Ancient South American Empire Tripped On Psychedelic Beer

Leaders of a historic South American empire used a beer mixed with a psychedelic drug to maintain political control over their society and surrounding communities, according to research published on Wednesday. 

In a study published by the journal Antiquity, archaeologists revealed that leaders of the Wari people served a beer-like beverage made from the fruits of the molle tree combined with the seeds of the vilca tree and served the mixture to guests at communal feasts.

“The resulting psychotropic experience reinforced the power of the Wari state, and represents an intermediate step between exclusionary and corporate political strategies,” the researchers wrote in an abstract of the study published online by Cambridge University Press. “This Andean example adds to the global catalog documenting the close relationship between hallucinogens and social power.”

The Wari built their empire in the highlands of the Andes mountains in current-day Peru, ruling the area from about 600-1000 A.D. and predating the Inca empire by four centuries. Archeologists excavating at Quilcapampa in Southern Peru from 2013 through 2017 discovered the first evidence of psychedelic vilca seeds found at a Wari site. 

Matthew Biwer, a visiting assistant professor of archaeology at Dickinson College in Pennsylvania and the lead author of the study, said that the discovery sheds light on how South American indigenous civilizations made use of psychoactive substances.

“This was a turning point in the Andes in terms of politics and use of hallucinogens,” Biwer said, as reported by CNN. “We see this kind of use of hallucinogens as different use context than in prior civilizations, who seem to have closely guarded the use of hallucinogens to a select few, or the latter Inca Empire who emphasized the mass-consumption of beer but did not use psychotropic substances such as vilca at feasts.”

Pre-Columbian civilizations used vilca, often inhaled as snuff, as long as 4,000 years years ago. The seeds contain the psychedelic drug dimethyltryptamine, as well as bufotenine, a substance similar to the neurotransmitter serotonin. 

“What I’ve read from ethnographic sources is that you get a very strong sensation of flying,” Biwer told Inverse.

Party Hosts Rule the Empire

Previous research has revealed that the Wari used feasting and beer as a way to exercise political control over guests from surrounding communities. Researchers at the Quilcapampa site discovered evidence that the Wari were making molle beer, called chicha, in substantial quantities. Botanical remnants of molle and vilca were found and ceramics were discovered at the center of the site, an indication of where feasts were held, according to the study’s authors.

“The Wari added the vilca to the chicha beer in order to impress guests to their feasts who could not return the experience,” Biwer said. “This created an indebted relationship between Wari hosts and guests, likely from the surrounding region.”

“We argue that the feasting, beer, and vilca thus served to create and cement social connections between Wari affiliated peoples and locals as the Empire expanded,” Biwer continued. “It also was a way for Wari leaders to demonstrate and maintain social, economic, and political power.”

Biwer explained that the guests would experience social pressure to recognize the power of their Wari hosts and feel an obligation to reciprocate the favor in the future. 

“There’s political power in being able to acquire and use these hallucinogenic substances and providing these experiences,” Biwer said. “I think it provides a really good example of the connection between politics, drug use, intoxication and the social bonds.”

Researchers have not yet discovered why the Wari civilization eventually failed. But as they continue to study sites inhabited by the pre-Columbian civilization, they are learning more about how the early inhabitants of Peru lived.

“​The Wari Empire stretched from northern Peru to the far south near the Chilean border, and from the coast to the mountainous areas of the Andes,” Biwer explained. “It is the first example of an empire in South America, having collapsed around 400 years prior to the rise of the Inca Empire.”

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New York Subways Ban Ads for Cannabis or Mushrooms

Ads pertaining to cannabis or psychedelic mushrooms are now prohibited on New York transit vehicle services.

The Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) of New York updated its advertising policies on November 17, noting that public transit services may not advertise cannabis or psychedelic mushrooms. “The revised policy includes certain provisions that were part of past policies (with some amendments), and adds new restrictions based on changed circumstances. For example, the revised Advertising Policy explicitly bars advertising for cannabis products, following the decriminalization of recreational use of such products in New York State,” the MTA wrote on its website.

The revised advertising policy notes that the ban applies to anything that: “Promotes tobacco, nicotine, or any tobacco-related or nicotine-related product; any alcohol product; cannabis or any cannabis-related product; or hallucinogenic mushrooms or hallucinogenic mushroom-related product.”

The list of banned advertising also applies to a variety of other types of content, including the promotion or opposition of a political party, anything relative to religious policies, anything “false, misleading or deceptive,” anything that “encourages or depicts unsafe behavior,” which includes promotions of escort services, strip clubs or other sexual services, anything with the use of profanity, among many other prohibited advertisement types.

