Isreali Nextage Explores Effective Delivery of Psychedelic Compounds

Israel is one of the leading countries for medical cannabis research and has held this title for decades; since the 1960s to be exact. Now, they’re joining efforts to study the benefits of psychedelics in a clinical setting as well.

Of the main areas of focus is using psychoactive compounds to treat clinical depression and other psychiatric disorders. One Israeli company, Nextage Therapeutics, is looking specifically at utilizing ibogaine, along with their own patent delivery system, to better treat people with these conditions.

When it comes to treating psychological disorders and minimizing the risk of side effects, psychedelics are the way of the future. Check out our newsletter, The Delta 8 Weekly, to learn more about these incredible compounds as well as gain access to exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products.

What are Psychedelics?

Psychedelic drugs are a subset of hallucinogens. They contain psychoactive compounds that are capable of altering a person’s mood, perception, and cognition; sometimes permanently. The active compounds are usually found in nature, like psilocybin or mescaline, but they can also be manmade, like LSD.

Psychedelics are known for causing ‘trips’, which is what the high is referred to. When a person is tripping, they may have altered perceptions of the world around them. Many people believe this is limited to visual and auditory hallucinations, but it can also include feeling, tasting, and smelling things that are not real, as well as a heightened sense of connection and understanding, and greater feelings of introspection.  

The trips that people most commonly associate with these types of the drugs are the ones in which a state of hallucinogenic delirium is reached, but that is not always the case. Many times, it is more of an experience than a trip, and something can be learned and achieved psychologically with every small dose.

The word itself, ‘psychedelics’, was first used in 1957 to recognize substances that were said to open the mind, however, the more accurate term for them is ‘entheogens’. This term was adopted, not necessarily for the sake of being scientific, but rather to allow the sector to operate without all the stigma attached to psychedelics from smear campaigns and restrictive policies throughout history. The term entheogen comes from Greek where it means ‘building the god within’.

Different psychedelics produce different trips. For example, with DMT you can expect a short high lasting less than 1 hour, whereas LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline trips can last up to ten hours. Some hallucinogens are more potent than others, like mushrooms vs acid. The active compounds are different in each drug so there is a lot of variation to the effects that can be felt.  

Some people experience bad trips in which negative, or even scary, hallucinations are experienced, and/or a rapid heartbeat, sweating, nausea, disorientation, and fatigue occur. There is indication that the majority of these symptoms can be controlled through proper dosing. This is why most modern-day, therapeutic users of psychedelics consume the drugs in micro-doses.

Nextage Pharmaceuticals and MindMend

According to Nextage Founder and CEO Abraham Dreazen, “there has been a shift in the last decade. The US Food and Drug Administration, for example, is starting to see quality of life as a factor in evaluating medicine, opening the door to these drugs.”

Earlier this year, Nextage signed a collaboration agreement with industry trailblazer Mindmend, to use their proprietary new technology known as Brain Targeting Liposome System (BTLS) – a delivery system Dreazen claims will “optimize the delivery of drug products based on noribogaine, and ultimately other ibogaine derivatives.”

Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in Apocynaceae plant family in Gabon, a small coastal country in central Africa. Although minimal research exists, a handful of clinical studies found that Ibogaine and its derivatives can be used to combat addiction, and it was looked at particularly for the treatment of opioid addiction, for which the results were promising.

Unfortunately, when used at high doses over a longer period, there are potential side effects. In a recent press release, reps from MindMend explained that, “orally administered ibogaine and noribogaine present unacceptable safety risks due to their torsadogenic effects at high systemic concentrations.”

Simply put, there’s a moderate risk of heart attacks when using noribogaine. However, Dreazen believes that if the drug is administered using certain methods that better permeate the blood-brain barrier, so more of the drug actually reaches the brain rather than going to other parts of the body, including the heart. He described it as “the winning lottery ticket.”

Permeating the Blood-Brain Barrier

When it comes to treating psychological and neurological disorders, or really any other disease or condition affecting the brain, the main challenge is permeating the blood-brain barrier. The purpose of the blood-brain barrier is to protect the brain from foreign substances, and as such, can prevent up to 95% of molecules from reaching the brain.

So far, the most common way to work around that is by giving prescribing these drugs at extremely high doses, and that, needless to say, can have numerous unwanted and severe side effects. Using a more effective model, The BTLS platform, licensed from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, has been making use of a “liposomal vehicle with a unique targeting complex” that allows for blood-brain barrier permeation at much lower doses of various pharmaceutical agents.

This is a relatively well-known concept, but according to Dreazen, Nextage took it a step further and attached a “small arrow of seven amino acid peptides – essentially a very small protein – which is part of a much larger protein that is native to the brain and has a way of actively transporting the liposomal capsule through the blood-brain barrier. Once the capsule is drawn into the brain with the arrow, it gets lodged there and starts dissolving, facilitating release of the active material – the drug.”

What the Future Holds for Nextage

Nextage has been working in the drug delivery sector for 14 years and their daughter company, IMIO, is focused solely on psychedelics. The company completed most of required preclinical worked needed to determine the potential efficacy and generality of their new patent technology. They have already worked with CBD and THC-based medications and Nextage/IMIO plans to explore the potential of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

Dreazen says LSD “is a really promising drug.” Its challenge is that when taken, people can “trip” for 15 to 17 hours, making it very unfeasible as a chronic treatment. But just like with ibogaine, he believes that if the dose can be reduced and the least amount possible gets into the body as opposed to the brain, “you could potentially get the same therapeutic effect without the longevity of the trip.”

“In the US, the psychedelic movement has exploded in the last 12 months,” Dreazen added. “I think psychedelics in Israel are just emerging, and we are the first public company to really put our teeth into it. Israel has always been in the forefront of research and development and we are committed to spearheading this industry.”

Final Thoughts

As you can see, conversations surrounding the use of psychedelics to treat mental health and neurological disorders is reaching nearly every corner of the globe, and the countries that have been more accepting of cannabis are also spearheading the medical psychedelic revelation. Psychedelics are here to stay, and in the very near future, we can expect to see a lot of these compounds being safely used in clinical and therapeutic settings.

Thank you for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your hub for all things cannabis and psychedelics-related. Make sure to Subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter to learn more and for exclusive deals on Delta 8Delta 10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC.

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Psychedelics are Changing End-of-Life and Palliative Care for the Better

They say you fly when you die…”

The only inevitable thing in life, is death. Many fear it, while others embrace the possibility of moving on to another realm. The truth is, none of us really know what happens after we die. What we do know, is that sometimes those remaining days/weeks/months on earth can be challenging. Luckily we do have some resources available to help provide comfort and dignity during death. As psychedelics gain momentum in the field of therapeutics, particularly for treating depression and trauma, the question of using them to alleviate end-of-life symptoms is coming up with more regularity.

Psychedelics are incredible. The therapeutic potential is staggering and the market is steadily growing. By far, the most popular psychedelic is still THC. For more articles like this one, and for exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other legal THC products, make sure to subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter, your top-source for all things cannabis-related.

End-of-Life: Physical Care and Spiritual Needs

Every person experiences death in a unique way, and as such, a person nearing the end of their life has many specific needs – typically in the areas of physical comfort, emotional obligations, mental stimulation, spiritual issues, and practical tasks.

Some people pass quickly while others face a more gradual decline, but almost universally, those who have a least a little bit of foresight into their deaths will go through some type of introspective, spiritual experiences.

If you have a loved one nearing departure from this world, your job is to provide comfort, reassurance, warmth, and understanding. Figuring out how exactly to do this is where it gets tricky. As the body diminishes, the spirit awakens… but unfortunately, our current healthcare system only addresses the former. However, imminent death is known to push the consciousness into new and heightened dimensional levels.

Sometimes, the transition is easy, but other times it can be more difficult and the need for treatment options that help our loved ones navigate the emotional and spiritual journey of death are just as important as medications for decreasing their physical symptoms. Sadly, when it comes to dealing with these types of complexities, modern medicine has always fallen short.

What Are Psychedelics?

Psychedelic drugs, also referred to entheogens, are a subset of hallucinogens which contain compounds that can alter perception. The term entheogen come from Greek and can be roughly translated to mean “building the God within”. The high produced by these types of drugs is known as a ‘trip’, and can include various types of visual, auditory, and sensory hallucinations. The intensity of a trip can vary dramatically based on the specific compound and dose consumed. Sometimes, a user will experience no hallucinations at all, but rather a sense of general well-being, spirituality, and euphoria.  

If you’ve ever heard someone mention a ‘bad trip’, this means they had some type of negative side effects or maybe even scary hallucinations. Physical symptoms of a bad trip can include but are not limited to: irregular heartbeat, nausea, chills, sweating, and anxiety. Dosing and setting, among other factors, can significantly impact a psychedelic trip, so you want to make sure that you’re doing everything possible to ensure an uplifting and beneficial high.

Psychedelics can be naturally-derived like psilocybin, or manmade like LSD; and they are generally regarded as safe. According to the results of a Global Drug Survey that polled 120,000 regular drug users, magic mushrooms were the safest recreational drug, along with cannabis. Their method at determining user safety was by comparing the drug used to the amount of required emergency room visits. Only 0.2% of the nearly 10,000 mushroom users surveyed had ever required emergency care, compared to the 1.0% of those using harder drugs like ecstasy or cocaine.

Furthermore, new research suggests that certain psychedelic substances can help relieve anxiety, depression, PTSD, addiction and numerous other mental health disorders. “The biggest misconception people have about psychedelics is that these are drugs that make you crazy,” says Michael Pollan, author of the new book How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence. “We now have evidence that that does happen sometimes — but in many more cases, these are drugs that can make you sane.”

Psychedelics and Near-Death Experiences

What’s interesting about psychedelics is that often times, the high can produce effects comparable to a near-death experience (NDE). Both, NDEs and psychedelic trips are very complex and subjective experiences, and many similarities between the two have been observed.

Parallels between these states of mind can include feelings of universal understanding, transcendence of space and time, communicating with angels, dead relatives, and various other entities, and questions that are insightful and pensive in nature (for instance, trying to figure out your purpose in the world).

DMT (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine) in particular is known for producing these occurrences, but anecdotal evidence suggests that other psychedelic compounds can cause them too. According to a recent, placebo-controlled study, researchers found “significant relationships between the NDE scores and DMT-induced ego-dissolution and mystical-type experiences, as well as a significant association between NDE scores and baseline trait ‘absorption’ and delusional ideation measured at baseline.”

Simply put, researchers found such substantial overlap between DMT-induced trips and near-death experiences that they believe it warrants further investigation to gauge the true medical potential of this discovery.

Psychedelics in Palliative and End-of-Life Care

For several reasons, the use of psychedelics in end-of-life and palliative care has been a hot topic of discussion for some time now. Terminal patients, or even those who are on a natural decline, often face significant feelings of anxiety, depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, and overall existential distress.

