Understanding the Endocannabinoid System of Animals

Although it was once believed that only humans had an endocannabinoid system (ECS), we have recently learned of its existence in nearly all animals, including vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish) and many invertebrates (sea urchins, leeches, mussels, nematodes, and others).

Yes, you read that right. Almost every animal you could possibly think of has an endocannabinoid system. As far as we know, the only animal group found to be lacking this system are insects. So, what exactly are the implications here? Aside from the numerous veterinary possibilities, what this really means is that we’ve been looking at cannabis all wrong. It’s not just a drug that get’s us high, it’s a plant full of compounds that are much more interconnected to the natural, living world than we previously believed.

The endocannabinoid system is an incredible discovery. So many of our physiological functions are dependent on the proper functioning of these neurotransmitters and receptors. To learn more about the endocannabinoid system, in both human and animals, subscribe to The Medical Cannabis Weekly Newsletter, your source for all the leading cannabis industry information


What is the Endocannabinoid System (ECS)?

The only reason cannabinoids even work and have an effect on so many different living organisms is because of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS), a system that was only recently discovered in March of 1992. Simply put, the ECS is a network of neurotransmitters and receptors that exists in the bodies of all animals. Cannabinoid 1 and Cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB1 and CB2) are found in the brain and nervous system, as well as in peripheral organs and tissues.

As a whole, the ECS regulates numerous different functions and processes in our bodies and maintains internal balance and homeostasis. The ECS modulates the nervous and immune systems and other organ systems to relieve pain and inflammation, regulate metabolism and neurologic function, promote healthy digestive processes, and support reproductive function and embryologic development.

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Researchers have discovered two different endocannabinoids so far, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA). 2-AG is made from omega-6 fatty acids and is present in fairly high levels in the central nervous system, but it has also been detected in human (and bovine) milk. 2-AG is a full agonist of both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, but it has a stronger influence over the CB2 receptor. Because of this, 2-AG is thought to have a substantial impact on the immune system. Anandamide (AEA), also commonly referred to as the “bliss molecule”, is known to play a major role in the in all our basic daily physiological functions including sleep/wake cycles, appetite, mood, and even fertility.

In addition to the naturally produced cannabinoids, there is also a large web of receptors that allow AEA and 2-AG to function the way they do. Again, the two receptors that have been studied most extensively are CB1 and CB2. These cannabinoid receptors sit on the surface of cells and monitor conditions on the outside. Once they sense changing conditions and the body falling out of a state of homeostasis, they signal the appropriate cellular response to restore balance.

Anandamide: The Bliss Molecule

Although there are two known endocannabinoids, one is by far more prominent in research and literature: Anandamide (AEA). The name comes from the Sanskrit word “ananda,” translating to “internal bliss, joy, or delight.” Anandamide is a fatty acid neurotransmitter that activates the same receptors as THC. The reason AEA is known as the Bliss Molecule is because of the role in plays in balancing our body functions and elevating our moods. Multiple studies have been conducted on the benefits of being exposed to varying levels of anandamide.

In 2015, a study examining both humans and rodents found that high levels of anandamide contributed to mood elevation and fear reduction. When the enzymes that break down anandamide were inhibited, the subjects felt less fear and anxiety where threats were perceived. A 2009 study linked anandamide to fertility by showing that high levels of this endocannabinoid were not only beneficial, but essential for regular ovulation and proper fetal development. The study also concluded that higher levels of anandamide during times of ovulation contributed to a healthy and successful pregnancy.

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A slightly older study published in 2004 found that increased levels of anandamide the bloodstream created a “euphoric high” in people who had just performed rigorous exercise or physical activity. This is frequently described as a “runner’s high” or “adrenaline high”, and it’s likely the reason why people who use cannabis often feel that it contributes to their workout.

Normally, anandamide is broken down by the fatty acid amino hydrolase enzyme (FAAH), at which point it is no longer in the body and thus, no more blissful effects are felt from this compound. Some people and animals produce less FAAH enzymes, and these people report feeling overall happier, experiencing less fear and anxiety than those who produce more FAAH. The same can be assumed for animals that produce less of this fatty acid.  

