs are a subset of hallucinogens. They contain psychoactive compounds that are capable of altering a person’s mood, perception, and cognition; sometimes permanently. The active compounds are usually found in nature, like psilocybin or mescaline, but they can also be manmade, like LSD.

Psychedelics are known for causing ‘trips’, which is what the high is referred to. When a person is tripping, they may have altered perceptions of the world around them. Many people believe this is limited to visual and auditory hallucinations, but it can also include feeling, tasting, and smelling things that are not real, as well as a heightened sense of connection and understanding, and greater feelings of introspection.  

The trips that people most commonly associate with these types of the drugs are the ones in which a state of hallucinogenic delirium is reached, but that is not always the case. Many times, it is more of an experience than a trip, and something can be learned and achieved psychologically with every small dose.

The word itself, ‘psychedelics’, was first used in 1957 to recognize substances that were said to open the mind, however, the more scientific term for them is ‘entheogens’. This term was adopted, not necessarily for the sake of being scientific, but rather to allow the field to operate without the stigma attached to psychedelics from the smear campaigns of the 1960’s. The term entheogen comes from Greek where it means ‘building the god within’.

Different psychedelics produce different trips. For example, with DMT you can expect a short high lasting less than 1 hour, whereas LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline trips can last up to ten hours. Some hallucinogens are more potent than others, like mushrooms vs acid. The active compounds are different in each drug so there is a lot of variation to the effects that can be felt.  

Some people experience bad trips in which negative, or even scary, hallucinations are experienced, and/or a rapid heartbeat, sweating, nausea, disorientation, and fatigue occur. There is indication that the majority of these symptoms can be controlled through proper dosing. This is why most modern-day, therapeutic users of psychedelics consume the drugs in micro-doses.

Medical Research on Psychedelics

Just like cannabis, legalization and normalization of psychedelic drugs would be impossible if there weren’t some type of medical benefits to show on paper. Luckily, the research does exist, especially in the field of mental health. A study published just last month in the journal Nature Medicine found that MDMA-assisted therapy could be “a potential breakthrough treatment” for post-traumatic stress disorder.

Other studies have looked at psilocybin, the active ingredient in magic mushrooms, as a possible treatment option for clinical depression, and the results were incredibly promising. Additional research is underway to determine the effectiveness of numerous other psychedelics as well, including LSD and ketamine.

Most psychedelics are serotonergic, meaning the affect the serotonin receptors in our bodies. Many antidepressant drugs involve some type of serotonin signaling, although there are numerous different ways that substances can interact with these receptors. Using pharmaceuticals often leaves the patient with many unwanted side effects, whereas natural compounds are typically considered safer, when used correctly.

Psychedelics had a brief stint in modern medicine in the 1950s and several psychologists at the time were utilizing them to treat patients with depression and addiction, LSD in particular. They found it to be especially helpful in curbing alcoholism, which can be proven by this study in which it was reported that even 1 full year after treatment, subjects were still off the booze.

Known as ‘psychedelic therapy’ in the U.S. and ‘psycholytic therapy in the U.K., it was really catching on. However, when these compounds were added to the Schedule 1 narcotics list in both countries, the ability to research psychedelics, let alone utilize them in treatment plans, came to a screeching halt.

In recent years, we’ve seen a massive shift in the way the public, as well as healthcare and government agencies, view this class of drugs. The FDA itself has deemed both psilocybin and MDMA (magic mushrooms and ecstasy) as “leading breakthrough therapies” for depression and PTSD. This means that we can anticipate a rush in research and development for products containing these active ingredients in the very near future.

Psychedelic Legalization Efforts

The heavy regulation of psychedelics began in 1966, just as these drugs started making their way in the realm of recreational use. At the time, ‘recreational’ use of psychoactive substances was rooted in their ability to expand one’s consciousness. Psychedelic activists of today could very well be driven by similar motives, but the focus of their public campaigns is ‘safe, natural, alternative healthcare’ – a topic that many people have been showing greater interest in over the last decade.