Although alleviating these symptoms should really be at the core of palliative care, currently, there are no pharmacologic options for helping end-of-life patients who need to find emotional peace. Yes, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs exist and are prescribed to dying patients on a regular basis; but numerous studies show that these medications have demonstrated absolutely no superiority over placebos.

Enter psychedelics. According to Ross and Reiche et al., “psychedelic-assisted therapy for patients facing life-threatening illness appears to be a safe and potentially highly efficacious intervention for psychological and existential distress associated with such conditions. Contemporary double-blind placebo-controlled trials of psychedelics for depression and anxiety associated with cancer have produced very promising results.”

The Research

The two most recent and noteworthy studies on this subject were both completed at well-known, prestigious facilities: John Hopkins University and New York University (NYU). Both also were published simultaneously with nearly a dozen editorials from experts in palliative medicine, psychiatry, and international drug policy.

In the John Hopkins study, a crossover design was used to monitor 51 patients who received both an experimental high dose of psilocybin (22 mg or 30 mg/70 kg) and a standard low dose (1 mg or 3 mg/70 kg) which served as an active placebo control. At NYU, a randomized trial was used to study 29 patients receiving either psilocybin or the active placebo niacin.

During both trials, participants received pre and post treatment therapy sessions to determine their current state of mind and be able to make a reasonable assessment after administration of psychedelics. Also, both treatment groups included subjects with a wide range of both physical and psychiatric disorders including life-threatening cancers, anxiety, depression and other mood disorders.

And most importantly, both studies looked very carefully at the longevity of the results post-treatment, as well as safety profile of the prescribed active treatment. Across the board, there were both acute, immediate benefits as well as long lasting ones that were observed more than 6 months after use of psychedelics. Safety profiles were good in both trials and no serious adverse medical or psychological outcomes were reported.

Overall, the results were very promising. Participants claimed to experience reconciliation with death, emotional detachment from their diseases or ailments, reconnection with life, reclaimed presence and sense of self, and increased confidence.

“Those findings are consistent with published work about the safety and risk profile of psychedelics, which can be appropriately mitigated both with careful screening of subjects who have an underlying risk of psychosis and with appropriate support by the psychotherapy team,” says Daniel Rosenbaum from the Department of Psychiatry at University of Toronto. “These landmark studies from Johns Hopkins University and NYU also suggested a central role of the psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience, which correlated significantly with therapeutic outcomes based on ratings using validated scales.”

Mystical-type experiences can be characterized by many different qualities including but not limited to feelings of unity, a sense of experiencing “ultimate reality”, sacredness, positivity, and connectedness. In short, using psychedelics can make the experience of dying a more positive and spiritual one, rather than being scary, confusing, and depressing.

Final Thoughts

For many obvious reasons, death is a very sensitive subject. Of course, pain, physical ailments, and practical matters need to be addressed, but when is someone is nearing the end of their life, there is so much more going on beneath the surface. What needs to be discussed more is the need for treatment options that deal with the nonsecular symptoms of moving on to another realm, and psychedelics might be one of the most promising ways to accomplish this task.

Thank you for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your hub for all things cannabis-related. Remember to subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for more articles like this one and exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products.

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Albert Hofmann: The Finding and Self-Experimentation of LSD

The psychedelic boom is just beginning, with legalizations occurring, and new bills working their way through local governments to provide more psychedelic freedom. For those still unaware, psychedelics have been proving to be a valuable medicine in the fight against mental illness. When looking back in the history of medical psychedelics to where it started, it all comes down to one man, Albert Hofmann, and his discovery of LSD.

Albert Hofmann sure started something big when he discovered LSD, but it might be a while longer before LSD is legalized. If psychedelics continue like the cannabis industry, it should happen eventually. Luckily, for now we’ve got cannabis, and all its great medicinal and recreational compounds, like delta-9 THC, delta-8 THC, and a range of other minor cannabinoids like THCV, THCP, delta 10, HHC, THC-O and more. You can go ahead and check out our weekly deals.

What are psychedelics?

Psychedelics are drugs that contain chemical compounds that cause a psychoactive reaction in a user. Such reactions include experiencing hallucinations, which means hearing, seeing, feeling, tasting, and smelling things that aren’t there. Psychedelics are also associated with creating spiritual experiences and can promote feelings of connectedness between the user and others around. Users experience euphoria, relaxation, and well-being, while also experiencing mystical sensations. Psychedelics can alter mood, perception, and cognition, though different drugs can cause different effects, and the amount taken is important.

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs, which themselves are a subset of psychoactive drugs. They can be found in nature, like magic mushrooms or peyote, or made in a lab like LSD or PCP. Though psychedelics have been found generally safe in testing, getting the dose correct is important. This is the same with any type of medication, and is not specific to psychedelics. A person who takes too much oxycontin might overdose and die, a person who takes too much LSD might have a bad trip.

‘Bad trips’ are characterized by negative, or even scary, hallucinations. Users can experience feelings of dysphoria, anxiety, and panic, as well as physical symptoms like dizziness, irregular heartbeat, numbness, vomiting, and sweating and chills. Bad trips have not been known to result in death, but can certainly be a negative experience for the user, and back up that careful dosing is very important.

Many psychedelics are serotonergic, meaning they interact with serotonin receptors in the brain. This will usually cause a rush of the neurotransmitter, followed by blocking reuptake to allow for more absorption. The neurotransmitter serotonin is responsible for many functions in the human body, from mood regulation and involuntary muscle control, to transmitting signals throughout the brain.

Historical use of psychedelics

Though we treat psychedelics like we don’t know much about them in mainstream life, there is plenty of evidence they’ve been used for thousands of years, although the context they were used in, may have been different from how they’re used today. Information that we do have was obtained from ancient texts, findings, and rituals.

For example, in the Sora River Valley of Southwestern Bolivia, a pouch was found containing traces of different psychedelic compounds including both harmine and dimethyltryptamine – used to make ayahuasca; bufotenine, a psychedelic compound found in toad skin; and psilocin, a psychedelic compound of magic mushrooms. The pouch is said to be from around 900-1100 CE according to mass spectrometry carbon dating. This is the earliest finding to show the use of the plants that combine to make ayahuasca.

Other research has pointed to use of psychedelics in Mesoamerica by the Mayans, Aztecs, Olmecs, and Zapotecs. The Mayans were known for drinking balché from Lonchocarpus bark extracts, which together with honey produces a psychoactive effect (the bark can itself, but is milder without the honey). It was used for group ceremonies to get intoxicated. The cultures mentioned used the peyote plant for mescaline, hallucinogenic mushrooms, and ololiuhqui seeds, which contain lysergic acid amide, a relative to LSD.

The near-East has also been a hotspot for ancient psychedelic findings. Several artifacts have been made in that region including residues, fibers, pollen, and carbonized seeds. In fact, traces of Blue Water Lily extract, a strong narcotic, were found in Tutonkamen’s tomb which dates back to the 14th century BC. In Lebanon, 10 liters of Viper’s Bugloss was found in a storage jar in Kami del-Loz temple from the late bronze age. Viper’s Bugloss is a very strong hallucinogenic compound.

What led up to Albert Hofmann finding LSD

History is all fine and good, but in today’s world we study things in labs. In modern times, the practice of studying psychedelics began in Switzerland with a chemist named Albert Hofmann. Born in 1906, in Baden, Switzerland, Hofmann finished his chemistry degree at the University of Zurich in 1929. Immediately after graduation, he began working for the chemical company Sandoz.

When Sandoz hired Hofmann, the company had only opened a pharmaceutical department a few years before in 1917, even though the company was founded in 1886. The pharmaceutical department started with the isolation of a compound called aotamine from a fungus called ergot, which can be found in tainted rye. Ergot has been used in natural medicine traditions for many, many years, since in small doses, it has been known to quicken child birth, as well as help with the bleeding after. However, when found in tainted rye, ergot can cause incredible illness. The scientist who isolated the compound, Arthur Stoll, wanted to isolate the part that caused the constriction that allowed for the medical advantages only.

He was able to do it, isolating the compounds ergotamine and ergobasine, which enabled the ability to dose very precisely, and without other compounds from ergot getting in the way. Within the next few years, researchers at the company were able to elucidate the chemical structures of different compounds of ergot thought useful, all of which share a common nucleus. This point at which all the compounds start, is named Lysergsaure (in German), or lysergic acid. These discoveries made a lot of money for Sandoz, and helped launch a pharmaceutical department for further research and development. This is the climate that Hofmann walked into when he was hired in 1929.

Albert Hofmann and the unexpected finding of LSD

When Albert Hofmann entered the picture, the Sandoz lab was busy studying ergot, and the compounds within. Hofmann was able to establish a synthetic process to build the ergot compounds using the chemicals that make them up. He was able to synthesize active components of ergot, along with similar compounds from other plants, that were thought to be possible for medical use. Hofmann did a lot of experimentation, combining lysergic acid with other compounds to see what kind of results occurred. He did this about 24 times before something big happened.

Hofmann had been trying to find a combination that could stimulate circulation and respiration. On the 25th occasion of combining lysergic acid with another compound, Hofmann used diethylamine, a derivative of ammonia. The compound it created, was called LSD-25 at the time, or lysergic acid diethylamide. Though it did not meet the needs specifically of what he was looking for, it was noted that the created compound caused excitability in animals during testing. At the time, LSD-25 was put on the backburner, but Hofmann couldn’t forget about it, saying it was “a peculiar presentiment—the feeling that this substance could possess properties other than those established in the first investigations.”

Five years later, he felt the urge to recreate this compound again, and this time, something very strange happened. He started feeling strange. It was a Friday, so he left the lab early and returned home. When he came back into the lab the following week, he wrote this to Stoll, who was his boss at the time:

“I was forced to interrupt my work in the laboratory in the middle of the afternoon and proceed home, being affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition, characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dream-like state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted steam of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors.”

What did he do next?

When Albert Hofmann first discovered the effects of LSD, he didn’t know what caused them. First, he thought he had been exposed to some kind of chloroform solvent, but when he intentionally breathed in fumes, he didn’t get the same response. It finally occurred to him that he might have actually ingested some of the LSD-25 he was working with, despite the fact that the only place he had made contact, was his fingertips. As it was understood ergot compounds could be toxic, a lot of measures were taken for safety. Upon realizing it might have been the LSD-25, Albert Hofmann did what any good scientist would do, he began experimenting on himself.

On April 19th, 1943, Hofmann dissolved 250 millionths of a gram of lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate (the crystalized version of LSD-25), and drank it down. He did this without giving a heads up to anyone at Sandoz except his lab assistant, and he didn’t expect anything to happen. He had taken such a small dose – with the intention of slowly increasing to find the right amount, that he hadn’t expected the response that he got. After about 40 minutes, he wrote this:

“Beginning dizziness, feeling of anxiety, visual distortions, symptoms of paralysis, desire to laugh.” Due to his condition, he had to have his lab assistant take him home, which due to wartime restrictions, meant riding on bikes. One can only imagine how funny that bike ride must have been! He later said this about the experience:

“Everything in my field of vision wavered and was distorted as if seen in a curved mirror. I also had the sensation of being unable to move from the spot. Nevertheless, my assistant later told me that we had traveled very rapidly. Finally, we arrived at home safe and sound, and I was just barely capable of asking my companion to summon our family doctor and request milk from the neighbors.”

