How to Invest in Multi-Billion Dollar Medical Psychedelics Industry

As the legal cannabis market booms, another class of drugs on the horizon is getting closer to legalization, with its own impending boom coming. And that means a whole new place for investment. So as MDMA, psilocybin, and DMT work their way through medical trials, here’s how to invest in this new medical psychedelics field.

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What are psychedelics?

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs, which themselves are a subset of psychoactive drugs. Whether made in a lab like LSD, or found in nature like psilocybin or peyote, psychedelics are known for causing ‘trips’. When a person is tripping, they may have altered perceptions of the world around, experience/feel/taste/see/hear things that are not real (hallucinations), feel a heightened sense of connection to those around them, experience euphoria, feel a sense of spirituality and connectedness with the universe, and a greater sense of self-introspection. A large percentage of psychedelics are serotonergic, meaning they effect serotonin receptors in the brain, though they can do this in different ways.

Some drugs like DMT produce short trips of less than an hour in duration. While other drugs like LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline can cause trips that last for many hours, as many as eight or ten. Sometimes people experience bad trips in which negative, or even scary, hallucinations are experienced, and/or a rapid heartbeat, sweating, nausea, disorientation, and fatigue occur. There is indication that the majority of these symptoms can be controlled through proper dosing. In fact, many therapeutic psychedelic users consume the drugs in micro-doses.

All psychedelics are Schedule I in the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, a drug scheduling treaty which defines the legality of different compounds globally. Starting with the Staggers-Dodd bill in 1968 which illegalized LSD and psilocybin, and finishing with the placement in the Convention, making all such substances illegal to buy, sell, or consume, with no purported medical value.

psychedelics

Psychedelics have been used for thousands of years, all throughout the world, though their uses in medicine in the mid-1900’s, and proposed uses today, are generally different than the shamanistic/ritualistic way they were primarily used in history, although this is not to say that there were not traditions that did use psychedelics therapeutically. Technically, if a shaman is consuming ayahuasca to get rid of demons, I suppose that could be thought of as therapeutic anyway.

Medical psychedelics research

Psychedelics, particularly, LSD, were introduced to modern medicine around the 1950’s after Albert Hoffman synthesized the compound in Switzerland in 1938. Several psychotherapists at the time, like Humphry Osmond and Ronald Sandison caught onto the idea, bringing these treatments to England and America. Hoffman conducted, among other research and therapy, the Saskatchewan trials, and ultimately came up with the idea of ‘psychedelic therapy’ in which a single large dose of LSD was given along with therapy sessions.

‘Psycholytic therapy’ is what Ronald Sandison’s version became known as in the UK, with the difference being that Sandison’s treatment style was to do multiple sessions with smaller amounts of the drug that increased through the process. Both doctors found great success particularly with alcohol addiction. How much success? According to the Saskatchewan trials, as many as 40-45% of drinkers were still not drinking a full year after the therapy session.

Unfortunately, when the drugs were made illegal, all ability to continue such treatments ended, and the ability for research into the field was completely stymied, and did not pick up again until much more recently. However, to give an idea of the massive turnaround that has been going on when it comes to psychedelics, consider that the US’s Food & Drug Administration (FDA), singled out both psylocibin in 2019 and MDMA in 2017 as ‘breakthrough therapies’ for depression and PTSD respectively. Such a designation by the FDA is meant to speed up research and development for products deemed necessary for health.

This indicates a desire by a US government agency to not only test these drugs, but to get them to market. And they’re all schedule I right now. One exception to psychedelics all being schedule I, however, is magic mushrooms. Though its psychoactive components like psilocybin are Schedule I, and therefore illegal, the plants themselves are not outlawed, creating a bit of gray area in terms of mushroom use, cultivation, and production. This gray area could prove useful in the future.

What can be expected?

If you’re wondering why this matters, consider how massive – and growing – the legal cannabis markets are. Well, psychedelics offer many of the same medical benefits, especially psychologically, with possibly added abilities in other departments. And they’ve proven to be very safe. As an industry in which much of it is pharmaceutical to begin with, it’s a safe bet that these drugs are going to pick up quickly. Because the pharma world is sure to take a massive interest, it gives even more reason to invest in medical psychedelics now, before everything explodes.

psychedelic-assisted therapy

So how much is it worth? I’m not the kind of writer who generally likes to get into these numbers. Every publication makes its own predictions, off its own information, and very rarely do these predictions seem to consider world changes. Whatever the size of the CBD industry was originally predicted to grow to a few years ago, that number would be invalid by now because it didn’t account for THC-based medicines growing in popularity, or legal markets, or psychedelics.

Imagine how much psychedelics could eat away at cannabis revenue. And not only that, any predictions of the future market size for psychedelics would have to take into account the still expanding cannabis markets (with more countries constantly legalizing in some form or another), and the question mark of what currently unforeseen factors could upend the trend a few years down the line. So, I’m not concerned with too many predictor numbers, but here’s just one, in order to get an idea what we’re dealing with.

PRNewswire, citing an analysis by Data Bridge Market Research, explained the forecast for 2020-2027, in which the field is expected to grow to $6.8 billion by 2027. It was worth just over $2 billion in 2019.

Best ways to invest in growing medical psychedelics field

Now that a certain barrier seems to be broken, more companies are conducting clinical trials, getting patents, and starting to get clearances for products. In fact, if you thought the psychedelics market was off limits, you’d be very much mistaken. Not only is this a growing market with a lot of possibility, but companies are already staking their claim, leaving room for you to start investing. So, if you like the idea of getting in on something before it explodes, consider investigating the following companies, and invest in the medical psychedelics field.

Much like with cannabis, Canada is quickly establishing itself as a leader in medical psychedelics, with the top companies coming out of this country. In the first half of 2020, $150 million USD was raised by six different companies: Mind Medicine, COMPASS Pathways, Field Trip Psychedelics, ATAI Life Sciences, Orthogonol Thinker, and Numinous Wellness. Mindmed and Numinous are already publicly listed companies. This is an early stage entry for investors. In fact, to give an idea of how seriously Canada is taking this, the first exchange traded fund – The Horizons Psychedelic Stock Index ETF, made its debut in January. ETF’s are like regular asset exchanges, except that they include a mix of stocks, commodities, and bonds. This exchange is solely for psychedelics.