Veterinary Applications

We already face major limitations when it comes to the available studies and information we have regarding the endocannabinoid system in human animals, but when it comes other species, we know even less. One conclusion that researchers seem to agree on, however, is that regardless of species, the ECS seems to offer the same physiological and psychological benefits.

Research into the exact potential of the endocannabinoid system of animals is still ongoing. So far, the only species we do have minimal information on (aside from lab rats of course) is canines. This makes sense, considering that roughly 63 percent of American households own a dog, which is according to the Insurance Information Institute’s study on pet insurance policies. There is a bit of research indicating that felines absorb and eliminate cannabinoids differently than dogs, but that needs to be investigated further.

Although the basic functions of the endocannabinoid system are generally the same, there are some notable differences. Mainly, in the protein sequence and distribution of the CB receptors. Binding affinities for the canine CB2 receptors have been measured to be about 30 times less than the ones in both humans and rats. Simplified, that means dogs have not only a larger number of CB1 receptors, but they are much more active than human CB1 receptors.

This is significant because different cannabinoids bind to different receptors in the brain, so a dog’s experiences with cannabis could be much different than what a human would feel. For example, THC binds to both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, whereas CBD only binds to the CB2 receptors. This is why THC produces psychoactive effects, and the reason why dogs are more likely to experience adverse reactions from this cannabinoid. 

Regardless, other cannabinoids, like CBD, CBG, and CBC could be wildly beneficial for our animal friends. Humans can experience a condition known as Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency, in which the body does not produce enough endocannabinoids. As a result, we fall out of a state of homeostasis, leading to the onset of numerous different diseases and disorders. It’s very possible that a lack of endocannabinoid production could be the root cause of health problems in other species as well.

Safety Profile

It’s hard to say exactly how safe cannabis is for animals because we have very little definitive information on this subject to go by. In one particular study, it was discovered that dogs Compounds with psychoactive side effects in are typically not the way to go with veterinary species can suffer “Static Ataxia”, a neurological condition characterized by a change in gait and tremors.  

But what is too high for a dog varies considerably from what is too high for a human, or even a rat, which shows that size of a species isn’t the only factor to look at when gauging toxicity. For a dog, exposure to doses over 0.5 mg/kg of body weight was too much was enough to trigger Static Ataxia. In states where cannabis products are more prevalent, there is a slightly higher rate of Animal ER admissions for THC toxicosis.

Cannabidiol (CBD), on the other hand, is a completely different story. According to a 2018 study conducted at Colorado State University, CBD is relatively safe when given at doses of 20mg/kg for six weeks straight to a subject group consisting of 30 healthy adult beagles. Like other medications, there can be side effects. Mild elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase was noted in about 30% of the subjects, as well as occasional diarrhea.

Additional research from Cornell University found that ”once the right dosage is determined for a pet, cannabidiol can improve pain stemming from arthritis. In addition, some consumers have had success in using CBD oil for dogs to help relieve a variety of ailments.” In fact, this study found that more than 80% of participating dogs experienced a significant decrease in pain and noticeably improved mobility.

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Final Thoughts on The Endocannabinoid System of Animals

The future looks bright as cannabinoid research, in the post-cannabis prohibition era, is finally able to provide additional discoveries regarding the role the endocannabinoid system plays in the pathogenesis of disease, and the maintenance of health – for us as well as many non-human animal species.

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I gave my kittens CBD oil and this is what went down

Having pets, at any age, can be exhausting. I recently got three four-to-five week old (far too young) kittens given to me. Kittens who are taken away from their mother can show signs of fear, aggression, difficulty adjusting, eating issues, as well as makes them more prone to illness. After a while of having my […]

The post I gave my kittens CBD oil and this is what went down appeared first on Latest Cannabis News Today – Headlines, Videos & Stocks.