Though the symptoms were frightening, as they were unexpected, a doctor’s visit confirmed that nothing was actually wrong with Hofmann. When he had calmed down, and could speak clearly about his experience, he said this: “Everything glistened and sparkled in a fresh light. The world was as if newly created. All my senses vibrated in a condition of highest sensitivity, which persisted for the entire day.”

Hofmann continued experimentation with himself and a couple close friends. He found the setting to be a very important factor in how the trip played out. Hofmann went on to introduce this new compound to psychiatrists in the mid-1900’s like Humphry Osmond and Ronald Sandison. Osmond conducted the Saskatchewan trials in Canada. In the studies, alcoholics were given LSD to quit drinking, and according to the studies, an entire 40-45% were able to do so for at least a year after only one dose. Sandison operated out of the UK, doing his own experimentation with acid. One of his experiments included using 36 psychoneurotic patients, all of whom were cured or showed improvement after using LSD, save for two. Both doctor’s developed their own strategies for the emerging psychedelic-assisted therapy, all based on Hofmann’s experiences.

Albert Hofmann LSD


The story of acid is obviously much longer than this, but this is how it started, with Albert Hofmann and his self-experimentation of LSD. Though LSD is currently Schedule I in the US, both psilocybin and MDMA have been designated by the FDA as breakthrough therapies, and Oregon has already legalized psilocybin for medical purposes. On top of that, esketamine, a close relative of ketamine, is already approved for depression and suicidal thoughts, and is in use in clinics all over America.

LSD is a synthetic psychedelic compound, though it has roots in the ergot plant. While it was the most commonly used medical psychedelic in the mid-1900’s, it was illegalized and demonized shortly after, only now gaining attention once again for its medical benefits. With the impending legalization of other psychedelics, one can only imagine that LSD will be coming soon too.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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Psychedelics Are Coming: Learn to Grow Mushrooms On Your Own

The medical psychedelic boom has already started with the release of esketamine. Now, with MDMA and psilocybin on the way, medical psychedelics are looking to majorly disrupt the standard mental health treatment industry. And the great thing about psilocybin is, much like cannabis, the mushrooms it comes from, can be grown in home. Here are some basics to know, if you want to learn to grow mushrooms.

Psychedelics are getting more popular, and now you can learn to grow mushrooms on your own. If you’re not quite ready for mushrooms, there’s still cannabis, and plenty of new options like delta-8 THC. This alternate form of THC creates less psychoactive effect as delta-9, and has less associated anxiety and paranoia. Plus, it doesn’t cloud the head or couch lock users in the same way. We’ve got tons of delta-8 THC, delta 10, THCV, THC-O and even HHC products, so check out our deals and find a product perfect for you.

Disclaimer: While legalization is almost a sure thing, psilocybin is illegal in most states, while holding decriminalization status in some, and medical legalization status in Oregon. Mushroom growing equipment is legal to own, and this article is merely helping people learn the process to grow mushrooms, it is not telling anyone to do so, or telling them they should grow any specific kind of mushrooms. This information covers mushroom growing for all types of mushrooms.

What are magic mushrooms?

Magic mushrooms are a group of varying fungi that all contain the psychedelic compound psilocybin, as well as lesser psychedelic compound psilocin. These psychedelic compounds operate like other psychedelic compounds like LSD, and MDMA by being serotonergic – attaching to serotonin receptors, and creating a ‘psychedelic experience’.

The term ‘psychedelic’ refers to a class of compounds in the general grouping of hallucinatory drugs, which is itself a subset of ‘psychoactive drugs’, or drugs that can change perception. Psychedelic drugs vary, but they are known for creating a similar experience, complete with hallucinations – things that are felt, seen, heard, smelled, or tasted, that are not actually there. Along with hallucinations, psychedelics are known for creating a sense of spirituality in the user, a feeling of connectedness with others and the universe in general, a feeling of over overall well-being, mystical feelings, and euphoria.

If you’ve ever heard someone talk about a ‘bad trip’, this refers to a negative psychedelic experience in which the user has negative – or scary – hallucinations and physical symptoms, like fast or irregular heartbeat, nausea, chills, sweating, and anxiety. Though psychedelics have been generally judged as safe, dosing is important, with bad trips more often associated with too much of a compound being taken. New users might want to start with micro dose amounts, as is often what is used in psychedelic-assisted therapy.

magic mushrooms

Learn to grow mushrooms

For those that like to do it on their own, growing mushrooms is not the most intense exercise, and can be done with just a few different tools and basic instructions. The first thing you need, of course, is mushroom spores, which generally come in a syringe, much like the oil syringes used for cannabis oil. They are usually 12CCs. To be clear, mushroom spores are legal as they contain no psychoactive compounds within them.

  • The first real step has to do with growing the mycelium network, a network of tiny thread-like structures that are produced by fungal spores, and which is necessary for any mushroom growth. In order to do this, you need a substrate – or way in which the mushrooms will grow. For this, something called vermiculite is used, which is a mineral that looks like a rock, or rock chips. Approximately 2/3 cup is used in a jar, as creating a mycelium network is best done in a jar. ¼ cup of water is added, and ¼ cup brown rice flour.
  • The jar being used should have a tightly fitting cap, and should have about four holes drilled into it. The vermiculite and water are mixed and then strained, and then the rice flour added. This mix is then packed into the jar up until about a half-inch below the rim. Dry vermiculite is put on top. It should be noted that all tools used should be sterilized with rubbing alcohol to ensure no bacterial contamination.
  • The jar is tightly closed and covered with tin foil or plastic wrap to keep the drilled holes covered. The jar is placed in a pan, with water filling the pan until about halfway up the length of the jar. The water is brought to a slow boil, and for 75-90 minutes the jar is steamed. More water can be added to the pan if too much boils away. The jar is then allowed to cool for several hours.
  • Then come the spores. The holes on the lids are uncovered and the syringe is inserted as far as it will go and split between the four holes. It’s good to clean the syringe in between putting it in each hole. The jars should then be kept in room temperature, and out of sunlight. Many people prefer to keep them in a dark closet.
  • It takes about 1-2 weeks for the mycelium network to begin to grow. It takes about 3-4 weeks for full colonies to grow and form cakes. At this point, another week should be given to strengthen the mycelium cakes. Any jar that looks contaminated should be disposed of as soon as possible, making sure all equipment used is sterile is best to ward off contamination.
learn to grow mushrooms
  • At this point, a plastic storage container is taken and holes are drilled all over it in even intervals. The container should be put on four stable objects to keep the bottom from touching the surface so air can flow through. A towel is put over it to retain moisture.
  • The next step is to take something called perlite (a volcanic glass which expands when heated), clean it with water, and then put it at the bottom of the container. There should be about 4-5 inches covering the base. The mycelium cakes are taken out of the jars where they’ve been growing, and carefully washed to remove vermiculite, and then put in lukewarm water – made to stay underneath it – for about 24 hours. This is to rehydrate them. Then they’re taken out, rolled in dry vermiculite, and put in the storage container on foil squares, so the cakes don’t directly touch the perlite. They should be evenly spaced. Then they’re sprayed with a  mist bottle, and fanned off before the lid is closed.
  • The container should have mist sprayed on it about four times a day, being careful not to soak anything. The container should also be fanned several times a day to make sure there’s air circulation. Regular light is generally fine at this point, though some growers use growing lights on a 12 hour cycle. The mushrooms will take varying times to grow, but the grower will know something is happening when white bumps appear on the cakes. These then sprout into ‘pins’, and harvest comes about 5-12 days after this point. The whole process takes approximately 1-2 months, which is far less than the 3-6 associated with growing cannabis.

Grow kits

Not everyone wants to put that much time and effort into growing their mushrooms, and – to show how far along this industry is – there are mushroom growing kits that greatly break down the amount of time and energy needed to grow mushrooms. Mushroom growing kits generally contain all the needed equipment, and are streamlined to help the grower. This is like buying marijuana growing equipment which has already been streamlined to help the user have an easier and more productive experience.

Growing kits often include a box, or log-type instrument, which is already seeded with spores and ready to go, meaning the entire setup phase is not necessary. These are called pre-colonized fruiting blocks. The kits must be kept moist, and at the right temperature, but this is menial work compared to actually growing from nothing. Since the kits already have the mycelium network setup, the whole part of creating a mycelium network from scratch, doesn’t have to happen. They also usually come with a mushroom growing bag, which can remain dormant if kept in low temperatures.

Each kit will come with its own instructions, and when looking to buy a kit, a prospective grower should ensure the kit they buy is good for the kind of mushrooms they want to grow. These kits are not sold specifically for magic mushrooms at all, but are made so that all kinds of mushrooms can be grown in-home. If you want to learn to grow mushrooms with a kit, it means you will learn how to grow all kinds of mushrooms.

grow any mushrooms

Why should we expect psilocybin to be legalized?

There is actually very little saying psilocybin won’t be legalized for medical use in the US. In fact, Oregon already applied such legalities to the compound in the last 2020 election. But more importantly than Oregon specifically, is that the US FDA (Food & Drug Administration), has already earmarked psilocybin as a ‘breakthrough therapy’. What does this mean? According to the FDA, a ‘breakthrough therapy’ is a:

“…drug that treats a serious or life-threatening condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement on a clinically significant endpoint(s) over available therapies.”

The FDA doesn’t randomly assign this, but the designation is given when a company has done – or is doing – medical trials that signal they have a compound that might be a better option than existing remedies. In 2019, the FDA assigned its second designation for this to Usona Institute, the first was given a year before to Compass Pathways in their study of psilocybin as a therapy for treatment resistant depression.

The reason this matters is because psilocybin is currently a Schedule I drug in the US Controlled Substances list, made completely illegal in 1968 with the Staggers-Dodd bill in the US, and then followed with the 1970 Controlled Substances Act, and the international drug treaty, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971, which actually only illegalizes the psilocybin, and does nothing to illegalize magic mushrooms, a conundrum seen in many parts of the world. The idea that a government agency could – and would – allow this designation for a Schedule I compound does a lot to say how the US government actually feels about it.

After all, the breakthrough therapy title is meant to get drugs tested and to market. A similar designation was made for MDMA in 2017 for the organization MAPS, and their study of the compound for PTSD. Phase three of MAPS trials were even planned in conjunction with the FDA to ensure that results would meet all regulation standards. Now, that really says a lot.


Anyone looking to grow mushrooms should know the laws of where they are, and be prepared to deal with any issues surrounding their grow. Realistically, as mushrooms get closer to legalization, they will likely follow in the same steps as cannabis, with home growing becoming standard, and very little the government can really do about it. For now, these basic instructions highlight the general process. Prospective growers should do further research, and remember, these instructions are for growing all mushrooms.