The CEO of the fund, Steve Hawkins, said that while larger pharmaceutical companies have been admitted to the fund, the idea is to keep it mainly for smaller psychedelics companies. Companies can be added to the fund if they can tick the following boxes: be a part of a regular US or Canada-based stock exchange, be a biotechnology company focusing on medical psychedelic research, be a producer and/or supplier of psychedelic medicines, and be a company that works within the general supply chain for psychedelic medications.

medical psychedelics

Biggest names so far

When it comes to emerging fields and investing, the majority of people will never get there preemptively, and will instead act by reaction. For anyone who wants to get in on it before the top blows off, the following companies currently provide the best prospect for future growth, expansion, approval, and ability for revenue. These names should be noted, they will likely be bringing you the first approved medical psychedelic products, and for anyone looking to invest in this rapidly growing field of medical psychedelics, they stand out as the best options so far.

Mind Medicine is one of the furthest along when it comes to getting a product out there. It’s a pharmaceutical company that specifically works to develop psychedelic medications. The company is currently in the middle of six different trials on drugs like MDMA, LSD and DMT. In January of 2021, MindMed announced the first ever clinical trials to involve a combination of MDMA and LSD, with company president Dr. Miri Halperin Wernli stating:

“I believe that when LSD and MDMA are taken together they have exceptional potential to open a window into our mind which will awaken it to new levels of awareness by changing the fluidity of the ‌state‌ ‌of‌ ‌consciousness, amplifying‌ ‌changed‌ ‌perceptions,‌ ‌intensifying ‌emotions‌, ‌and‌ stimulating ‌novel‌ ‌thoughts. It is like a gateway to a multidimensional universe.”

When it comes to MDMA trials, MAPS – Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies,  is also making its way to approval. MAPS entered phase III of its trials into MDMA for PTSD, and aligned this phase with the FDA according to a Special Protocol Assessment made directly with the FDA. This means that so long as the trials show clinically significant results, the study will already check all FDA regulatory boxes, and make it that much easier for approval.

However, a psychedelic drug has technically already been approved by the FDA. In March of 2019, Johnson & Johnson’s Spravato got approval. The spray treatment is considered for those who have not received a benefit from at least two separate anti-depressants. Spravato is a drug that’s a chemical cousin of the drug ketamine, which is classified as a dissociative drug, but also as a psychedelic. The medication is meant for severe depression.

There are tons of companies popping up. Apart from the companies already listed, prospective investors should check out Champignon Brands, Hollister Biosciences, Better Plant Sciences, Captiva Verde Land, Core One Labs, Cybin, Empower Clinics, Ehave, Jazz pharmaceuticals and EGF Theramed Health. All of these companies are associated in some way or other with the production of psychedelic medications. And while I have yet to see it mentioned in an article, it seems to me that what might upend everything I just said, is the ability to cultivate magic mushrooms.

LSD

Something to consider

Much like cannabis, mushrooms come with the ability for easy self-cultivation, as well as large scale cultivation. People who invest in today’s cannabis cultivation already know the value of having growing fields. Imagine the same thing, but with mushrooms. I personally believe that the biggest way in the future to invest in medical psychedelics, will be through the growing of mushrooms.

As stated, this is my opinion, and has not been discussed much as far as I can tell. This is not shocking though, and really doesn’t mean much, as this topic is also an undesirable one for any biotech or pharmaceutical company that – much like with cannabis – would much prefer you know nothing about how to do this on your own. And much like cannabis, it’s easy enough to learn how for anyone who needs some help getting started. Plus, since cultivation and sale of the mushrooms themselves is actually legal in many places, it’s way more legal to grow a field of mushrooms in much of the world, than to grow a field of cannabis.

How to invest in Medical Psychedelics – Conclusion

That the medical psychedelics field is coming is not as much up for debate as many would believe. It might be growing in the shadow of the cannabis market, and being kept quiet until the ability for large scale monetization is possible, but it’s coming, and it will be big. For those who want to invest in the growing medical psychedelics field, getting in now is probably the best idea, and with all the new companies popping up every day, it’s sure to become a heated race very soon.

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References

Why the Vape Ban Is Happening, and How It Will Impact Delta-8 THC
Florida Bill Aims to Legalize Medical Magic Mushrooms

DIY: How to Make Delta-8 THC at Home
Here is everything wrong with Biden’s “forced rehab” plan for drug reform
What is DELTA 8 THC (FAQ: Great resource to learn about DELTA 8THC)

Can LSD Treat Your Mental Illness?
Welcome to the World’s 1st DMT Trials into Depression
The CBD Flowers Weekly newsletter (your top resource for all things smokable hemp flowers). Delta 8 / 9 / 10 / 11… How Many THCs Are Out There?
The New Rise of Medical Psychedelics

The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter (All you need to know about Delta 8 thc) and the Best Delta 8 THC Deals. How To Choose Delta-8 THC Flowers?
Ayahuasca In the Fight Against Drug Addiction The Many Faces of Tetrahydrocannabinol – Different Types of THC and Their Benefits Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy, and How It Works
Desert Tripping – A Closer Look at Peyote: Spiritual, Medicinal, & Controversial Nature’s Magic – The Health Benefits of Psilocybin Mushrooms

Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a medical professional, I have no formal legal education, and I’ve never been to business school. All information in my articles is sourced from other places, which are always referenced, and all opinions stated are mine, and are made clear to be mine. I am not giving anyone advise of any kind, in any capacity. I am more than happy to discuss topics, but should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a professional in the relevant field for more information.

Yup, there’s a vape ban in the USA, but that doesn’t mean we can’t get you any delta-8 THC products at all. Delta-8 THC is the less psychoactive THC compound that produces less anxiety and panic for users. Check out the great delta-8 THC deals we’ve got, and start experiencing delta-8 in a whole new way.

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Welcome to the World’s 1st DMT Trials into Depression

As research into medical psychedelics heats up, more drugs have been brought into the spotlight for medical testing. The FDA is pushing for research and products with MDMA and psilocybin in the US, and over in England, the world’s 1st DMT trials into depression have begun.