Wednesday, January 27, 2021 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News

Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Wednesday, January 27, 2021 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// Chuck Schumer Lists Marijuana As A Priority In First Post-Election Cannabis Comments (Marijuana Moment)

// Massachusetts city drops onerous ‘impact fee’ on cannabis businesses (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Top New York Official Responds To Marijuana Advocates’ Criticism Of Governor’s Legalization Plan (Marijuana Moment)


These headlines are brought to you by the upcoming Homegrown Weed Summit, the first and only online event dedicated to teaching you how to grow elite cannabis from seed to harvest right in your home. The Homegrown Weed Summit is coming up on February 15 and will feature four days of online events with noted cannabis pros like Tommy Chong, Danny Danko, and Ed Rosenthal. You can learn more about the Homegrown Weed Summit and get your free ticket now over at HomeGrownWeedSummit.com!


// New Mexico Governor Pushes For Marijuana Legalization In State Of The State Address (Marijuana Moment)

// Police In New Jersey’s Largest City Continue Marijuana Arrests At Pre-Legalization Rate (Marijuana Moment)

// Maine labs receive go-ahead to start testing adult-use cannabis (WGME 13 CBS)

// Martha Stewart Launches Pet CBD Products ()

// Arizona’s initial adult-use marijuana licensing leaves some cities underserved (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Lawmakers in Costa Rica ask government to speed up medical cannabis debate (Tico Times)

// Did iAnthus Bankers Conspire To ‘Wipe Out’ Shareholders? (Green Market Report)

Check out our other projects:Marijuana Today— Our flagship title, a weekly podcast examining the world of marijuana business and activism with some of the smartest people in the industry and movement. • Marijuana Media Connect— A service that connects industry insiders in the legal marijuana industry with journalists, bloggers, and writers in need of expert sources for their stories.

Love these headlines? Love our podcast? Support our work with a financial contribution and become a patron.

Photo: John Brighenti/Flickr

Tuesday, January 5, 2021 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News

Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Tuesday, January 5, 2021 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// Illinois Governor Announces Half A Million Marijuana Expungements And Pardons (Marijuana Moment)

// Illinois Adult-Use Cannabis Sales Surge 15% in December to End First Year at $669 Million (New Cannabis Ventures)

// Incarcerated Patients Have A Right To Use Medical Marijuana New Mexico Judge Rules (Marijuana Moment)


These headlines are brought to you by MJToday Media, publishers of this podcast as well as our weekly show Marijuana Today and the most-excellent Green Rush Podcast. And check out our new show Weed Wonks!


// Steve DeAngelo Parts Ways With Harborside (Green Market Report)

// Recreational use of marijuana now legal in Montana (KBZK 7)

// AZ Dispensaries Likely to Begin Cannabis Sales Before April (AZ Marijuana)

// Lack of standards dubious business practices threaten to upend cannabis testing industry (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Farmers lose hope – and money – in race to build Maine’s hemp market (Portland Press Herald)

// Best Music Playlists For Psychedelic Therapy Are Explored In New Johns Hopkins Study (Marijuana Moment)

// Veterinarians Can Consult On Marijuana And CBD Therapy For Pets Under Michigan Governor-Signed Bill (Marijuana Moment)

Check out our other projects:Marijuana Today— Our flagship title, a weekly podcast examining the world of marijuana business and activism with some of the smartest people in the industry and movement. • Marijuana Media Connect— A service that connects industry insiders in the legal marijuana industry with journalists, bloggers, and writers in need of expert sources for their stories.

Love these headlines? Love our podcast? Support our work with a financial contribution and become a patron.

Photo: Matthias Muller/Flickr

Popular Cannabis Products You Probably Want to Try

The legalization of cannabis in several states and countries paved the way for it to be available mainstream. For this reason, it is now easier to acquire the cannabis products that you need to aid your medical treatments or simply for recreational purposes. Alongside this, there has also been a boost in the emergence of […]

The post Popular Cannabis Products You Probably Want to Try appeared first on Latest Cannabis News Today – Headlines, Videos & Stocks.

5 Articles to Send Your Canna-Curious Mom This Mother’s Day

This Mother’s Day is an unusual one because most children will be forced celebrate their moms from afar due to COVID-19. Since you’ve likely been keeping in touch a bit more than usual, maybe it’s time to dive into normally uncharted territory. Why not spice up that phone or video chat conversation by bringing up cannabis?