The policy change is the result of a legal settlement with sexual wellness brand Dame. A complaint was filed by Dame in 2019 when the MTA rejected the company’s advertising efforts, even though the MTA had previously approved dating apps with suggestive imagery, the Museum of Sex and men’s sexual health products. Dame argued that banning the company’s sexual health ads was unconstitutional. “Sexual pleasure is a critical part of wellbeing. Denying Dame advertising space stifles our ability to articulate the value we bring; to innovate and develop products for female sexual pleasure; and enforces sexual shame as a societal norm,” said Dame CEO Alexandra Fine.

She continued, “The MTA was disproportionately applying their anti sexually-oriented business clause to women’s pleasure advertisements, which is unconstitutional. They allowed erectile dysfunction advertisements to run while denying us, making them a social and economic gate-keeper on who is entitled to pleasure. We’ve had to fight for our right to advertise and we believe this is a step forward in closing the pleasure gap.”

Now that cannabis and psychedelic mushrooms are banned from advertising in New York transit services, it leads to a few questions about the future. It is uncertain if the MTA will evolve or change its policies when New York’s recreational cannabis legalization officially launches (it’s currently projected to begin in 2022, but is subject to change).

The state’s recreational cannabis bill, also referred to as the Marijuana Regulation and Taxation Act, gives the Cannabis Control Board the power to dictate rules on cannabis advertisement, especially for ads that are promote consumption, appeals to children, and more specifically “…is in public transit vehicles and stations.”

Furthermore, support for legalizing psychedelic mushrooms is growing across the country, but it is legal or decriminalized in only a few cities, such as Denver, Colorado and Oakland, California, and states such as Oregon, which decriminalized psilocybin mushrooms in 2020. Psychedelic mushrooms are not currently legal in New York, so there isn’t a legal market to promote the sales of mushrooms.

Other recreationally legal states have enacted laws to prevent cannabis advertisements such as billboards. In February, the California Bureau of Cannabis Control announced the prohibition of cannabis billboard ads that are located near a highway or state border. More recently, California Governor Gavin Newsom vetoed Assembly Bill 1302, which would have allowed cannabis billboard advertisements to return to highways and interstate freeways, citing the effects of youth exposure. States such as Michigan have also introduced legislation to ban billboard advertisements.

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Psychedelic Developer Bright Minds Biosciences Lists on NASDAQ with Hopes to Battle Dravet Syndrome

Effective today—Bright Minds Biosciences shares will commence trading on Nasdaq under the ticker symbol “DRUG.” Bright Minds is already listed on the Canadian Stock Exchange (CSE:DRUG) under the same symbol. Nasdaq Stock Market LLC approved the listing of the company’s common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market.

Bright Minds’ team of drug designers developed psychedelics to make them safer and accessible for a larger patient population, often people who are out of options when dealing with treatment-resistant conditions. The company has several patented drugs in its pipeline—primarily 5-HT2C and 5-HT2C+5HT2A agonists—that are currently at the late-preclinical stage.

The particularly intractable epileptic condition common in children, Dravet syndrome, is difficult to manage using conventional drugs. That’s why a number of patients resort to using cannabis, itself a mild psychedelic, to fight it. Charlotte’s Web, for instance, shares the name of the late Charlotte Figi whom the strain was named after. Now, scientists are exploring psychedelics to battle the condition as well, which so far are demonstrating remarkable capabilities.

The company’s lead novel compound—BMB-101—showed efficacy in in-vitro and in-vivo preclinical studies for pediatric epilepsy and decreased seizure duration by 74 percent. The company has plans to progress into clinical trials with the compound early in 2022. 

Bright Mind Biosciences’ leadership is thrilled about the “psychedelic drug revolution” that’s re-inventing therapy as we know it. A renewed interest in medical benefits from drugs such as psilocybin, ketamine, MDMA and so forth is everywhere.

“We’re making the drugs [of] the ‘60s great again! And to be honest, even better than they were in those days thanks to modern day scientific knowledge and helping a lot of patients out on the way,” Bright Mind Biosciences CEO Ian McDonald told High Times.

Bright Minds has a portfolio of serotonin agonists designed to target “neurocircuit abnormalities” responsible for difficult-to-treat disorders such intractable epilepsy, treatment-resistant depression, PTSD and pain. The company creates compounds with a goal to minimize side effects of first-generation psychedelics such as psilocybin.