THC might be one of the most popular compounds on earth, with people using it in every country. The invention of delta-8 THC gives users more options, offering a less intense experience with less psychoactive effect, and for many people, less anxiety. More options means it’s easier to get what you want. So make sure to check out these great Delta-8 THC deals, and figure out which THC is optimal for you!

What is DMT?

DMT – N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, is a hallucinogenic compound that can be found in nature in many plants like Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi. It is processed into a white powder that can be vaporized or smoked, brewed into a drink like ayahuasca, snorted like cocaine, or even injected. It has been used as a medicine, and in spiritual applications, for thousands of years. DMT trips can be as short as 30-45 minutes, or as long as 4-6 hours when taken as ayahuasca.

Evidence of DMT use has been found going back at least 1,000 years in the Sora River valley in southwestern Bolivia with the finding of a pouch which contained both DMT and harmine. Together they imply the use of ayahuasca (a psychedelic tea made from the combination of Psychotria viridis – which produces DMT, and Banisteriopsis caapi vine – which produces MAO inhibitors which keep the DMT from breaking down, allowing for the longer trip time.)

Like many psychedelic drugs, DMT acts on serotonin receptors, particularly the 5-ht2a receptor. It acts as a non-selective agonist at most/all receptors. Serotonin is a hormone that’s known for mood stabilization, happiness, well-being, anxiety levels, and feelings of depression. It also plays a big role in communication within the nervous system, and to help regulate basic functions like eating, digestion and sleeping. Too little serotonin has been associated with depressive disorders, and too much is often associated with excessive activity in nerve cells.

DMT trials depression

There is growing evidence that the human body can actually produce DMT itself by way of the pineal gland in the brain. There has even been research into whether DMT is released right before death in order to quell the anxiety of dying. Most testing into this has been done on animals thus far. Recent research has shed light into the similarities between near-death experiences and DMT use.

DMT was first synthesized by Richard Manske, a Canadian chemist, in 1931. It was not actually located in plants until 1946 when Oswaldo Gonçalves de Lima, a microbiologist, was able to find the compound in nature. The hallucinogenic aspect wasn’t discovered until 1956 when Hungarian chemist and psychiatrist Stephen Szara self-administered DMT he had extracted from the plant Mimosa hostilis.

What are psychedelics in general?

Psychedelics are psychoactive substances with a powerful ability to alter perception, mood, and cognitive processes. Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogens, and can cause a person to perceptually experience things that are not actually happening – aka a hallucination. Psychedelics are also known for promoting self-introspection, feelings of connection between people, mystical experiences, relaxation, feelings of overall well-being, and euphoria.

They are also associated with negative side effects like bad trips which can cause negative hallucinations and feelings of anxiety and fear. Bad trips, and other negative effects like sweating, vomiting, chills, numbness, and dizziness, can often be entirely avoided with correct dosing. Psychedelics can be made in laboratories, like LSD, or found in nature like DMT and psilocybin. They are not associated with causing major injury or death.

Currently, plenty of research is going on into psychedelic drugs, though research was stymied for years due to psychedelics being made globally illegal with placement in Schedule I of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971. This treaty defines drug legalities worldwide. The scheduling implies the drugs in this category are uniformly dangerous, with no medical value, and the grouping includes DMT and other psychedelics. Even so, plenty of research is going on right now into LSD, MDMA, psilocybin (magic mushrooms), ayahuasca and more.

Psychedelic-assisted therapy

When it comes to psychedelics for therapy, there isn’t a model that I’ve seen where a subject is simply given a dose of a drug and told to have a good time. In the past, and in more recent testing, psychedelics have been/are used as part of psychedelic-assisted therapy. The basic model involves three phases: preparation, psychedelic experience, and integration. Research from the 1950’s-1970’s involves two ways of doing the second phase.

major depression

One method was developed by Humphry Osmond, a Canadian psychiatrist, who used one large dose with a therapeutic session, which was termed ‘psychedelic therapy’. Conversely, UK psychiatrist Ronald Sandison used smaller doses that gradually got bigger, over several sessions, which became called ‘psycholytic therapy’. Here is an overview of the three basic stages, regardless of which methodology is used in terms of number of sessions and amount of drug per session:

Preparation phase– In this first stage, the doctor and patient get to know each other, which is important because the relationship between the doctor and patient can affect the psychedelic session. This phase generally involves talk therapy sessions where the patient’s issues can be identified and flushed out, and the patient can be prepared for the following phase. Preparation can involve behavioral directives for the experience, like explaining to the patient they should open a door if one appears in his/her experience, or to go up to a scary creature to ask questions rather than run away, as a way to encourage a patient to deal with difficult situations instead of avoiding them.

Psychedelic phase – In this phase, the patient is given a psychedelic, and then experiences their trip while their doctor gives them general guidance, with little or no analysis at this time. The session can last as long as 8+ hours as it must last as long as the drug. It’s usually carried out in a space that looks and feels comfortable to the patient. In testing, the space is usually set up to look like a living room. These sessions have two doctors present, likely for safety reasons as the patient is being put in an altered state of mind. This phase varies greatly depending on the methods used by the particular doctor. But at all times during this phase, the patient is attended to by their doctor.

Integration phase – This phase occurs soon after the psychedelic phase and can be done in one or multiple sessions, much like the other phases. The doctor facilitates this session, and helps the patient make sense of their experience. To process what happened during the session, to gain some kind of positive value from it, and to integrate an understanding between the psychedelic experience and their issues in reality.

World’s 1st DMT trials for depression

Most of the studies in the 1900’s revolved around testing LSD for use with alcohol addiction. In today’s world, there is growing interest in several compounds. The new trend can be seen clearly in the US (FDA) Food & Drug Administration’s push to get some of these compounds tested and brought to market. In 2017, the FDA designated MDMA as a ‘breakthrough therapy’ for PTSD, and in 2019 it made the same designation for psilocybin from magic mushrooms for major depression.

According to the FDA, the ‘breakthrough therapy’ designation is meant “to expedite the development and review of drugs for serious or life-threatening conditions…” So it suffices to say, that legal or not, there is a growing pressure even within the US government to get these drugs to market.