We’ve curated these articles to be suited to a mother’s interests: A gift guide of mom-approved products, tips for a mother who may be new to cannabis but wants to know more, an interview with noted canna-chef and mother Nonna Marijuana, information about treating pets with cannabis and an overview of the topical application of medical marijuana. And if your mom isn’t new to the plant consider getting her something on this list or have some flowers delivered…you know the kind we mean.

PHOTO Pexels

READ: Ganja for Mama – The Best Cannagifts for Mother’s Day

Once upon a time, it used to just be the cool parents who smoked cannabis. Now, parents of all stripes and lifestyles are reviving their college days habits or just trying out cannabis for the first time thanks to the blossoming acceptance around the plant’s healing powers. Some smoke, some vape, some prefer edibles, others stick to topicals or tinctures and others dabble in a little bit of everything. Whatever your mom favors, you can find something here that will make her smile on her special day.

PHOTO Gracie Malley

READ: 5 Basic Tips for New Cannabis Users

It’s important to have some sort of clue about what direction to go in when heading into unfamiliar territory, whether it’s first-timers or folks who haven’t had the opportunity to indulge in their favorite plant for quite awhile. Whatever the circumstance, it’s clear that there are a load of new and returning users who aren’t educated about some basic ways to keep themselves and others from having overwhelming and unpleasant experiences. 

Nonna Marijuana
PHOTO Yoshi Taima

READ: Mama Mia: Cannabis Now Talks with Nonna Marijuana

Aurora Leveroni is the high priestess of pot cuisine. The 92-year-old Italian grandmother, better known as “Nonna Marijuana,” charmed the cannabis community with her appearance in the debut episode of Munchies’ “Bong Appetit” series when she showed how she prepared classic Italian dishes, but replaced traditional fats with marijuana-infused butter and oil.

A puppy and kitty nuzzle each other as they experience a pain free life thanks to CBD's.
PHOTO Pixabay

READ: Cannabis Pet Meds: The Next Frontier in Veterinary Medicine

For many mothers, pets are extremely important and their health and safety is crucial. Another way to introduce your mom to cannabis is through pet medicine. This article conveys firsthand experiences of owners treating their pets with cannabis medicine for the first time.

topicals for seniors
ILLUSTRATION CSA-Printstock

READ: Topicals: The Real Gateway Drug for Senior Citizens

More and more seniors are coming to cannabis for the first time via topicals, perhaps most often to treat arthritis. Since those who might be averse to getting high from smoking or eating cannabis are often not intimidated by using a non-psychoactive cannabis balm, topicals offer a way to discover the healing properties of cannabis while eliminating the fear of getting too buzzed.

TELL US, do you talk to your mom about cannabis?

The post 5 Articles to Send Your Canna-Curious Mom This Mother’s Day appeared first on Cannabis Now.

When CBD Pet Products Don’t Have CBD…

Pet health has experienced an enormous boom in the cannabis industry. Numerous companies have unleashed hundreds of CBD pet health products accompanied by glowing customer testimonials claiming that their cannabis wares produce calmer, quieter and pain-free dogs and cats.

But some of these products are all bark and no bite.

“You’d be astounded by the analysis we’ve seen of products on the shelf with virtually no CBD in them,” said Cornell University veterinary researcher Joseph Wakshlag, who studies therapeutic uses for the compound. “There are plenty of folks looking to make a dollar rather than produce anything that’s really beneficial.”

The issue of pet health and anecdotal evidence

The federal government has yet to establish standards for CBD that will help people know whether it works for their pets and how much to give. So products can make it to shelves without being thoroughly vetted or scrutinized. Consumers are basically buying blind. 

Still, there’s lots of individual success stories that help fuel a $400 million market that grew more than tenfold since last year, and is expected to reach $1.7 billion by 2023 according to the cannabis research firm Brightfield Group.

Amy Carter of St. Francis, Wisconsin, decided to go against her veterinarian’s advice and try CBD oil recommended by a friend to treat Bentley, her epileptic Yorkshire terrier-Chihuahua mix. 