McDonald also acknowledged the dire situation people with Dravet syndrome face in a press release. “Our listing on Nasdaq marks an important corporate milestone for Bright Minds, as we continue to advance our innovative drug candidates in pursuit of an improved generation of targeted serotonin-based therapies,” stated McDonald. “With encouraging preclinical data across several indications, we are progressing toward first-in-human trials with our lead drug candidate, BMB-101, for the treatment of Dravet syndrome, a devastating congenital and genetic disease affecting the nervous system. We expect to commence the trials in the first half of 2022.”

Last August, the company announced that BMB-101 showed efficacy in rodent models of Dravet syndrome. Furthermore, the effect of BMB compounds was consistent and comparable to other pharmaceutical anti-epileptics such as fenfluramine. 

BMB-101 is a 5-HT2C selective and biased agonist, demonstrating compelling promise in medical treatments for Dravet syndrome and/or other illnesses.

BMB-101 works differently than cannabis, as THC, nor any other cannabinoids and terpenoids present in cannabis plant material have known direct effects on receptors associated with psychedelics in similar classes.

Listing on the Nasdaq puts Bright Minds in a much more competitive position in an already competitive psychedelic landscape.

“Bright Minds is also committed to delivering significant returns to our shareholders,” McDonald continued. “Trading on the world’s most liquid market in which all investors can participate helps us continue to actualize that objective. We look forward to continuing to work closely with all our key constituents—scientific, medical, and the capital markets—to bolster our excellent competitive positioning.”

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Good Trip Guaranteed: Common Mistakes To Avoid When Using Psychedelics

Psychedelics can be mind-opening, life-changing portals that propel you into another reality of introspective thought, deep connections, and beautiful discoveries… but if used incorrectly, they can be scary and borderline traumatizing. That said, they don’t need to be avoided or prohibited, as entheogens have been a part of human culture for millennia. Responsible and informed use of these compounds is crucial – just be sure that when prepping for your psychonaut adventure, you respect their psychedelic plant power and avoid some common mistakes that can make or break your trip.

Psychedelics are fun, but if you make any of the following mistakes before or during your trip, things can get too crazy, really fast. Make sure to follow our guide to ensure a positive trip, and to learn more about rapidly-growing psychedelic industry, subscribe to The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter.

What Are Psychedelics?

Psychedelic drugs, also referred to entheogens, are a subset of hallucinogens which contain compounds that can alter perception. The term entheogens come from Greek and can be roughly translated to mean “building the God within”. The high produced by these types of drugs is known as a ‘trip’, and can include various types of visual, auditory, and sensory hallucinations. The intensity of a trip can vary dramatically based on the specific compound and dose consumed. Sometimes, a user will experience no hallucinations at all, but rather a sense of general well-being, spirituality, and euphoria.  

If you’ve ever heard someone mention a ‘bad trip’, this means they had some type of negative side effects or maybe even scary hallucinations. Physical symptoms of a bad trip can include but are not limited to: irregular heartbeat, nausea, chills, sweating, and anxiety. Dosing and setting, among other factors, can significantly impact a psychedelic trip, so you want to make sure that you’re doing everything possible to ensure an uplifting and beneficial high.

Are They Safe?

Psychedelics are generally regarded as safe. According to the results of a Global Drug Survey that polled 120,000 regular drug users, magic mushrooms were the safest recreational drug, along with cannabis. Their method at determining user safety was by comparing the drug used to the amount of required emergency room visits. Only 0.2% of the nearly 10,000 mushroom users surveyed had ever required emergency care, compared to the 1.0% of those using harder drugs like ecstasy or cocaine.

Furthermore, new research suggests that certain psychedelic substances can help relieve anxiety, depression, PTSD, addiction and numerous other mental health disorders. “The biggest misconception people have about psychedelics is that these are drugs that make you crazy,” says Michael Pollan, author of the new book How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence. “We now have evidence that that does happen sometimes — but in many more cases, these are drugs that can make you sane.”

Good Trip Guaranteed: Common Mistakes to Avoid on Psychedelics

Again, just because psychedelic drugs are typically safe that doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll have a perfect experience with them. When partaking, it’s very important to set the mood beforehand to make sure everything goes smoothly and reduce your likelihood of having a bad trip. Avoiding the following mistakes will ensure that your experience with psychedelics is a positive one

Pick the right setting

Psychologist and author, Timothy Leary, could not emphasize it more… “set and setting” are of utmost importance when it comes to having a happy and therapeutic psychedelic trip. The general consensus is that it’s best to avoid unfamiliar situations, especially if you’re a novice user, and you should do everything possible to construct a safe and relaxing tripping environment BEFORE you start your adventure.