DMT and ayahuasca

It’s therefore not shocking that the 1st DMT trials into depression recently started. It was announced in December 2020 that the (MHRA) UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency approved the use of DMT in the first ever clinical trial of the compound, specifically for the treatment of depression. The trials are being done as a collaboration between Small Pharma and Imperial College London. In this first trial, considered a phase I/IIa trial, the drug is being given to a small number of healthy individuals to establish safety and efficacy. A second trial is expected, in which patients will be given DMT in trials as a part of psychedelic-assisted therapy for depression.

The explanation for the first trials, according to Small Pharma’s chief scientific and medical officer Carol Routledge, is that “Taking the drug before therapy is akin to shaking up a snow globe and letting the flakes settle.” She says, “The psychedelic drug breaks up all of the ruminative thought processes in your brain – it literally undoes what has been done by either the stress you’ve been through or the depressive thoughts you have – and hugely increases the making of new connections.” She goes on to say:

“Then the [psychotherapy] session afterwards is the letting-things-settle piece of things – it helps you to make sense of those thoughts and puts you back on the right track. We think this could be a treatment for a number of depressive disorders besides major depression, including PTSD, treatment-resistant depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and possibly some types of substance abuse.”

Unlike an LSD, psilocybin, or even ayahuasca trip (in which DMT is mixed with another compound to make it last longer), all of which can last many hours, DMT trips are significantly shorter, usually over within a couple hours max. This might prove preferable to the aforementioned drugs which require significantly more time for therapeutic sessions. These DMT trials into depression can help establish if DMT is suitable for treatment, and if the shorter time period really is beneficial.

Conclusion

While everyone focuses on every minute detail of the fight for cannabis legalization, most people are ignoring the rise in medical psychedelic research and use. Maybe because the topic just hasn’t been promoted enough, which is possibly because there isn’t yet a product to make money off of. But there will be soon, and then, what I’m writing about now, will be front page news in every publication. For now, though it’s still a minor story to the average person, it’s a major one in the medical/pharmaceutical world, with these 1st DMT trials into depression signaling even further expansion of an industry ready to blow off the roof.

Hello! Welcome to CBDtesters.co, your #1 location for the best cannabis-related news from everywhere in the world. Check us out frequently to keep up on the ever-changing world of legal cannabis, and sign up to our newsletter so you’re always in the loop!

Resources

Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy, and How It Works
South Africa Introduces Some of the Most Lax Laws on Cannabis Yet

The New Rise of Medical Psychedelics
Next Stop for Cannabis Industry Investors: Malawi
What is DELTA 8 THC (FAQ: Great resource to learn about DELTA 8THC)

Opening Your Third Eye – How Cannabis Affects the Pineal Gland
Ayahuasca In the Fight Against Drug Addiction
The CBD Flowers Weekly newsletter (your top resource for all things smokable hemp flowers).  MDMA – The New Way to Treat PTSD Desert Tripping – A Closer Look at Peyote: Spiritual, Medicinal, & Controversial
The Medical Cannabis Weekly newsletter (International medical cannabis business report)
Florida Bill Aims to Legalize Medical Magic Mushrooms
The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter (All you need to know about Delta 8 thc) and the Best Delta 8 THC Deals. Best Delta-8 THC Vape Bundles – Winter 2021 Can LSD Treat Your Mental Illness?
Plant Power: Everyday Plants That Activate the Endocannabinoid System Sinaloa Cartel Might Run Mexico’s New Cannabis Industry Merry Cannabis! Christmas and Marijuana
Denver Residents Vote to Decriminalize “Magic Mushrooms”
Africa’s Green Rush and the Mad Dash to Update Cannabis Regulation Nature’s Magic – The Health Benefits of Psilocybin Mushrooms Cannabis Election Results – What Just Became Legal in the United States

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Ayahuasca In the Fight Against Drug Addiction

Drug addiction is a major issue in the modern world with sky-high numbers for deaths due to drugs throughout the world each year. Very little in the standard medical world has provided an answer to the question of how to break a drug addiction, and recidivism rates for addicts have always remained high. New research into the medical properties of ayahuasca indicates it might be an answer in the fight against drug addiction.

Psychedelics are becoming popular once again, and THC, which is often considered a psychedelic, is one of the most in-demand. These days there are options when it comes to THC. You can go with standard delta-9, or opt for less psychoactive effect and less anxiety with delta-8 THC. Want to give it a shot? Check out these great Delta-8 THC deals, and try the ‘other’ THC.

The US drug overdose issue

Some people will attribute any use of drugs to there being a drug problem. Consider that for decades, marijuana smoking was treated the same as heroin use, though today it’s clear that it doesn’t deserve that treatment. Trying to determine who has a drug issue is moot in the end, as it almost doesn’t matter. One of the ways to judge a drug issue is by the problems that come out if it, with the biggest ones being drug-related violence and deaths. So rather than worry about how many people are using drugs in a way that might be defined as problematic, let’s instead look at drug deaths to gauge the issue.

There are plenty of different national and international reporting agencies about drugs, often with different numbers coming out, though they tend to be in the same direction. It’s also hard to get full global statistics, so sometimes the best possible option is to investigate particular locations to see trends.

According to the CDC, the first three months of 2020 saw approximately 19,416 drug overdose deaths in the US alone. The same period from one year earlier had about 16,682, nearly three thousand less. In the CDC’s US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics report from October of 2020, the agency also approximated 75,500 overdose deaths between March 2019 and March 2020.

drug addiction

The grand majority of overdose deaths in the US are related to the opioid crisis, the massive widespread addiction to synthetic opiate drugs which has been increasing to incredible heights, particularly because of over-prescription, and the inclusion of new drugs like OxyContin and fentanyl. Even the CDC itself says the initial wave of the opioid epidemic started “with increased prescribing of opioids in the 1990s, with overdose deaths involving prescription opioids (natural and semi-synthetic opioids and methadone) increasing since at least 1999.” The CDC goes on to say that the second wave began in 2010 and was related to heroin overdoses, and that the third wave starting in 2013 with an increase in synthetic non-prescription opioid use.

The CDC likes to claim this is related to illicit fentanyl, but this undermines the fact that while the CDC also likes to claim a decrease in prescribing rates in 2019, this decrease still amounts to over 153 million opioid prescriptions doled out that year at an average rate of 46.7 prescriptions per 100 people.