“It’s amazing,” Carter said. “Bentley was having multiple seizures a week. To have only six in the past seven months is absolutely incredible.”

But some pet owners have found that CBD didn’t work for their furry companions.

Dawn Thiele, an accountant in Oak Creek, Wisconsin, said she bought a $53 bottle of CBD oil from a local shop in hopes of calming her 2-year-old Yorkshire terrier during long car trips.“I didn’t see a change in his behavior,” said Thiele, who nonetheless remains a believer. “The product is good, it just didn’t work for my dog,” she said.

Why CBD? 

Short for cannabidiol, CBD is a non-intoxicating molecule found in hemp and marijuana. Both are cannabis plants, but only cannabis has enough of the compound THC to get users high. The vast majority of CBD products come from hemp, which has less than 0.3% THC.

CBD has garnered a devoted following among people who swear by it, for everything from stress reduction to better sleep. Passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, which eased federal legal restrictions on hemp cultivation and transport, unleashed a stampede of companies rushing products to the market in an absence of regulations ensuring safety, quality and effectiveness.

Products for people were swiftly followed by CBD chewies, oils and sprays for pets.

“The growth is more rapid than I’ve seen for any product in 20 years in this business,” said Bill Bookout, president of the National Animal Supplement Council, an industry group whose member companies agree to testing and data-gathering requirements. “There’s a gold rush going on now. Probably 95% of the industry participants are responsible, but what’s dangerous is the fly-by-night operative that wants to cash in.”

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is developing regulations for marketing CBD products, for pets or people. In 2019, it had sent warning letters to 15 companies, citing violations such as making claims about therapeutic uses and treatment of disease in humans or animals, or marketing CBD as a dietary supplement or food ingredient.

How to spot reputable CBD products

“It’s really the Wild West out there,” said S. David Moche, founder of Applied Basic Science, a company formed to support Colorado State University’s veterinary CBD research and now selling CBD online. He advises consumers to look for a certificate of analysis from a third-party testing laboratory to ensure they’re getting what they pay for.

Although little clinical research exists, pet owners have been reporting anecdotal success with CBD products for dogs and cats. Veterinarians are hesitant to prescribe CBD products until the FDA approves.

Wakshlag said products must be tested not only for CBD levels, but also to ensure they’re free of toxic contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticides and have only trace amounts of THC, which in higher levels is toxic to dogs. Bookout said his organization has recorded very few health incidents involving CBD and no deaths. Still, scientific documentation of CBD’s safety and efficacy is nearly nonexistent.

That’s starting to change, however. A small clinical trial at Colorado State University published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association in June found CBD oil reduced seizure frequency in 89% of the epileptic dogs that received it.

Abating seizures and pain with CBD

A clinical study headed by Wakshlag at Cornell, published in Frontiers in Veterinary Science in July 2018, found CBD oil helped increase comfort and activity in dogs with osteoarthritis.

Stephanie McGrath, a Colorado State University researcher, is now doing a larger clinical trial funded by the American Kennel Club’s Canine Health Foundation. “The results of our first epilepsy study were promising, but there was certainly not enough data to say CBD is the new miracle anti-convulsive drug in dogs,” McGrath said.

Seizures are a natural focus for research on veterinary CBD products, since Epidiolex, the only FDA-approved drug containing cannabidiol, was approved last year for treatment of two severe forms of epilepsy in children. Veterinarians are allowed to prescribe Epidiolex for pets, but it’s prohibitively expensive — upwards of $30,000 a year for an average-size dog, McGrath said.

Meantime, the American Veterinary Medical Association is telling veterinarians they can share what they know about CBD with clients but shouldn’t prescribe or recommend it until the FDA gives its blessing.

“There’s no question there’s veterinary interest in these products as therapies, but we really want to see the manufacturers demonstrate that they’re effective and safe and get FDA approval so we can have confidence in the products,” said Gail Golab, chief veterinary officer for the association.

Featured image by Hannah Lim/Unsplash.  


By Mary Esch, reported for the Associated Press.

The post When CBD Pet Products Don’t Have CBD… appeared first on Weedmaps News.