Hello and welcome! You made it to, the #1 spot for the most relevant and up-to-date cannabis and psychedelic-related news globally. Read through the site every day to stay aware of the ever-changing world of legal drugs, and become a part of our newsletter list, so you always know what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Psychedelics Are Coming: Learn to Grow Mushrooms On Your Own appeared first on CBD Testers.

New Psychedelic Anti-Depressant Esketamine: What the Patients Have to Say

Psychedelic-assisted therapy, and the legalization pf psychedelic drugs, is most definitely a thing. We know this, because the psychedelic drug esketamine is already legal for use, with MDMA and psilocybin on the way, and being pushed by the FDA. Is esketamine an effective treatment, here’s what the patients have to say.

Esketamine therapy is a real thing with plenty of patients letting us know what they have to say. If you’re not quite ready for psychedelics, there’s always cannabis, and plenty of different options. Like delta-8 THC, an alternate form of THC which leaves users with more energy, less cloudiness in the head, and no anxiety. There are so many compounds to choose from, that there’s something for everyone. Take a look at our selection of THCV, THC-O, Delta 10 THC and Delta-8 THC deals, and figure out your best option.

What is esketamine?

Before getting into esketamine treatment and what patients say about it, let’s cover what it is. If the name ‘esketamine’ sounds incredibly similar to a popular party drug, that’s because it is. The drug ketamine has been a staple of the party circuit since the 80’s and 90’s, and esketamine is its close cousin. Ketamine was discovered in 1962 by scientists at Parke-Davis. They were in search of a strong anesthetic, and after creating, testing, and ultimately rejecting PCP, and other closely related compounds, ketamine was discovered. It was described as a compound with “cataleptic, analgesic and anesthetic action but without hypnotic properties.”

It became known as a dissociative anesthetic, because of how it seemed to disconnect parts of the brain. This was subsequently described as “electrophysiological and functional dissociation between thalamocortical and limbic systems.” Since that time, ketamine has been used as an anesthetic in both animals and humans, as well as being used as a recreational party drug. Essentially it doe three things, provides pain relief, anesthetic affect, and sedation. The chemical formula for ketamine is C13H16ClNO.

Of course, we’re not talking about ketamine, we’re talking about esketamine. Esketamine hasn’t been around as long, making its first appearances in Germany in 1997 as an anesthetic. While it was being used as an anesthetic, it was noticed that the compound had very fast-acting antidepressant effects, and began being investigated for this purpose. In 2017 the drug finished trials in the US for treatment-resistant depression, and in 2018, Johnson & Johnson filed an application with the FDA for a new medication – Spravato. It was approved on March 5th, 2019.

It was technically approved in conjunction with standard antidepressants for the treatment of depression in adults. In 2020, this was updated to include prescription for suicidal thoughts on account of how fast-acting it works. It is already being prescribed for use in psychedelic-assisted therapy.


Esketamine therapy, what the patients say

Pharmaceutical companies put out all kinds of medications, and they promote them all like they’ll save your life, even when going through litigation because of lies. Though psychedelics do seem to have good efficacy for helping people, this does not mean that any psychedelic medication will be okay. So, it suffices to say that hearing directly about esketamine from patients, and what they have to say, is the best thing for understanding the current situation. In the first few years of something being out, it can be hard to find the stories. These are the stories around right now.

One test subject, Amelia D., started receiving esketamine in 2017 at the Rochester Center for Behavioral Medicine. As she explains, she began taking anti-depressants shortly after she finished college, and had been given a range of diagnoses ranging from dysthymia to ADHD to anxiety to major depressive disorder. She explained how after the intake for the study, she was required to take the drug twice a week for at least a month, each time under supervision in the doctor’s office.

She explained how those taking part were not allowed to drive for 24 hours following administration. She says it started with four hours of supervision, but was brought down to between one and two hours over time. This makes sense for shorter acting drugs like ketamine.

By the time a Time article was written about her in 2019, she was going every two weeks for treatment, in which she was administered three nasal doses at five minute intervals, and then watched for an hour or two. She also stated fears of not being able to continue the medication when the trials were over due to insurance not covering it, and not being able to find a therapist. Though she had plenty good to say about the treatment, she highlighted the fact that she had gone from being unemployed for quite some time, to holding a job steadily, and being generally okay. She said she always knows when she’s ready for another dose.

It doesn’t seem like this particular trial included the therapy aspect of it, and was likely more to establish effects of the drug. She did not mention negative side effects, and spoke generally of an improvement in her life.

Esketamine, what more patients have to say

patients say

Esketamine therapy has begun to find its way into the mainstream, and has been spoken about openly by American comedian Theo Von. Von, known for his stand up and podcast work, among other projects, runs a podcast called This Past Weekend with Theo Von. In Episode 341, called Ketamine Therapy, Von talks about his own experiences with depression and ketamine therapy, as well as interviews with founder and medical director of the Chattanooga Ketamine Center, Dr. Jason Pooler.

Von talks about the hallucinations he had while taking esketamine (it is often called ketamine by users, but the drug they are prescribed is esketamine). Theo’s father died when he was young, and through the ketamine therapy, he was able to deal with the subconscious pain of not having his father, and he said that using esketamine allowed him to complete the grieving process.

Yet another public personality, albeit on a smaller scale, is podcaster Ariel Kashanchi who runs the show Mad Genius. In her June 16th episode ‘Ketamine Touchup’, she goes into specifics about getting ketamine therapy. She starts by talking about her 7th infusion. She did six consecutively, followed by the 7th touch-up. She explains how touch-ups can be done per person needs, and that for her it’s every eight weeks or so.

However, before this, she had an April 8th, segment called Ketamine, TMS & My New Brain in which she describes more about the actual process. At the time of the recording she was one week into her esketamine and TMS (Transcranial magnetic stimulation) therapies, having had two ketamine sessions at that time. She talks about her longstanding issues with depression, PTSD and childhood trauma. She said more than once in the episode that she feels like a different person since treatment began.

She explains that in her case its administered via IV. She talks about being in a comfortable setting, with a comfortable chair and blankets, eye mask, and noise canceling headphones. She talks about being hooked to the IV for about 40 minutes, with a doctor checking on her every so often (not the standard format for psychedelic-assisted therapy). She was told she had to have an intention the fist time she went in, and hers was to feel valuable and lovable. She said the experience felt a bit like virtual reality…but her overall sentiment was that prior to this she didn’t think she’d ever feel okay, and now she does. She also – like Von, spoke about hallucinations of dead loved ones, and how it created a positive situation to experience them like that.

What is psychedelic-assisted therapy?

When we talk about the new rise in medical psychedelics, it’s not about a doctor blindly giving out a prescription for a drug and saying ‘go take a trip’. In fact, quite the opposite. Perhaps in the future this will be less restrictive, but for now, the only legalization for psychedelics is for medical use, and this goes for Oregon, the first state to legalize for use in this way (although that state, and others like Denver do have decriminalization policies for drugs like psilocybin from magic mushrooms).

magic mushrooms

If you’ll notice, esketamine only has an approval at the moment for use in conjunction with other antidepressants. I don’t expect this will last forever, but this is the first one to get a legalization like this, so it’s not shocking that there are several caveats attached that don’t make a lot of sense. If this stuff works better than standard antidepressants, which actually come with a lot of warnings, why not just use it? In the future, this stipulation will probably be cleared, but for now, that’s the way it’s been legalized.

So, if standard treatments are not working, the doctor can prescribe esketamine to be taken under the supervision of the doctor. There are a few different steps in the process of psychedelic-assisted therapy, and it goes something like this, though the process could certainly be tweaked as the industry progresses. This model may also be more relevant for psychedelic trips on drugs like ayahuasca, LSD, or psilocybin, which create much longer experiences.

  • Preparation – These are initial sessions in which the psychiatrist gets to know the patient, and the issues the patient has. In this phase it’s important to build repour between the two in order to facilitate a meaningful psychedelic session. In this phase, the doctor provides instructions for the psychedelic phase, that include things like not running away from something scary, but approaching it and asking a question instead, or opening a door if one is there. These instructions are meant to help the patient face their issues when they encounter them in the next phase.
  • Psychedelic session – This phase is done in a comfortable setting, which is important, because the setting can affect the patient’s mindset. Two doctors are generally present, likely as safety since the patient is being put in an altered state. The drug is given to the patient, and the doctor guides them through the experience, but does not perform any analysis at this time.
  • Integration – This phase takes place soon after the psychedelic phase, and is meant to help the patient make sense of their experience. This is where the doctor can help the patient analyze their experience to gain meaning out of it.

To be clear, it does not sound like the esketamine therapy model matches this one exactly, but that could be on account of it being very short acting.

Into the future


Esketamine might be the only legalized psychedelic at the moment, but that should change soon. In 2017 the FDA granted a ‘breakthrough drug’ designation for MDMA for the treatment of PTSD, and in 2019, the FDA granted not one, but two ‘breakthrough drug’ designations for psilocybin from magic mushrooms, also for the treatment of severe depression.

These designations are granted when a drug company finds in testing that a new compound might work better than existing alternatives, and is meant to quicken research and production to get products to market. In this way, the FDA is outwardly pushing for the approvals of these two psychedelic compounds.

To give an idea of how much the FDA seems to want this to happen… the organization running the MDMA studies, MAPS (Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies), actually planned its third MDMA trials in conjunction with the FDA to ensure that the results would fall in line with existing regulation. I’m not sure there’s a better indication of what’s to come, than an actual government agency helping to design drug trials. With all this going on, it becomes that much more important to get first hand descriptions of esketamine from patients, who are right now the only people who can say anything about it.


Psychedelic-assisted therapy is a real thing, and esketamine in the first drug to get approval. In understanding how esketamine works, it helps to hear what patients themselves have to say. It should never be assumed that every medication will be an answer for everyone, but the information trickling in shows esketamine to be a very promising drug.

Hello and welcome to! This is your #1 spot for the most thought provoking and up-to-date psychedelics and cannabis-related news from around the world. Read through the site daily to stay on top of the quickly moving world of legal marijuana, and sign up to get our newsletter, so you always know what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post New Psychedelic Anti-Depressant Esketamine: What the Patients Have to Say appeared first on CBD Testers.

Magic Mushrooms Heal the Brain, According to New Yale Study

While cannabis is slowly creeping out of the shadows to be the new pharmaceutical darling, another class of drugs is patiently waiting its turn. Psychedelics have already shown great promise in the past for help with neural issues, and now evidence demonstrates just how magic mushrooms can help heal the brain, according to a new Yale study.