To be clear, when going through the numbers for specific counties, also put out by the CDC, there are actually plenty of individual counties where there were over 100 prescriptions written per 100 people. So, I think it suffices to say that any recent issues with opioid deaths are just as much at the hands of pharmaceutical companies (and the US governmental agencies that allow this to happen) as the illicit market that sprouted from this pharmaceutical one. Regardless of who is responsible, this is now the situation.

If it was only about opiates, that would be problem enough, but it’s not. According to Statistica, regarding US deaths related to cocaine poisoning from 2009-2019, the number has gone up from approximately 3,822 deaths in 2009 to about 15,883 in 2019. This, of course, does show a large increase that cannot be attributed to pharmaceutical companies at all. It also brings up the question of how much these deaths are related to additives rather than cocaine itself, as the drug is often cut with other drugs like methamphetamine.

Drug overdose issues worldwide

Drug addiction is hardly a US invention (even if the US has done well to dominate the field). Take this article from December 2020 from the BBC concerning Scotland. According to the article, Scotland is actually the epicenter of the European drug crisis with the most deaths on average in Europe. The article stipulates the issue with underreporting in some countries, and makes the statement that of reported numbers, Scotland is highest. The 2018 reports had already put the drug issue as a public emergency, with 2019 numbers coming out late due to corona and other issues. The 2019 numbers show a 6% rise to 1,264 deaths.

If this number sounds small, consider that the population of Scotland is approximately 5,463,300, which brings the death rate to .023%. That’s actually slightly higher than the US! There were about 75,500 deaths from March to March, 2018 to 2019, and approximately 330 million people in the US, making for an overdose rate of .022%. While Scotland also attributes the majority of overdoses to opiates, it registered a growing amount of benzodiazepine overdoses, and multi-drug overdoses as well.

ayahuasca drug addiction

Then there’s Canada, where in three months of 2020, April-June, there were 1,628 opioid-related deaths. This is a 54% increase from the same months in 2019, and a 58% increase from January-March of the same year. If we were to take that number and multiply by four to get a rough yearly estimate for a year at those rates, we’re looking at 6,512 deaths out of a population of about 37,590,000, or .017%. From January to June 2020, 86% of overdose deaths in Canada happened in British Colombia. 75% of overdose deaths in general in Canada in that same time period were related to fentanyl.

Much like with Scotland pointing out multiple drugs used in overdose scenarios, it was also found in Canada that 52% of accidental overdoses involving opiates, also involved a stimulant. Between January to June of 2020, 70% of deaths related to stimulants involved cocaine, while 48% involved methamphetamines. In that same time period, 84% of the deaths related to stimulants, also involved an opiate.

In a place like Australia, which as of yet hasn’t been hit as hard, the 2018 drug-related overdose death toll was 1,740 out of a country of approximately 25.2 million people that year, making for a rate of .0069. This is way lower than the other countries mentioned, but it should be noted that 2/3 of these over-doses were related to opiates. However, when looking at the drug class that showed up most often – whether by itself or in combination – it was not opiates, but benzodiazepines. According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, “Over the past decade, drug-induced deaths were more likely to be due to prescription drugs than illegal drugs, and there has been a substantial rise in the number of deaths with a prescription drug present.”

On a broader scale, according to OurWorldInData, which uses the UN’s Global Burden of Disease report, over 750,000 deaths worldwide were attributed to illicit drugs in 2017. And this with underreporting from many countries. As a comparison, this number is nearly twice the global homicide rate which sits at about 400,000, although this number is also likely to be way off.

Of course, just to mess with those numbers a bit, it’s also estimated that approximately three million deaths a year are attributable to alcohol use. This encompasses more than just overdoses, but is highly significant in that alcohol is considered a leading risk factor for early death and disability for those 15-49, and is responsible for as much as 10% of deaths in this age group. This makes the opioid epidemic look like nothing. Yet we barely talk about it at all.

What is ayahuasca?

Standard methods of drug addiction therapy have not proven terribly effective. One of the ways we know this is by the sheer number of people with addictions, which indicates new cases being added with few being deleted. There also wouldn’t be a massive market for addiction medicine specialists, rehab centers, or drug maintenance if these things were not a part of an expansive field that also brings in a lot of money.

So, if you’re reading a report telling you that talk therapy, rehab centers, and group counseling are useful, consider that the addiction rehab industry was worth approximately $42 billion in the US alone last year, and is growing quickly. Does it really sound like these methods are working, or just working to bring in money?

And this brings us to medical psychedelics, and the use of ayahuasca. Though the background story of ayahuasca is a bit hazy, it has been used plenty both in history and today, and has been reviewed in medical testing. Ayahuasca is a tea made from the combination of two plants: Psychotria viridis and the Banisteriopsis caapi vine.

ayahuasca ceremony

Though both plants have their own effects, when put together the DMT from the former and the beta-carbolines in the latter (also known as MAO inhibitors, which stop the DMT from being broken down), trigger a powerful psychoactive response. Though the use of ayahuasca might not match all the stories told at ayahuasca retreats, it was certainly used in different places in history. In today’s world, the user ingests the tea, and has a hallucinogenic experience, often with the help of a guide.

So, how is ayahuasca useful in the fight against drug addiction?

Ayahuasca in the fight against drug addiction

Ayahuasca is not the first psychedelic to be looked at for addiction, as many studies were performed on LSD for alcoholism last century. The best way to get an idea of how ayahuasca can be used for drug addiction, is to see how it performs in medical testing. The following is a list of general research related to ayahuasca for drug addiction:

  • In 2013, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) published this study about ayahuasca-assisted therapy for problematic drug addiction, in rural British Colombia. The results found were that: “…participants may have experienced positive psychological and behavioral changes in response to this therapeutic approach, and that more rigorous research of ayahuasca-assisted therapy for problematic substance use is warranted.”
  • In Chapter six of Ayahuasca and the Treatment of Drug Addiction, from 2014, the authors state that more systematic studies must be done with improved methodology, but that long term studies have shown the ability to discontinue drugs among users in Brazil, and that therapy centers using ayahuasca claim to have higher success rates.
  • In the 2019 systematic review: Ayahuasca: Psychological and Physiologic Effects, Pharmacology and Potential Uses in Addiction and Mental Illness, the study authors found that “Research into medical use of ayahuasca indicates potential as a treatment in addictions, depression and anxiety [7], with a variety of other possible medical uses, though these require more research”
cannabis psychedelic
  • In the book Psychedelic Medicine by Dr. Jacques Mabit, there is a section called ‘Ayahuasca in the treatment of Addictions’, and not only does Mabit  make the case for ayahuasca use for addiction therapy, but he points out regarding the two plants used to make the tea, “This specific symbiotic action, which modern science identified just a few decades ago, has been empirically known for at least 3000 years by the Indigenous groups of the western Amazon, according to archaeological evidence (Naranjo P., 1983)”, reminding us that while these topics are fought over in modern medicine today, ancient populations seemed to understand them just fine.