Some CBD Pet Products May Not Actually Contain CBD

(AP)—Companies have unleashed hundreds of CBD pet health products accompanied by glowing customer testimonials claiming the cannabis derivative produced calmer, quieter and pain-free dogs and cats.

But some of these products are all bark and no bite.

“You’d
be astounded by the analysis we’ve seen of products on the shelf with
virtually no CBD in them,” said Cornell University veterinary researcher
Joseph Wakshlag, who studies therapeutic uses for the compound. “Or
products with 2 milligrams per milliliter, when an effective
concentration would be between 25 and 75 milligrams per milliliter.
There are plenty of folks looking to make a dollar rather than produce
anything that’s really beneficial.”

Such products can make it to
the shelves because the federal government has yet to establish
standards for CBD that will help people know whether it works for their
pets and how much to give.

Still, there’s lots of individual
success stories that help fuel a $400 million market that grew more than
tenfold since last year and is expected to reach $1.7 billion by 2023,
according to the cannabis research firm Brightfield Group.

Amy Carter of St. Francis, Wisconsin, decided to go against her veterinarian’s advice and try CBD oil recommended by a friend to treat Bentley, her epileptic Yorkshire terrier-Chihuahua mix. The little dog’s cluster seizures had become more frequent and frightening despite expensive medications.

“It’s amazing” Carter said. “Bentley was having multiple seizures a
week. To have only six in the past seven months is absolutely
incredible.”

But some pet owners have found CBD didn’t work.

Dawn
Thiele, an accountant in Oak Creek, Wisconsin, said she bought a $53
bottle of CBD oil from a local shop in hopes of calming her 2-year-old
Yorkshire terrier during long car trips.

“I didn’t see a change in his behavior,” said Thiele, who nonetheless remains a believer.

“The product is good, it just didn’t work for my dog,” she said.

Short
for cannabidiol, CBD is a non-intoxicating molecule found in hemp and
marijuana. Both are cannabis plants, but only marijuana has enough of
the compound THC to get users high. The vast majority of CBD products
come from hemp, which has less than 0.3% THC.

CBD has garnered a
devoted following among people who swear by it for everything from
stress reduction to better sleep. Passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, which
eased federal legal restrictions on hemp cultivation and transport,
unleashed a stampede of companies rushing products to the market in an
absence of regulations ensuring safety, quality and effectiveness.

Products for people were swiftly followed by CBD chewies, oils and sprays for pets.

“The
growth is more rapid than I’ve seen for any product in 20 years in this
business,” said Bill Bookout, president of the National Animal
Supplement Council, an industry group whose member companies agree to
testing and data-gathering requirements. “There’s a gold rush going on
now. Probably 95 percent of the industry participants are responsible,
but what’s dangerous is the fly-by-night operative that wants to cash
in.”

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is developing
regulations for marketing CBD products, for pets or people. This year,
it has sent warning letters to 22 companies citing violations such as
making claims about therapeutic uses and treatment of disease in humans
or animals or marketing CBD as a dietary supplement or food ingredient.

“It’s
really the Wild West out there,” said S. David Moche, founder of
Applied Basic Science, a company formed to support Colorado State
University’s veterinary CBD research and now selling CBD online. He
advises consumers to look for a certificate of analysis from a
third-party testing laboratory to ensure they’re getting what they pay
for.

“Testing and labeling is going to be a critical part of the future of this industry,” Moche said.

Wakshlag
said products must be tested not only for CBD level, but also to ensure
they’re free of toxic contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticides
and have only trace amounts of THC, which in higher levels is toxic to
dogs.

Bookout said his organization has recorded very few health incidents involving CBD and no deaths.

Still, scientific documentation of CBD’s safety and efficacy is nearly nonexistent.

That’s
starting to change, however. A small clinical trial at Colorado State
University published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical
Association in June found CBD oil reduced seizure frequency in 89
percent of the epileptic dogs that received it.

A clinical study
headed by Wakshlag at Cornell, published in Frontiers in Veterinary
Science in July 2018, found CBD oil helped increase comfort and activity
in dogs with osteoarthritis.