How cool is it to think that magic mushrooms can actually help heal your brain? Just as cool as it is to think that cannabis can quell your anxiety, or stop your tremors. We don’t know all the benefits of psychedelics, but we sure know a lot of the benefits of cannabis at this point, and both drug classes are highly promising. With cannabis, just like psychedelics, there are tons of options, and one of the best these days is delta-8 THC, since it gets around the issue of causing anxiety, fogging up the brain, and couch locking a person. With delta-8, the high is less intense, and more energetic, making this beneficial for many users. Check out our array of Delta 10, THC-O, THCV & delta-8 THC deals, and keep your ears open for the real start of the medical psychedelics industry.

What are psychedelics?

Psychedelics are a subclass of hallucinogenic drugs, which themselves are a type of psychoactive drugs. Whether made in a lab, like LSD, or produced by nature, like peyote, hallucinogens are known for creating a certain kind of experience. As per the name, the whole idea is that the experience encompasses things that do not actually exist. A person on hallucinogens is likely to see, hear, feel, smell, and taste things that are not there.

The Psychedelic Side of Weed: THC-O-Acetate, And Military Testing

Beyond the actual hallucinations, these drugs are also known for promoting feelings of connectedness between people and with the universe, bringing a sense of spirituality to the user, feelings of euphoria, and an overall sense of wellbeing. While most research indicates the general safety of these compounds (despite ongoing government smear campaigns), dosing is incredibly important, with larger than necessary doses sometimes leading to a ‘bad trip’ in which the user experiences negative feelings and hallucinations, often accompanied by physical symptoms, like an irregular heartbeat, dizziness, chills, and nausea.

Psychedelics – for the most part – are globally illegal, having been put in Schedule I of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971, a UN treaty meant to regulate the production and consumption of psychoactive substances. Each country has its own code, as well, with different countries allowing different things. Sometimes an individual country breaks with the Convention, and sometimes the laws can be confusing.

Can magic mushrooms heal the brain?

Take magic mushrooms, for instance. While the two main psychedelic components are generally stated as illegal – psylocibin and psilocin, the mushrooms themselves are often perfectly legal, creating a bit of a conundrum. This was exemplified in September of 2001 when the Secretary of the Board for the INCB – the organization which monitors how UN drug treaties are implemented, made the following statement to the Dutch Ministry of Health:

“As a matter of international law, no plants (natural material) containing psilocine and psilocybin are at present controlled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. Consequently, preparations made of these plants are not under international control and, therefore, not subject of the articles of the 1971 Convention.” 

How do magic mushrooms heal the brain?

There has been more research into psychedelics than most people are aware of, and I’ll get into it soon. But let’s start with what just came out. In February, 2021, Yale researchers put out this study: Psilocybin induces rapid and persistent growth of dendritic spines in frontal cortex in vivo, which was published in the journal Neuron in July, 2021.

The study was not on humans, but used mice, and investigated through chronic two-photon microscopy, the apical dendritic spines, in medial frontal cortex neurons. The basic translation of this, is that the scientists used imaging to look at one type of dendrite (from which neurotransmitters are fired) in a part of the front of mouse brains.

Here’s what they found. After one dose of psilocybin, the spines of the mice increased by 10% in size and density. This was motivated by an increased formation rate of the spine, and happened in an astonishing 24 hours! Not only that, changes were still valid one month after administration of the psilocybin. This is truly amazing in and of itself, but there was another benefit. The psilocybin worked to improve behavioral deficits related to stress, as well as dealing with increased excitatory neurotransmissions. This means that behavioral issues related to stress were minimized, and over-firing neurons were quieted. The gist of it, is that the study results show how psilocybin can help rewire the brain in the cortex, and how it can do so very quickly, and with lasting results.

Associate professor of psychiatry, and neuroscience, Alex Kwan, who was also the senior author of the study, said “We not only saw a 10% increase in the number of neuronal connections, but also they were on average about 10% larger, so the connections were stronger as well.” He went on to say, “It was a real surprise to see such enduring changes from just one dose of psilocybin… These new connections may be the structural changes the brain uses to store new experiences.”

magic mushrooms heal brain

The FDA and breakthrough therapies

Not only are magic mushrooms being studied for their ability to help heal the brain, but they are seemingly so effective for issues like major depression, that the US Food & Drug Administration earmarked psilocybin as a breakthrough therapy in 2019. A ‘breakthrough therapy’ is defined as a: “drug that treats a serious or life-threatening condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement on a clinically significant endpoint(s) over available therapies.”

This designation is literally meant to spur on research so that products can get to market. Now, consider that the FDA is a US governmental agency, that just earmarked a Schedule I substance in order to get products out faster. Kind of sounds like the US isn’t that much against it, so long as it’s a pharmaceutical product. Considering MDMA was similarly earmarked in 2017 for use with PTSD, anyone who actually believes these drugs will remain illegal, is not paying attention to what’s going on. As soon as there is a product to be sold pharmaceutically, these compounds will be legalized. And we know this because the government is already pushing for it through the FDA.

Is all of this new information?

Not. At. All. The idea that psychedelics can be beneficial has been known since the mid-1900’s when LSD was studied for its ability to help with addiction, anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic diseases, with a particular focus on helping hardcore alcoholics stop drinking. And it seemed to do pretty well for alcoholism in particular, especially as a part of psychedelic assisted therapy, or therapy that involves the use of a psychedelic drug during the therapy session, with guidance from the psychiatrist.

This was exemplified by the work of Humphrey Osmond and the Saskatchewan trials in Canada in the 50’s and 60’s, in which it was consistently found over a decade of time, that approximately 40-45% of test subjects could abstain from drinking for at least a year, after LSD treatment.

This was mirrored around that same time in the UK by Ronald Sandison, who published a study in 1954 with his findings of how LSD helped with a full or partial recovery of nearly every one of the 36 psychoneurotic test subjects used. Sandison had a slightly different method than Osmond, though both methods can likely be used optimally in different situations. Whereas Osmond’s research centered around giving patients one big dose of LSD, Sandison’s model was for multiple smaller doses to be given over time.

Several other studies came out during the 1950’s-70’s, mainly centered around LSD. Of course, that all stopped in 1968 with the Staggers-Dodd bill in the US, which formally illegalized both LSD and psilocybin. This was followed within a few years by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, making both compounds illegal worldwide.

psychedelic-assisted therapy

The Staggers-Dodd bill came into play years after smear campaigns were started, much of which was meant to simply drive attention away from the Vietnam war, and the senseless violence being played out on the backs of the Vietnamese, and paid for with US tax dollars. This demonization was made clearer in 1994 when John Ehrlichman, the former Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under Nixon, made this statement:

“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course, we did.”

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Magic Mushrooms & Your Brain: Conclusion

That psilocybin will be legalized soon, might not be a direct fact, but it sure seems likely. After all, how often does a US government agency work to get research done and products made, without a plan to sell them. In that sense, it is a sure thing, so long as nothing weird – or political – happens to change the trajectory. Not only will psilocybin and MDMA likely be legalized in the next few years, but with all the information on how compounds like psilocybin from magic mushrooms can heal the brain, it will also fully disrupt the current model of mental illness, and the current pharmaceutical model of anti-depressants.

Translation? Within a few years, you’ll probably be prescribed psilocybin to treat your major depression, over anything else. This is where things are going, and it’s not likely to change course right now.

Hello there! Welcome to, your best online spot for the most thought-provoking and relevant cannabis and psychedelic-related news globally. Read-thru the site frequently to stay on top of the ever-changing world of legal drugs, and sign up for our newsletter, so you never miss a story.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Magic Mushrooms Heal the Brain, According to New Yale Study appeared first on CBD Testers.

Psychedelic Legalization to Follow in the Footsteps of Cannabis

Just like cannabis gradually became a regular part of the mainstream conversation during the last decade, over the next few years we can expect to hear much more about psychedelics – everything from medical benefits to legalization efforts, societal views to current studies, and beyond. Given the safe and natural element to using these types of compounds, it’s no surprise that psychedelics are following the same path as cannabis: decriminalization and eventual re-legalization on the basis of scientific research and cultural acceptance.

Psychedelic research and legalization is a hot topic right now, and of all the psychedelics, THC is still the most popular one. For THC users who have a problem with the anxiety or experience paranoia, delta-8 THC might be preferable. If you think you could benefit from this altered version of THC, take a look at our awesome delta-8 THC deals, and try it out for yourself.

What are Psychedelics?

Psychedelic drugs are a subset of hallucinogens. They contain psychoactive compounds that are capable of altering a person’s mood, perception, and cognition; sometimes permanently. The active compounds are usually found in nature, like psilocybin or mescaline, but they can also be manmade, like LSD.

Psychedelics are known for causing ‘trips’, which is what the high is referred to. When a person is tripping, they may have altered perceptions of the world around them. Many people believe this is limited to visual and auditory hallucinations, but it can also include feeling, tasting, and smelling things that are not real, as well as a heightened sense of connection and understanding, and greater feelings of introspection.  

The trips that people most commonly associate with these types of the drugs are the ones in which a state of hallucinogenic delirium is reached, but that is not always the case. Many times, it is more of an experience than a trip, and something can be learned and achieved psychologically with every small dose.

The word itself, ‘psychedelics’, was first used in 1957 to recognize substances that were said to open the mind, however, the more scientific term for them is ‘entheogens’. This term was adopted, not necessarily for the sake of being scientific, but rather to allow the field to operate without the stigma attached to psychedelics from the smear campaigns of the 1960’s. The term entheogen comes from Greek where it means ‘building the god within’.

Different psychedelics produce different trips. For example, with DMT you can expect a short high lasting less than 1 hour, whereas LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline trips can last up to ten hours. Some hallucinogens are more potent than others, like mushrooms vs acid. The active compounds are different in each drug so there is a lot of variation to the effects that can be felt.  

Some people experience bad trips in which negative, or even scary, hallucinations are experienced, and/or a rapid heartbeat, sweating, nausea, disorientation, and fatigue occur. There is indication that the majority of these symptoms can be controlled through proper dosing. This is why most modern-day, therapeutic users of psychedelics consume the drugs in micro-doses.

Medical Research on Psychedelics

Just like cannabis, legalization and normalization of psychedelic drugs would be impossible if there weren’t some type of medical benefits to show on paper. Luckily, the research does exist, especially in the field of mental health. A study published just last month in the journal Nature Medicine found that MDMA-assisted therapy could be “a potential breakthrough treatment” for post-traumatic stress disorder.

Other studies have looked at psilocybin, the active ingredient in magic mushrooms, as a possible treatment option for clinical depression, and the results were incredibly promising. Additional research is underway to determine the effectiveness of numerous other psychedelics as well, including LSD and ketamine.

Most psychedelics are serotonergic, meaning the affect the serotonin receptors in our bodies. Many antidepressant drugs involve some type of serotonin signaling, although there are numerous different ways that substances can interact with these receptors. Using pharmaceuticals often leaves the patient with many unwanted side effects, whereas natural compounds are typically considered safer, when used correctly.