Conclusion

That there is a massive drug problem in the world is by now a fact, so long as a person considers unnecessary deaths related to drug use as a problem. This is seen in overdose deaths worldwide, with growing issues related to opiates, and a long-standing issue with alcohol.

As the drug-addiction therapy industry grows exponentially, signaling major issues with both over-prescription and recidivism, new avenues should be explored to get people the help they need. In light of cannabis making its way from ‘hated’ to a ‘medical darling’, its no surprise that psychedelics are following suit. With a host of new research, and plenty of historical evidence, ayahuasca is being looked at as the new weapon in the fight against drug addiction. With the current and growing dilemma with opiates, this is one of the most promising things to come along.

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The CBD Flowers Weekly newsletter (your top resource for all things smokable hemp flowers). How to choose Delta-8 THC flowers?  A Complete Look At Cannabis and Depression
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Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy, and How It Works

When you think of a therapy session, you probably think of someone sitting on a couch talking about their life, while a professional looking person listens, and aids in the process. But what if one other component could be added to the scenario. Like 100 micrograms of LSD, or 20 mg of psilocybin? Psychedelic-assisted therapy is coming back in style, and there’s a really good reason why.

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What is a psychedelic drug?

Psychedelic drugs are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs, which are a subset of psychoactive drugs. Psychedelics are specifically associated with altering a person’s perception, mood, cognition, general sense of time and space, and emotions. As hallucinogens, they can also cause a person to see, hear, feel, taste, and smell things that are not actually there, or to experience things in a distorted way. Psychedelics can be found in nature, or made in laboratories. Examples of psychedelic drugs include LSD, magic mushrooms, DMT, MDMA, ayahuasca, peyote, and many, many more.

Psychedelics tend to promote empathy and feelings of connection between people, self-introspection, and mystical experiences, which vary by the drug taken, and in what amount. They encourage feelings of euphoria, relaxation, and overall wellbeing. They can also have some negative effects, especially when too much is taken. These can involve a fast or irregular heartbeat, dizziness, confusion, sweating and chills, vomiting, and numbness. As with any substance on earth being used as a medicine, it is important to understand dosing.

Psychedelic drugs have different modes of action, but many are serotonergic, like LSD and psilocybin, which means they interact with serotonin receptors in the brain, generally causing a rush of the neurotransmitter, and then blocking reuptake to promote absorption, essentially saturating the brain with serotonin. Serotonin (aka 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter associated with many functions including mood regulation, involuntary muscle control, and sending signals throughout the brain.

Along with promoting a lot of good feelings, and being investigated more and more for medical benefits, some psychedelics also come with the possibility of a bad trip. A bad trip is everything that a good trip is not. Negative and scary hallucinations, and feelings of anxiety and panic. This is often associated with simply taking too much of a drug, and can be mitigated by understanding dosing.

Psychedelic therapy

What is psychedelic-assisted therapy?

Psychedelic-assisted therapy is the combination of talk therapy with the administration of a psychedelic drug during the session. Examples of drugs that can be used for psychedelic therapy include, but are not limited to, LSD, psilocybin (the main psychedelic component of magic mushrooms), MDMA, ayahuasca, and DMT. Psychedelic drugs are tested in high doses, as well as micro-doses. The basic model for the psychedelic-assisted therapy process goes as follows:

1 – The preparation phase involves initial sessions held prior to any drug ingestion. This often involves talk therapy sessions, in which a clear picture can be made of the person’s issues, and the therapist can prepare the patient for the psychedelic experience. Preparation is done by helping with basic guidance, like encouraging the patient to go through a door if they see one in their experience, or to approach scary characters and ask questions rather than running away, so as to promote a person dealing with challenging situations. It is important in this phase that the patient and therapist create a good relationship, as that has an impact on how comfortable and positive the patient feels when entering the next phase.

2 – The next phase is the psychedelic session phase. The two big aspects to consider when going into a session of this nature, are the mindset of the patient as they go into it, and the physical setting around them, which should promote general comfort. In testing, the space is generally set up to be like a living room. A typical session can last as long as eight hours, or as long as the effects of the drug that was taken. Generally, sessions involving drugs will have two therapists in attendance, which I assume is partially a security measure since the patient is put into an altered state.

The patient can sit or lie down, can wear sunglasses if it helps them, and is sometimes given music to listen to. For a psychedelic session, the compound is generally administered in the form of a pill at a micro-dose level – though this is not a rule and many programs will seek larger doses. Models vary when it comes to how many drug-assisted sessions a patient undergoes, and the dosage taken. Therapists will guide patients through the experience, but perform limited, if any, analysis at this time.

3 – The final phase is the integration phase. This happens soon after the psychedelic-assisted therapy session, and can be done as one session, or multiple sessions. In this phase, facilitated by the therapist, the patient can process their psychedelic session, and work to make sense of their experience, and to gain some sort of positive meaning out of it.

mental illness

Psychedelic-assisted therapy isn’t a new invention

While it might seem like using psychedelics in therapy is a fantastic new discovery in mind-expansion to help treat mental disorders, it’s really not new at all. What is happening now, is a re-emergence of a field of study and therapy that started in the mid-1900’s, beginning with the use of LSD.