Looking at it from a purely legal perspective, it not only makes sense, but it seems like the only logical way to tackle a subject like this one. Pushing for full legalization of highly intoxicating substances is already a pretty tall order, but if using the argument that our collective consciousness is suffering and in need of expansion, you can imagine that the movement wouldn’t gain much traction (regardless of how true sentiment that actually is).                                           

Psychedelic legalization will undoubtedly face many of the same challenges we have seen time and time again in the fight for cannabis legalization. We know medical research fueled by cultural mainstreaming makes for a remarkably effective weapon against outdated regulations. But despite how far we have come on both of those fronts in the cannabis industry, it remains federally prohibited. And when looking at our current administration, we know that Joe Biden really has a bug up his you-know-what about cannabis, so it seems incredibly unlikely that we will see any kind of turnaround with psychedelic regulations on his watch.

Nevertheless, we know it’s in the cards and by the end of this decade it will be a booming industry. Numerous, cities, states and countries have relaxed their laws surrounding possession and use of psychedelics drugs.

Cultural Views on Psychedelic Legalization

Compared to cannabis, psychedelic have the unique advantage of being carrying less social stigma. Many advocates of psychedelic drugs are healers themselves, dedicated to conserving cultural traditions regarding the healing of pain and trauma through rituals that include psychedelic use – and this will be a huge contributing factor to eventual legalization.

From their initial emergence into the mainstream discussion, psychedelics have been positioned as a therapeutic drug, rather than recreational; as compounds that you use in micro doses to get only the psychological benefits without any of the psychoactive side effects; and as compounds that will soon be utilized in some of the most cutting-edge therapy sessions, by the most progressive practitioners.

Stigma still exists, as is the case with any intoxicating compound, but much of this stems from completely irrelevant fear; and luckily it’s nowhere as commonplace as it has been in years prior. Most people, even those who generally lean conservative, are adopting more liberal views when it comes to the use of certain substances, especially those that are found in nature. Plant-based healing is a much more popular concept now that in has been in our nation’s recent past.  

Looking West

In a big move for the psychedelic industry, a bill was recently passed by a second California Senate committee which would legalize the possession of numerous different forms of psychoactive drugs in the Golden State. The legislation, which was sponsored by Senator Scott Wiener (D), advanced through the Public Safety Committee earlier this month, followed by a pass from the Health Committee one week later. If this bill fully passes, an extensive list of psychedelics including psilocybin mushrooms, DMT, ibogaine, LSD, and MDMA would be legalized for adults aged 21 and older.

Additionally, the bill would call for the expungement of prior convictions for possession of psychedelic drugs, the same way the state is trying to expunge cannabis convictions; as well as redefining what paraphernalia will be lawful to possess and use with these newly legalized substances.

If this all sounds vaguely familiar it’s because California was also the first state to legalize medical cannabis use back in 1996, long before it was a frequent topic in any political discourse. The golden state is also the birthplace of most cultural cannabis trends over the last few decades. California has been at the forefront of cannabis legalization efforts since the early 1970s and is one of the first states to begin expunging prior cannabis-related convictions after Prop 64 passed in 2016.

“The war on drugs has been an abject failure because it is based on the false belief, the false notion, that criminalizing people, arresting them, incarcerating them for possessing, for using drugs, will somehow deter use and improve public safety,” commented democratic Senator Scott Wiener. “It has done neither.”

Oregon, Washington and Colorado are also very liberal states that have been working to change the national narrative on drug use, particularly cannabis and other psychedelics. Oregon became the first state in the United States to decriminalize the possession of all drugs. Possessing heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine and other intoxicating substances for personal use is no longer a criminal offense in Oregon. Those drugs are still against the law, as is selling them. But possession is now a civil – not criminal – violation that may result in a fine or court-ordered therapy, not jail.

Final Thoughts

The path to drug legalization can be bumpy, and taking psychedelics from illegal to medical-use-only to legal for adult-use will take some time. But based on current patterns, we can expect this will happen relatively soon. Just like cannabinoids, psychedelic compounds are the medicine of the future and when legalization does occur, there will be an industry boom like we’ve never seen before.

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