Psychedelics had a brief stint in modern medicine in the 1950s and several psychologists at the time were utilizing them to treat patients with depression and addiction, LSD in particular. They found it to be especially helpful in curbing alcoholism, which can be proven by this study in which it was reported that even 1 full year after treatment, subjects were still off the booze.

Known as ‘psychedelic therapy’ in the U.S. and ‘psycholytic therapy in the U.K., it was really catching on. However, when these compounds were added to the Schedule 1 narcotics list in both countries, the ability to research psychedelics, let alone utilize them in treatment plans, came to a screeching halt.

In recent years, we’ve seen a massive shift in the way the public, as well as healthcare and government agencies, view this class of drugs. The FDA itself has deemed both psilocybin and MDMA (magic mushrooms and ecstasy) as “leading breakthrough therapies” for depression and PTSD. This means that we can anticipate a rush in research and development for products containing these active ingredients in the very near future.

Psychedelic Legalization Efforts

The heavy regulation of psychedelics began in 1966, just as these drugs started making their way in the realm of recreational use. At the time, ‘recreational’ use of psychoactive substances was rooted in their ability to expand one’s consciousness. Psychedelic activists of today could very well be driven by similar motives, but the focus of their public campaigns is ‘safe, natural, alternative healthcare’ – a topic that many people have been showing greater interest in over the last decade.

Looking at it from a purely legal perspective, it not only makes sense, but it seems like the only logical way to tackle a subject like this one. Pushing for full legalization of highly intoxicating substances is already a pretty tall order, but if using the argument that our collective consciousness is suffering and in need of expansion, you can imagine that the movement wouldn’t gain much traction (regardless of how true sentiment that actually is).                                           

Psychedelic legalization will undoubtedly face many of the same challenges we have seen time and time again in the fight for cannabis legalization. We know medical research fueled by cultural mainstreaming makes for a remarkably effective weapon against outdated regulations. But despite how far we have come on both of those fronts in the cannabis industry, it remains federally prohibited. And when looking at our current administration, we know that Joe Biden really has a bug up his you-know-what about cannabis, so it seems incredibly unlikely that we will see any kind of turnaround with psychedelic regulations on his watch.

Nevertheless, we know it’s in the cards and by the end of this decade it will be a booming industry. Numerous, cities, states and countries have relaxed their laws surrounding possession and use of psychedelics drugs.

Cultural Views on Psychedelic Legalization

Compared to cannabis, psychedelic have the unique advantage of being carrying less social stigma. Many advocates of psychedelic drugs are healers themselves, dedicated to conserving cultural traditions regarding the healing of pain and trauma through rituals that include psychedelic use – and this will be a huge contributing factor to eventual legalization.

From their initial emergence into the mainstream discussion, psychedelics have been positioned as a therapeutic drug, rather than recreational; as compounds that you use in micro doses to get only the psychological benefits without any of the psychoactive side effects; and as compounds that will soon be utilized in some of the most cutting-edge therapy sessions, by the most progressive practitioners.

Stigma still exists, as is the case with any intoxicating compound, but much of this stems from completely irrelevant fear; and luckily it’s nowhere as commonplace as it has been in years prior. Most people, even those who generally lean conservative, are adopting more liberal views when it comes to the use of certain substances, especially those that are found in nature. Plant-based healing is a much more popular concept now that in has been in our nation’s recent past.  

Looking West

In a big move for the psychedelic industry, a bill was recently passed by a second California Senate committee which would legalize the possession of numerous different forms of psychoactive drugs in the Golden State. The legislation, which was sponsored by Senator Scott Wiener (D), advanced through the Public Safety Committee earlier this month, followed by a pass from the Health Committee one week later. If this bill fully passes, an extensive list of psychedelics including psilocybin mushrooms, DMT, ibogaine, LSD, and MDMA would be legalized for adults aged 21 and older.

Additionally, the bill would call for the expungement of prior convictions for possession of psychedelic drugs, the same way the state is trying to expunge cannabis convictions; as well as redefining what paraphernalia will be lawful to possess and use with these newly legalized substances.

If this all sounds vaguely familiar it’s because California was also the first state to legalize medical cannabis use back in 1996, long before it was a frequent topic in any political discourse. The golden state is also the birthplace of most cultural cannabis trends over the last few decades. California has been at the forefront of cannabis legalization efforts since the early 1970s and is one of the first states to begin expunging prior cannabis-related convictions after Prop 64 passed in 2016.

“The war on drugs has been an abject failure because it is based on the false belief, the false notion, that criminalizing people, arresting them, incarcerating them for possessing, for using drugs, will somehow deter use and improve public safety,” commented democratic Senator Scott Wiener. “It has done neither.”

Oregon, Washington and Colorado are also very liberal states that have been working to change the national narrative on drug use, particularly cannabis and other psychedelics. Oregon became the first state in the United States to decriminalize the possession of all drugs. Possessing heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine and other intoxicating substances for personal use is no longer a criminal offense in Oregon. Those drugs are still against the law, as is selling them. But possession is now a civil – not criminal – violation that may result in a fine or court-ordered therapy, not jail.

Final Thoughts

The path to drug legalization can be bumpy, and taking psychedelics from illegal to medical-use-only to legal for adult-use will take some time. But based on current patterns, we can expect this will happen relatively soon. Just like cannabinoids, psychedelic compounds are the medicine of the future and when legalization does occur, there will be an industry boom like we’ve never seen before.

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Pharmaceutical Psychedelics – What’s Already Legal and Available

The growing world of cannabis shows us that even when public opinion has been turned against something, that better information can ultimately prevail. The world might have been against cannabis, but now its on the fast track to approval. And the same can be said for pharmaceutical psychedelics. As medical legalizations for compounds like MDMA and psilocybin approach, there are already psychedelics available at your pharmacy.

The world of pharmaceutical psychedelics is growing, and that actually includes cannabis. It’s great that MDMA and psilocybin will likely be legal soon, but until then, we’ve still got THC, and not only do we have it, we have different versions of it, like delta-8 THC. Unlike its counterpart delta-9, delta-8 gets you less high, and keeps it clear-headed and energetic, while producing less anxiety and paranoia. Sounds kind of awesome, right? Check it out for yourself with our excellent delta-8 THC deals.

What are psychedelics?

Psychedelic compounds fit under the general term of hallucinogens, which itself is a subset of psychoactive drugs. As hallucinogens, psychedelics are known for producing sensory information that is not real. A person on psychedelics is likely to see/hear/feel/taste/smell things that are not there. Psychedelics also produce feelings of euphoria and wellbeing, promote connectedness between people, self-introspection, and mystical experiences.

When dosed properly, psychedelic users should experience mild to no side effects. However, improper dosing can more easily lead to ‘bad trips’, whereby a user experiences anxiety, fear, negative hallucinations, as well as nausea, vomiting, and elevated heartrate, among other physical effects. Psychedelics can be found in nature, like psilocybin from magic mushrooms, or peyote. Or, they can be synthesized in a laboratory like LSD or ketamine.

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Most psychedelics are illegal globally, as they are in Schedule I of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty. This is not an absolute however, as individual countries are more likely to go by their own internal criminal codes, many of which are not the same as the Convention. There is also a major psychedelics loophole in that psilocybin is often in schedule I of drug laws, but the plants from which it comes – mushrooms, are not always. This is the case with the global illegalization. In the US, most psychedelics are schedule I, however a closer look shows plenty of decriminalizations all across the US, and even a legalization in Oregon. Plus, other psychedelic compounds are already on pharmacy shelves, some of which have been used for quite some time.

A little on the recent history of psychedelics

Whole papers can be written on psychedelic use throughout history, and all the associated controversies therein, but it’s not terribly relevant to this article. What is relevant, is how psychedelics came into play in the last century, the psychedelic-assisted therapy that came out of it, and the recent push toward studying, and legalizing, different compounds.

psychedelic mushrooms

Psychedelics emerged into Western medicine in 1938 when Swiss chemist Albert Hoffmann synthesized LSD for the first time, followed by psilocybin in 1958. It entered the psychological field in the 1950’s, primarily with the help of English/Canadian psychiatrist Humphrey Osmond who started investigating how LSD could be used to help people stop drinking alcohol. Humphrey was the first to coin the term ‘psychedelic’, and was his own lab rat before offering the compound to patients starting in 1953. 

Humphrey, along with partner Abram Hoffer, conducted the Saskatchewan studies starting in 1951, which took place at Weyburn Mental Hospital, in Saskatchewan, Canada. By the end of the 1960’s, following administration to over 2,000 patients, Humphrey’s method of one large dose of acid along with psychotherapy (called ‘psychedelic therapy’) had helped 40-45% of patients not to relapse within a year.

Another psychiatrist who got in on it at that time was Ronald Sandison, a UK psychiatrist who modified Humphrey’s technique to give several small doses of acid rather than one big dose, but still coupled with psychotherapy. Along with other alternative therapies like art and music, Sandison found LSD to be useful, publishing a paper in 1954 about 36 psychoneurotic patients who had been administered LSD over the span of a year, with 14 recovering fully. Only two of the original 36 were not improved at all, and all other patients showed some level of improvement. Sandison’s method of several smaller doses of LSD was called ‘psycholytic therapy’.

Psychedelic-assisted research today

All of the research into psychedelics came to a halt when acid and psilocybin were illegalized in 1968 with the Staggers-Dodd bill, followed by inclusion in schedule I of the US Controlled Substances Act of 1970, and the global Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty in 1971. However, possibly as a side effect of the rise of cannabis, psychedelics have come back into the spotlight.

In 2018, a  systematic review was published called Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy: A Paradigm Shift in Psychiatric Research and Development. In it the study authors reviewed research into drugs like LSD, MDMA, psilocybin, ibogaine, and ketamine. Reviewed research showed results that supported use of these compounds for regular conditions as well as treatment-resistant conditions. The research backed up that psychedelic treatments are both safe and effective. The study authors went as far as to make a statement that this:

medical psychedelics

“…has important consequences for the diagnostics and explanation axis of the psychiatric crisis, challenging the discrete nosological entities and advancing novel explanations for mental disorders and their treatment, in a model considerate of social and cultural factors, including adversities, trauma, and the therapeutic potential of some non-ordinary states of consciousness.”

In 2020, researchers put out the systematic review, Psychedelics and Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy which evaluated research put out between 2007-2019, including 161 research papers. The review found several points of interest, like the usage of MDMA for PTSD treatment, the use of psilocybin to treat depression and anxiety, and the use of LSD and ayahuasca for different mental issues.

To back up everything just stated, the US’s very own Food and Drug Administration (FDA), highlighted MDMA in 2017 and psilocybin in 2019 as breakthrough treatments for PTSD and major depression respectively. This designation is used when there is reason to speed up products to market, meaning the FDA is looking to have these compounds on shelves sooner rather than later. In fact, the latest trials into MDMA through the organization MAPS (Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies), were actually constructed in conjunction with the FDA to make sure trial outcomes wouldn’t break with regulation. According to the FDA, a breakthrough therapy is a:

“drug that treats a serious or life-threatening condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement on a clinically significant endpoint(s) over available therapies.”