LSD was originally synthesized in 1938 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann for Sandoz Laboratories. Hofmann, incidentally, also brought us the first isolated psilocybin compound from magic mushrooms, making him one of the more important characters in modern psychedelic research. The drug didn’t make its way to the States till almost 1950, where it caught the attention of psychotherapists.

One of the early pioneers into psychedelic therapy research was psychiatrist Humphry Osmond. Humphrey Osmond was one of a group of psychiatrists that got into LSD research for the treatment of alcoholism and other mental disorders in the 50’s.

He was actually the guy that coined the term ‘psychedelic’, and tried it himself before starting to offer it to patients in 1953. In one of his first experiments into alcoholism (limited as it was), Osmond gave one 200 microgram dose of LSD to two alcoholics, one of whom quit immediately, and one of whom quit six months later.

His collaboration with Abram Hoffer in 1951 started the Saskatchewan trials (named after the location of Weyburn Mental Hospital where the research took place.) Over 2,000 patients later, at the end of the 1960’s, the methodology of one single dose of LSD coupled with psychotherapy had consistently in their research showed positive benefits for treating alcoholism with 40-45% of test subjects not relapsing within a year.

Psychedelics in the UK

These positive results were mirrored by a UK psychiatrist Ronald Sandison who had already begun using alternative methods in psychotherapy like art and music. He began treating patients with LSD brought back from a trip to Switzerland where he met Albert Hofmann. His trials in the UK returned similar results to the Saskatchewan trials, and in 1954 Sandison published this study in which 36 psychoneurotic patients were administered LSD over the course of a year, leading to 14 recovered patients, only two without improvement, and the rest with some level of improvement.

psychedelic medicine

Sandison even opened the first LSD therapy clinic in the 1950’s. It could accommodate up to five patients, and included individual psychedelic sessions, and group discussion sessions. In 2002, Britain’s National Health Service agreed to pay £195,000 to 43 patients of Sandison’s in out-of-court settlements, though whether this was out of actual damage suffered, or opportunism to collect for the usage of a drug that had become illegal, is hard to say.

Osmond’s method of LSD therapy that included one large dose with psychotherapy, was termed ‘psychedelic therapy’, while Sandison’s approach of using multiple smaller doses that increase in size, also with psychoanalysis, was termed ‘psycholytic therapy’. Between the years of 1950-1965, over 40,000 patients were treated with LSD, over 1,000 scientific papers were published, and six international conferences on the subject were held. All of the research and treatments ended by 1970 when psychedelic drugs were formally illegalized by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty.

Benefits of psychedelic-assisted therapy

Research will continue to build on the topic, but what is out there is certainly promising. In one systematic review from 2020 called Psychedelics and Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy, the authors looked at research from 2007-2019, reviewing a total of 161 articles. The most significant results were related to MDMA for the treatment of PTSD and psilocybin for the treatment of depression and anxiety (related to cancer). The authors also noted promising results related to the use of LSD and ayahuasca for mental disorders.

In another systematic review from 2018 titled Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy: A Paradigm Shift in Psychiatric Research and Development, the review authors investigated research related to psychotherapy involving psychedelics like ketamine, MDMA, psilocybin, LSD and ibogaine. Clinical results supported use of these drugs, even for treatment-resistant conditions, and backed-up that psychedelics have proven to be both safe and effective. The review authors also made a point of how psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy can challenge the notion of standard diagnostics, saying the model:

“…has important consequences for the diagnostics and explanation axis of the psychiatric crisis, challenging the discrete nosological entities and advancing novel explanations for mental disorders and their treatment, in a model considerate of social and cultural factors, including adversities, trauma, and the therapeutic potential of some non-ordinary states of consciousness.”

Conclusion

Though the coupling of psychedelic drugs and psychotherapy might not technically be a ‘new’ version of treatment, it is new to current generations that were born in the wake pf psychedelic illegalization. In a way, the use of psychedelic-assisted therapy is simply going back to our own relatively recent history. Just imagine how far along research could have been if these drugs had not been illegalized in the first place. Unfortunately, that’s not what happened, and now, this old form of therapy, is becoming the new thing once again.

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The post Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy, and How It Works appeared first on CBD Testers.

MDMA – The New Way to Treat PTSD

For sufferers of PTSD, the world can be a scary place. Modern medicine has attempted many ways to treat the disorder ranging from medications to therapy tactics, but they don’t always work. Building evidence shows that alternative remedies like the psychedelic drug MDMA might be a better long-term answer to treat PTSD.

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What is PTSD?

Post traumatic stress disorder is a psychiatric disorder, which means it is diagnosed subjectively. It effects people who have gone through a traumatic experience, whether they were actually a part of it, or just witness to it. This can include things like being physically attacked, witnessing atrocities of war, living through natural disasters, or being the target of bullying or psychological abuse. PTSD is diagnosed separately from other anxiety-based mental illnesses based on the experiencing of a traumatic event.

PTSD was known as ‘shell shock’ during World War I, and was referred to as ‘Battle Fatigue’ after world war II. It is associated with disturbing, and often very intense thoughts concerning past traumas. This can include reliving the event in flashbacks or nightmares, fear, sadness, anger, and feelings of detachment and estrangement from other people. Sufferers of PTSD often display strong negative reactions to situations that others would find non-triggering, and may avoid situations or people entirely that remind them of their past trauma.

Subjective diagnoses make for a difficult time adding up statistics, however, according to psychiatry.org, approximately 3.5% of adults in the US suffer from PTSD per year, and its estimated that about one out of every eleven people will experience PTSD in their lifetime. Women are the predominant sufferers, outnumbering men 2:1, and the three ethnic groups where PTSD symptoms show up the most in the US, are Latinos, African Americans, and Native Americans – all minorities that have experienced a lot of overall violence, intolerance, and general contempt aimed at them throughout history.

medical psychedelics

What is MDMA?

3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, known colloquially as ecstasy, or molly (which is slang for ‘molecular’), is a man made psychoactive drug which is derived from the safrole oil, found primarily in sassafras plants. MDMA has properties of both hallucinogens and stimulants, acting primarily through its interaction with serotonin receptors. It forces the brain to released large amounts of the neurotransmitter, while blocking its reuptake to aid in extra absorption. MDMA comes as either pressed pills, or as a powder that can range from brown to white.