Make sure you’re in good company

At best, being around bad company or people that make you uncomfortable can be awkward and unpleasant. At worst, hanging out with the wrong people while tripping can become a literal nightmare complete with terrifying hallucinations. I don’t know about you, but for me, vibes are everything. If I get bad vibes from someone when I’m sober, you had better believe those negative feelings will be amplified if I’m on psychedelic drugs. To make sure you have a peaceful experience, you absolutely must surround yourself with people you trust and feel completely safe around.

Do NOT Use Hallucinogens with Other Substances

Psychedelic drugs are best used alone, unless of course you choose to smoke a little bit of cannabis along with them, which can have positive effects. Harder drugs and alcohol can be dangerous as they can magnify disorientation and physical symptoms associated with bad trips (nausea, chills, etc.), and some believe that combining these types of substances with entheogens can lead to violent thoughts and hallucinations.

Your Mood Impacts Your Trip

If you’re in a bad mood beforehand – feeling anxious, nervous, stressed, scared, or going through some sort of existential crisis – you might want to hold off on the psychedelics. Sure, when used therapeutically in a clinical setting, they can change your thoughts for the better. But if you’re inexperienced and grappling with dark thoughts, hallucinogens can amplify these and put you in a dangerously negative state of mind.

Don’t Rush

When planning your trip, it’s important to keep in mind that certain hallucinogens – mushrooms and LSD, for instance – can produce highs that last for up to 8 hours. Make 100 percent sure that you have enough time to complete your trip and come down from it properly without any type of activity or responsibility getting in the way. If you feel like you’re rushing and have too near of a cutoff time before getting back to reality, you could end up with a veil of dread and anxiety over your experience.

Final Thoughts

All in all, taking psychedelics successfully is not complicated or daunting in any way if you avoid making the above mistakes. Just be sure to keep a few things in mind, get your setting and company right, and don’t mix psychedelics with stronger drugs, and you can almost guarantee that your trip will be open, joyous, and transformative; rather than the complete opposite. Have you ever had a bad trip on psychedelics, and if so, was it related to any avoidable mistakes? We’d love to hear your thoughts, drop us a line in the comment section below!

Thank you for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your hub for all things relating to cannabis and psychedelics. Don’t forget to subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for more articles like this one and exclusive deals on flowers and other products.

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How is Delic creating a legal psychedelic ecosystem

In 2019, a new kind of wellness business sprouted – a legal psychedelic drug company. We spoke with Matt Stang, the co-founder and CEO of Delic Corp to learn more about their mission as well as any strategies they utilized to build a publicly traded, legal psychedelic ecosystem. Matt Stang spent twenty years pioneering the […]

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What is DMT and is it a chemical light in your brain?

I have conversed with several individuals who have skydived into their own psyche with DMT. These conversations have allowed me to realize this psychedelic drug brings a wealth of insight into the universe. However, that never explains what the DMT experience truly is. It makes sense, to me, when the chemical DMT is described, metaphorically, […]

The post What is DMT and is it a chemical light in your brain? appeared first on Latest Cannabis News Today – Headlines, Videos & Stocks.

Why magic mushrooms cause nausea—and how this trick can help

Psilocybin mushrooms recently washed over the topic of mental health therapeutics like an elated wave. A potential treatment for anxiety, migraines, and even bipolar disorder. But, not all shrooms are for those worried about an upset stomach or unwilling to detach from their ego. So, why do magic mushrooms cause nausea? Psilocybe azurescens Drug activation […]

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Wednesday, December 9, 2020 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News

Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Wednesday, December 9, 2020 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// Mexican lower house delays vote on cannabis bill to 2021-sources (Reuters)

// House Approves Marijuana Research Bill Days After Voting To Federally Legalize Cannabis (Marijuana Moment)

// Marijuana has grown to become Maine’s most valuable crop (Portland Press Herald)

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// Canada Will Let Health Care Professionals Legally Use Psychedelic Mushrooms Health Minister Says (Marijuana Moment)

// BofA: Global Cannabis Market Currently Estimated At $186 Billion (Deep Dive)

// Canopy Growth’s Martha Stewart CBD Line Scores First Nationwide Retail Deal (Nasdaq (Motley Fool))

// Ontario to license cannabis stores faster as authorizations surpass 300 (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Eastern Cannabis Markets Continue to Show Strong Growth in October (New Cannabis Ventures)

// Anchorage recreational marijuana sales a bullish indicator of Alaska’s growing market (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Seven In Ten Americans Back Expunging Marijuana Convictions New Poll Finds (Marijuana Moment)

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