Pharmaceutical psychedelics are already on the market

LSD was used successfully back in the mid-1900’s for alcoholism. MDMA and psilocybin are both earmarked by the FDA as breakthrough therapies. But does that mean there is no access legally to pharmaceutical psychedelics now? Not at all. Not only are there plenty of natural herbal remedies that can cause similar effects, like: Morning Glory, Hawaiian Baby Woodrose, and Salvia, but there are plenty of good old pharmaceutical psychedelics already available for use.

Back in 2019, the FDA gave approval to esketamine (Spravato), which is both an anesthetic and a treatment for major depression. Esketamine is not an SSRI, or tricyclic antidepressant, or MAO inhibitor. It’s actually a close relative of the psychedelic, and dissociative drug, ketamine, which is used as an anesthetic for humans. Esketamine is the first antidepressant to not work on monoamines, meaning it breaks with today’s standard for treating mental illness. In 2020, the FDA updated it to be prescribed for suicidal thoughts as well as depression. Likely because much like other psychedelics being studied, its effects are very quick.

legal psychedelics

And that brings us to ketamine, or ‘special K’, which was first produced in 1963, and has been used for anesthesia for many decades. Ketamine has officially only been used in a hospital setting, and won’t be given out as a prescription. Doctors can write one, but since its only approved as an anesthesia, there wouldn’t be a way to access it. At one point, ketamine was a big club drug, and is still used quite a bit recreationally today.

One of the more interesting ones is 4-ACO-DMT. 4-ACO-DMT is a structural analogue of psilocybin, from magic mushrooms. It was synthesized in 1963 by Albert Hofmann, the same guy that brought us LSD and isolated psilocybin. 4-ACO-DMT is not listed under any drug scheduling category in the US or through international scheduling treaties, although as a synthetic analogue of psilocybin, it sits in a legal gray area in a place like the US. As of right now, unlike a product like delta-8 THC which also sits in legal gray area, there aren’t products on the market yet for 4-ACO-DMT, but it is used a lot recreationally.

One of my personal faves in terms of pharmaceutical psychedelics (not that there are many options) is DXM, or dextromethorphan. If you’ve ever taken Nyquil and wondered why you felt so good, it was the DXM. DMX is a dissociative drug of the morphinan class, and unlike every other drug mentioned thus far, its not only completely legal, but sold over-the-counter without a prescription, in products like Nyquil and Robitussin – from which the name ‘robotripping’ came. In testing, DXM and psilocybin have had very similar effects with the biggest difference being in visual hallucinations and mystical experiences, for which psilocybin had a greater effect. How this one managed to slip through and become the most legal psychedelic in the US is a strange conundrum of life, but as of now there are actually tons of products containing DXM out there, and we can all enjoy them!


Wondering whether psychedelics will be big in the medical domain is like wondering if cannabis will be. They will, and if the FDA earmarking them to go through doesn’t convince you, I’m not sure what will. Perhaps one of the biggest indicators is Spravato, and how it functions differently than other anti-depressants, offering help with the quick onset associated with psychedelics. Technically, psychedelic are already big the world over – and have been for a long time, but when the pharmaceutical psychedelic industry starts to boom, there will be tons of psychedelics to choose from, on every pharmacy shelf.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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How to Invest in Multi-Billion Dollar Medical Psychedelics Industry

As the legal cannabis market booms, another class of drugs on the horizon is getting closer to legalization, with its own impending boom coming. And that means a whole new place for investment. So as MDMA, psilocybin, and DMT work their way through medical trials, here’s how to invest in this new medical psychedelics field.

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What are psychedelics?

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs, which themselves are a subset of psychoactive drugs. Whether made in a lab like LSD, or found in nature like psilocybin or peyote, psychedelics are known for causing ‘trips’. When a person is tripping, they may have altered perceptions of the world around, experience/feel/taste/see/hear things that are not real (hallucinations), feel a heightened sense of connection to those around them, experience euphoria, feel a sense of spirituality and connectedness with the universe, and a greater sense of self-introspection. A large percentage of psychedelics are serotonergic, meaning they effect serotonin receptors in the brain, though they can do this in different ways.

Some drugs like DMT produce short trips of less than an hour in duration. While other drugs like LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline can cause trips that last for many hours, as many as eight or ten. Sometimes people experience bad trips in which negative, or even scary, hallucinations are experienced, and/or a rapid heartbeat, sweating, nausea, disorientation, and fatigue occur. There is indication that the majority of these symptoms can be controlled through proper dosing. In fact, many therapeutic psychedelic users consume the drugs in micro-doses.

All psychedelics are Schedule I in the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, a drug scheduling treaty which defines the legality of different compounds globally. Starting with the Staggers-Dodd bill in 1968 which illegalized LSD and psilocybin, and finishing with the placement in the Convention, making all such substances illegal to buy, sell, or consume, with no purported medical value.


Psychedelics have been used for thousands of years, all throughout the world, though their uses in medicine in the mid-1900’s, and proposed uses today, are generally different than the shamanistic/ritualistic way they were primarily used in history, although this is not to say that there were not traditions that did use psychedelics therapeutically. Technically, if a shaman is consuming ayahuasca to get rid of demons, I suppose that could be thought of as therapeutic anyway.

Medical psychedelics research

Psychedelics, particularly, LSD, were introduced to modern medicine around the 1950’s after Albert Hoffman synthesized the compound in Switzerland in 1938. Several psychotherapists at the time, like Humphry Osmond and Ronald Sandison caught onto the idea, bringing these treatments to England and America. Hoffman conducted, among other research and therapy, the Saskatchewan trials, and ultimately came up with the idea of ‘psychedelic therapy’ in which a single large dose of LSD was given along with therapy sessions.

‘Psycholytic therapy’ is what Ronald Sandison’s version became known as in the UK, with the difference being that Sandison’s treatment style was to do multiple sessions with smaller amounts of the drug that increased through the process. Both doctors found great success particularly with alcohol addiction. How much success? According to the Saskatchewan trials, as many as 40-45% of drinkers were still not drinking a full year after the therapy session.

Unfortunately, when the drugs were made illegal, all ability to continue such treatments ended, and the ability for research into the field was completely stymied, and did not pick up again until much more recently. However, to give an idea of the massive turnaround that has been going on when it comes to psychedelics, consider that the US’s Food & Drug Administration (FDA), singled out both psylocibin in 2019 and MDMA in 2017 as ‘breakthrough therapies’ for depression and PTSD respectively. Such a designation by the FDA is meant to speed up research and development for products deemed necessary for health.

This indicates a desire by a US government agency to not only test these drugs, but to get them to market. And they’re all schedule I right now. One exception to psychedelics all being schedule I, however, is magic mushrooms. Though its psychoactive components like psilocybin are Schedule I, and therefore illegal, the plants themselves are not outlawed, creating a bit of gray area in terms of mushroom use, cultivation, and production. This gray area could prove useful in the future.

What can be expected?

If you’re wondering why this matters, consider how massive – and growing – the legal cannabis markets are. Well, psychedelics offer many of the same medical benefits, especially psychologically, with possibly added abilities in other departments. And they’ve proven to be very safe. As an industry in which much of it is pharmaceutical to begin with, it’s a safe bet that these drugs are going to pick up quickly. Because the pharma world is sure to take a massive interest, it gives even more reason to invest in medical psychedelics now, before everything explodes.

psychedelic-assisted therapy

So how much is it worth? I’m not the kind of writer who generally likes to get into these numbers. Every publication makes its own predictions, off its own information, and very rarely do these predictions seem to consider world changes. Whatever the size of the CBD industry was originally predicted to grow to a few years ago, that number would be invalid by now because it didn’t account for THC-based medicines growing in popularity, or legal markets, or psychedelics.

Imagine how much psychedelics could eat away at cannabis revenue. And not only that, any predictions of the future market size for psychedelics would have to take into account the still expanding cannabis markets (with more countries constantly legalizing in some form or another), and the question mark of what currently unforeseen factors could upend the trend a few years down the line. So, I’m not concerned with too many predictor numbers, but here’s just one, in order to get an idea what we’re dealing with.

PRNewswire, citing an analysis by Data Bridge Market Research, explained the forecast for 2020-2027, in which the field is expected to grow to $6.8 billion by 2027. It was worth just over $2 billion in 2019.

Best ways to invest in growing medical psychedelics field

Now that a certain barrier seems to be broken, more companies are conducting clinical trials, getting patents, and starting to get clearances for products. In fact, if you thought the psychedelics market was off limits, you’d be very much mistaken. Not only is this a growing market with a lot of possibility, but companies are already staking their claim, leaving room for you to start investing. So, if you like the idea of getting in on something before it explodes, consider investigating the following companies, and invest in the medical psychedelics field.

Much like with cannabis, Canada is quickly establishing itself as a leader in medical psychedelics, with the top companies coming out of this country. In the first half of 2020, $150 million USD was raised by six different companies: Mind Medicine, COMPASS Pathways, Field Trip Psychedelics, ATAI Life Sciences, Orthogonol Thinker, and Numinous Wellness. Mindmed and Numinous are already publicly listed companies. This is an early stage entry for investors. In fact, to give an idea of how seriously Canada is taking this, the first exchange traded fund – The Horizons Psychedelic Stock Index ETF, made its debut in January. ETF’s are like regular asset exchanges, except that they include a mix of stocks, commodities, and bonds. This exchange is solely for psychedelics.

The CEO of the fund, Steve Hawkins, said that while larger pharmaceutical companies have been admitted to the fund, the idea is to keep it mainly for smaller psychedelics companies. Companies can be added to the fund if they can tick the following boxes: be a part of a regular US or Canada-based stock exchange, be a biotechnology company focusing on medical psychedelic research, be a producer and/or supplier of psychedelic medicines, and be a company that works within the general supply chain for psychedelic medications.

medical psychedelics

Biggest names so far

When it comes to emerging fields and investing, the majority of people will never get there preemptively, and will instead act by reaction. For anyone who wants to get in on it before the top blows off, the following companies currently provide the best prospect for future growth, expansion, approval, and ability for revenue. These names should be noted, they will likely be bringing you the first approved medical psychedelic products, and for anyone looking to invest in this rapidly growing field of medical psychedelics, they stand out as the best options so far.

Mind Medicine is one of the furthest along when it comes to getting a product out there. It’s a pharmaceutical company that specifically works to develop psychedelic medications. The company is currently in the middle of six different trials on drugs like MDMA, LSD and DMT. In January of 2021, MindMed announced the first ever clinical trials to involve a combination of MDMA and LSD, with company president Dr. Miri Halperin Wernli stating:

“I believe that when LSD and MDMA are taken together they have exceptional potential to open a window into our mind which will awaken it to new levels of awareness by changing the fluidity of the ‌state‌ ‌of‌ ‌consciousness, amplifying‌ ‌changed‌ ‌perceptions,‌ ‌intensifying ‌emotions‌, ‌and‌ stimulating ‌novel‌ ‌thoughts. It is like a gateway to a multidimensional universe.”