MDMA is known for promoting a feeling of connectedness between people, of reducing fear and anxiety, and increasing feelings of empathy. It was created by Merck Pharmaceutical back in 1912, however its effects were not well understood until the 1970’s when chemist Alexander Shulgin created a new method to synthesize the drug, and tested it out along with a few of his psychotherapist friends. This is around when it started being used in psychotherapy practices, as a treatment method coupled with therapy sessions, known as psychedelic-assisted therapy.

Despite showing usefulness in dealing with mental disorders, MDMA was illegalized in 1985. In 1984, President Ronald Reagan’s administration enacted the Comprehensive Crime Control Act which allowed for emergency banning of drugs by the government. When the subject of MDMA came up in 1985, after other psychedelic drugs had already been illegalized, this act was used to immediately illegalize the compound by placing it in Schedule I of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty, ending therapeutic uses of it.

The illegalization of psychedelics started with smear campaigns during the Vietnam war which culminated in the passage of the Staggers-Dodd bill in 1968 illegalizing LSD and psilocybin specifically. This was followed up with the creation of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty in 1971 which outlawed most of the rest, with the exception of MDMA, which was outlawed later.

While the topic is obviously a controversial one, statements made by John Ehrlichman – former Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Nixon in 1994, made evident that the war on drugs wasn’t necessarily about drugs at all. Creating further concerns about why drugs like MDMA were illegalized. In his statement he claimed:

“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people… We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.”

MDMA treat PTSD

MDMA to treat PTSD

So, what do we really know about the ability of MDMA to treat PTSD symptoms? In 2020, a systematic review was released that investigated articles published up until the end of March 2019, that used key terms like ‘treatments for PTSD’ and ‘MDMA pathway’. All articles came through PubMed and ScienceDirect.

It was found in the identification and review of these articles (and their sources) that many small scale investigations had been done that show MDMA aids in reducing psychological trauma. The review authors made a very important point, though. They emphasized that none of the research showed MDMA as a cure for PTSD, as that specifically had not been researched.  What the review was identifying, and what had been studied, was the usefulness of MDMA assisted psychotherapy, and its ability to help people who have been unable to resolve their trauma issues through other avenues.

The big story today with MDMA revolves around currently in-progress trials. As of last summer, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) had begun Phase 3 of clinical trials into MDMA. MAPS is conducting double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials at multiple sites, testing the safety and efficacy of MDMA-assisted therapy for PTSD. The participants are 200-300 PTSD sufferers who are all 18+ in age, but with varied histories to produce their traumatic experiences.

These trials follow the Phase II trials which had promising outcomes, and are the last hurdle required by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) in order to be assessed for legalization in the treatment of PTSD. Should it get the pass, MDMA would be able to be prescribed along with therapy, in outpatient settings with residential stays – to allow users to have their experience in a safe and controlled environment.

How likely is the FDA to approve MDMA to treat PTSD? It is, after all, a psychedelic drug in Schedule I, which defines it as highly dangerous with no therapeutic value. Apparently, back in 2017, the FDA identified MDMA as a ‘breakthrough therapy’ for PTSD.

The FDA defines a ‘breakthrough therapy’ as a “drug that treats a serious or life-threatening condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement on a clinically significant endpoint(s) over available therapies.” This definition is meant to help speed up research progress in order to get products to market. In 2019, the same designation was made by the FDA for psilocybin in magic mushrooms.

medical MDMA

More about MAPS Phase 3 trials

Phase 3 trials were designed according to an agreed upon Special Protocol Assessment between MAPS and the FDA to make sure trials and outcomes would be in line with regulation. The trials take place at 15 different sites between three countries: the US, Canada, and Israel. Participants receive three therapy sessions with either MDMA or placebo over a 12-week therapy period, along with three preparatory sessions and three integration sessions, without any drugs. The MDMA/placebo sessions are spaced every 3-5 weeks.

The (CAPS-5) – Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale – is the primary measurement tool for success in the study. This is a loosely structured interview used in most PTSD trials, and requires assessment by raters who are ‘blinded’, or do not know where the study participant falls in terms of actual drug or placebo. The study investigators will use other measurement tools as well including, but not limited to: Beck Depression Inventory and Inventory of Psychosocial Functioning.

‘Phase 3’, of course, implies that this is not the beginning of the study. Phase 2 findings of the study indicate the following about MDMA and its ability to treat PTSD: it can cause a reduction in fear and defensiveness; increase introspection and communication, as well as empathy and compassion; and generally improves the therapeutic experience of those suffering from PTSD. Phase 2 consisted of 107 patients.

Two months following the MDMA-assisted treatment in Phase 2, 61% of patients were no longer identified as having PTSD. One year following treatment, 68% no longer qualified as PTSD. All participants had chronic PTSD that was treatment resistant, and had been suffered from for an average of almost 18 years.

Conclusion

It’s getting heated in the race to see which psychedelic drug gets the first US medical legalization (as the US so often sets the standard for other parts of the world). Psilocybin from magic mushrooms is certainly making waves, but it looks like MDMA might take the win. With the FDA already drooling at the mouth to approve, and the pharmaceutical world getting its ducks in a row, it looks like very shortly MDMA will officially be approved to treat PTSD, with a change in global legalization measures likely to follow.

Hello and welcome to CBDtesters.co, your one-stop-shop for all cannabis-related news worldwide. Keep up with us to stay on top of the ever-changing world of legal marijuana, and sign up to our newsletter so you’re always in the know!

Resources

Merry Cannabis! Christmas and Marijuana
Forced Legalizations: EU & France Battle it out Over CBD Laws

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Delta 8 Flowers – Milder Than Cannabis, But Very Relaxing and Uplifting
The CBD Flowers Weekly newsletter (your top resource for all things smokable hemp flowers). How to choose Delta-8 THC flowers?  Delta-8 THC Flowers: Everything You Need To Know.
The Medical Cannabis Weekly newsletter (International medical cannabis business report)
How Criminal Organizations Are Dealing with Corona
The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter (All you need to know about Delta 8 thc) and the Best Delta 8 THC Deals. Best Delta-8 THC Vape Bundles – Winter 2021 Denver Residents Vote to Decriminalize “Magic Mushrooms”
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