When it comes to MDMA trials, MAPS – Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies,  is also making its way to approval. MAPS entered phase III of its trials into MDMA for PTSD, and aligned this phase with the FDA according to a Special Protocol Assessment made directly with the FDA. This means that so long as the trials show clinically significant results, the study will already check all FDA regulatory boxes, and make it that much easier for approval.

However, a psychedelic drug has technically already been approved by the FDA. In March of 2019, Johnson & Johnson’s Spravato got approval. The spray treatment is considered for those who have not received a benefit from at least two separate anti-depressants. Spravato is a drug that’s a chemical cousin of the drug ketamine, which is classified as a dissociative drug, but also as a psychedelic. The medication is meant for severe depression.

There are tons of companies popping up. Apart from the companies already listed, prospective investors should check out Champignon Brands, Hollister Biosciences, Better Plant Sciences, Captiva Verde Land, Core One Labs, Cybin, Empower Clinics, Ehave, Jazz pharmaceuticals and EGF Theramed Health. All of these companies are associated in some way or other with the production of psychedelic medications. And while I have yet to see it mentioned in an article, it seems to me that what might upend everything I just said, is the ability to cultivate magic mushrooms.


Something to consider

Much like cannabis, mushrooms come with the ability for easy self-cultivation, as well as large scale cultivation. People who invest in today’s cannabis cultivation already know the value of having growing fields. Imagine the same thing, but with mushrooms. I personally believe that the biggest way in the future to invest in medical psychedelics, will be through the growing of mushrooms.

As stated, this is my opinion, and has not been discussed much as far as I can tell. This is not shocking though, and really doesn’t mean much, as this topic is also an undesirable one for any biotech or pharmaceutical company that – much like with cannabis – would much prefer you know nothing about how to do this on your own. And much like cannabis, it’s easy enough to learn how for anyone who needs some help getting started. Plus, since cultivation and sale of the mushrooms themselves is actually legal in many places, it’s way more legal to grow a field of mushrooms in much of the world, than to grow a field of cannabis.

How to invest in Medical Psychedelics – Conclusion

That the medical psychedelics field is coming is not as much up for debate as many would believe. It might be growing in the shadow of the cannabis market, and being kept quiet until the ability for large scale monetization is possible, but it’s coming, and it will be big. For those who want to invest in the growing medical psychedelics field, getting in now is probably the best idea, and with all the new companies popping up every day, it’s sure to become a heated race very soon.

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Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a medical professional, I have no formal legal education, and I’ve never been to business school. All information in my articles is sourced from other places, which are always referenced, and all opinions stated are mine, and are made clear to be mine. I am not giving anyone advise of any kind, in any capacity. I am more than happy to discuss topics, but should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a professional in the relevant field for more information.

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Welcome to the World’s 1st DMT Trials into Depression

As research into medical psychedelics heats up, more drugs have been brought into the spotlight for medical testing. The FDA is pushing for research and products with MDMA and psilocybin in the US, and over in England, the world’s 1st DMT trials into depression have begun.

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What is DMT?

DMT – N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, is a hallucinogenic compound that can be found in nature in many plants like Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi. It is processed into a white powder that can be vaporized or smoked, brewed into a drink like ayahuasca, snorted like cocaine, or even injected. It has been used as a medicine, and in spiritual applications, for thousands of years. DMT trips can be as short as 30-45 minutes, or as long as 4-6 hours when taken as ayahuasca.

Evidence of DMT use has been found going back at least 1,000 years in the Sora River valley in southwestern Bolivia with the finding of a pouch which contained both DMT and harmine. Together they imply the use of ayahuasca (a psychedelic tea made from the combination of Psychotria viridis – which produces DMT, and Banisteriopsis caapi vine – which produces MAO inhibitors which keep the DMT from breaking down, allowing for the longer trip time.)

Like many psychedelic drugs, DMT acts on serotonin receptors, particularly the 5-ht2a receptor. It acts as a non-selective agonist at most/all receptors. Serotonin is a hormone that’s known for mood stabilization, happiness, well-being, anxiety levels, and feelings of depression. It also plays a big role in communication within the nervous system, and to help regulate basic functions like eating, digestion and sleeping. Too little serotonin has been associated with depressive disorders, and too much is often associated with excessive activity in nerve cells.

DMT trials depression

There is growing evidence that the human body can actually produce DMT itself by way of the pineal gland in the brain. There has even been research into whether DMT is released right before death in order to quell the anxiety of dying. Most testing into this has been done on animals thus far. Recent research has shed light into the similarities between near-death experiences and DMT use.

DMT was first synthesized by Richard Manske, a Canadian chemist, in 1931. It was not actually located in plants until 1946 when Oswaldo Gonçalves de Lima, a microbiologist, was able to find the compound in nature. The hallucinogenic aspect wasn’t discovered until 1956 when Hungarian chemist and psychiatrist Stephen Szara self-administered DMT he had extracted from the plant Mimosa hostilis.

What are psychedelics in general?

Psychedelics are psychoactive substances with a powerful ability to alter perception, mood, and cognitive processes. Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogens, and can cause a person to perceptually experience things that are not actually happening – aka a hallucination. Psychedelics are also known for promoting self-introspection, feelings of connection between people, mystical experiences, relaxation, feelings of overall well-being, and euphoria.

They are also associated with negative side effects like bad trips which can cause negative hallucinations and feelings of anxiety and fear. Bad trips, and other negative effects like sweating, vomiting, chills, numbness, and dizziness, can often be entirely avoided with correct dosing. Psychedelics can be made in laboratories, like LSD, or found in nature like DMT and psilocybin. They are not associated with causing major injury or death.

Currently, plenty of research is going on into psychedelic drugs, though research was stymied for years due to psychedelics being made globally illegal with placement in Schedule I of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971. This treaty defines drug legalities worldwide. The scheduling implies the drugs in this category are uniformly dangerous, with no medical value, and the grouping includes DMT and other psychedelics. Even so, plenty of research is going on right now into LSD, MDMA, psilocybin (magic mushrooms), ayahuasca and more.

Psychedelic-assisted therapy

When it comes to psychedelics for therapy, there isn’t a model that I’ve seen where a subject is simply given a dose of a drug and told to have a good time. In the past, and in more recent testing, psychedelics have been/are used as part of psychedelic-assisted therapy. The basic model involves three phases: preparation, psychedelic experience, and integration. Research from the 1950’s-1970’s involves two ways of doing the second phase.

major depression

One method was developed by Humphry Osmond, a Canadian psychiatrist, who used one large dose with a therapeutic session, which was termed ‘psychedelic therapy’. Conversely, UK psychiatrist Ronald Sandison used smaller doses that gradually got bigger, over several sessions, which became called ‘psycholytic therapy’. Here is an overview of the three basic stages, regardless of which methodology is used in terms of number of sessions and amount of drug per session:

Preparation phase– In this first stage, the doctor and patient get to know each other, which is important because the relationship between the doctor and patient can affect the psychedelic session. This phase generally involves talk therapy sessions where the patient’s issues can be identified and flushed out, and the patient can be prepared for the following phase. Preparation can involve behavioral directives for the experience, like explaining to the patient they should open a door if one appears in his/her experience, or to go up to a scary creature to ask questions rather than run away, as a way to encourage a patient to deal with difficult situations instead of avoiding them.

Psychedelic phase – In this phase, the patient is given a psychedelic, and then experiences their trip while their doctor gives them general guidance, with little or no analysis at this time. The session can last as long as 8+ hours as it must last as long as the drug. It’s usually carried out in a space that looks and feels comfortable to the patient. In testing, the space is usually set up to look like a living room. These sessions have two doctors present, likely for safety reasons as the patient is being put in an altered state of mind. This phase varies greatly depending on the methods used by the particular doctor. But at all times during this phase, the patient is attended to by their doctor.

Integration phase – This phase occurs soon after the psychedelic phase and can be done in one or multiple sessions, much like the other phases. The doctor facilitates this session, and helps the patient make sense of their experience. To process what happened during the session, to gain some kind of positive value from it, and to integrate an understanding between the psychedelic experience and their issues in reality.

World’s 1st DMT trials for depression

Most of the studies in the 1900’s revolved around testing LSD for use with alcohol addiction. In today’s world, there is growing interest in several compounds. The new trend can be seen clearly in the US (FDA) Food & Drug Administration’s push to get some of these compounds tested and brought to market. In 2017, the FDA designated MDMA as a ‘breakthrough therapy’ for PTSD, and in 2019 it made the same designation for psilocybin from magic mushrooms for major depression.

According to the FDA, the ‘breakthrough therapy’ designation is meant “to expedite the development and review of drugs for serious or life-threatening conditions…” So it suffices to say, that legal or not, there is a growing pressure even within the US government to get these drugs to market.

DMT and ayahuasca

It’s therefore not shocking that the 1st DMT trials into depression recently started. It was announced in December 2020 that the (MHRA) UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency approved the use of DMT in the first ever clinical trial of the compound, specifically for the treatment of depression. The trials are being done as a collaboration between Small Pharma and Imperial College London. In this first trial, considered a phase I/IIa trial, the drug is being given to a small number of healthy individuals to establish safety and efficacy. A second trial is expected, in which patients will be given DMT in trials as a part of psychedelic-assisted therapy for depression.

The explanation for the first trials, according to Small Pharma’s chief scientific and medical officer Carol Routledge, is that “Taking the drug before therapy is akin to shaking up a snow globe and letting the flakes settle.” She says, “The psychedelic drug breaks up all of the ruminative thought processes in your brain – it literally undoes what has been done by either the stress you’ve been through or the depressive thoughts you have – and hugely increases the making of new connections.” She goes on to say:

“Then the [psychotherapy] session afterwards is the letting-things-settle piece of things – it helps you to make sense of those thoughts and puts you back on the right track. We think this could be a treatment for a number of depressive disorders besides major depression, including PTSD, treatment-resistant depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and possibly some types of substance abuse.”

Unlike an LSD, psilocybin, or even ayahuasca trip (in which DMT is mixed with another compound to make it last longer), all of which can last many hours, DMT trips are significantly shorter, usually over within a couple hours max. This might prove preferable to the aforementioned drugs which require significantly more time for therapeutic sessions. These DMT trials into depression can help establish if DMT is suitable for treatment, and if the shorter time period really is beneficial.


While everyone focuses on every minute detail of the fight for cannabis legalization, most people are ignoring the rise in medical psychedelic research and use. Maybe because the topic just hasn’t been promoted enough, which is possibly because there isn’t yet a product to make money off of. But there will be soon, and then, what I’m writing about now, will be front page news in every publication. For now, though it’s still a minor story to the average person, it’s a major one in the medical/pharmaceutical world, with these 1st DMT trials into depression signaling even further expansion of an industry ready to blow off the roof.

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