Stephanie McGrath, a Colorado State
University researcher, is now doing a larger clinical trial funded by
the American Kennel Club’s Canine Health Foundation.

“The results
of our first epilepsy study were promising, but there was certainly not
enough data to say CBD is the new miracle anti-convulsive drug in
dogs,” McGrath said.

Seizures are a natural focus for research on
veterinary CBD products, since Epidiolex, the only FDA-approved drug
containing cannabidiol, was approved last year for treatment of two
severe forms of epilepsy in children. Veterinarians are allowed to
prescribe Epidiolex for pets, but it’s prohibitively expensive — upwards
of $30,000 a year for an average-size dog, McGrath said.

The
Kennel Club’s chief veterinary officer, Jerry Klein, said CBD is
“over-hyped” but promising for treatments like pain relief. He’s hopeful
that the growing market will result in more money being invested in
research to prove uses.

Meantime, the American Veterinary Medical
Association is telling veterinarians they can share what they know
about CBD with clients but shouldn’t prescribe or recommend it until the
FDA gives its blessing.

“There’s no question there’s veterinary interest in these products as therapies, but we really want to see the manufacturers demonstrate that they’re effective and safe and get FDA approval so we can have confidence in the products,” said Gail Golab, chief veterinary officer for the association.

By Mary Esch

The post Some CBD Pet Products May Not Actually Contain CBD appeared first on High Times.

New Mexico Could Expand Medical Marijuana Program To Include Dogs

Pot for pooches? It could happen in New Mexico, where activists are lobbying to expand the state’s medical marijuana program to cover ailing dogs. 

The Associated Press is reporting that the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Advisory Board will take up a pair of petitions at its meeting next month to expand the qualifying medical conditions for medical cannabis. One petition is conventional: it calls for the program to extend to people with attention deficit disorder.

But the other one is where things get a bit more exotic. Citing veterinary studies in support of cannabis use for animals suffering from seizures, the petition calls for the state’s medical marijuana program to apply to dogs with epilepsy. 

The New Mexico Department of Health withheld the names of petition sponsors, according to the Associated Press.

Potential Problems With The Petition

It is unclear which studies the petitioner cited advocating for cannabis for canines. The American Veterinary Medical Association has said that “although cannabinoids such as CBD appear to hold therapeutic promise in areas such as the treatment of epilepsy and the management of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis, the available scientific evidence pertaining to their use in animals is currently limited.”

“While findings from a few well-controlled studies have been published, much of what we know is related to anecdotal or case reports or has been gleaned from studies related to use in humans, including the study of animal models for that purpose,” the AVMA says in a primer available on its website. “The AVMA continues to encourage well-controlled clinical research and pursuit of FDA approval by manufacturers of cannabis-derived products so that high-quality products of known safety and efficacy can be made available for veterinarians and their patients.”

In a letter sent to the Food and Drug Administration in July, Janet D. Donlin, the CEO of AVMA, called for more regulatory clarity regarding the labeling, safety, and use of cannabis-derived and cannabis-related products.

“Veterinarians have a strong interest in and enthusiastically support exploring the therapeutic potential of cannabis-derived and cannabis-related products, but we want to be sure we can have continued confidence in the efficacy, quality, and safety of products used to treat our patients,” Donlin wrote. “We are aware of several research institutions with both completed and ongoing investigations into the therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids for companion animals, with results that appear promising in some areas (e.g., osteoarthritis, epilepsy, pain management, oncology).”

Donlin said that the AVMA has received many reports from its members “that animal owners are actively purchasing these products and administering them to their pets and horses to treat medical conditions, often in the absence of veterinary consultation, and without the assurance that comes with FDA review and approval of therapeutic claims being made by their manufacturers and distributors.”

The post New Mexico Could Expand Medical Marijuana Program To Include Dogs appeared first on High Times.

Eurolife Aims To Be The Amazon Of The Global CBD Market

Canadian cannabis company EuroLife Brands says it aims to become the ‘Amazon or Alibaba’ of the global CBD market place as its pursues an expansionary agenda.

Formerly known as Cannvas MedTech it says the name change reflects its ambition to focus on the supply of CBD-infused products into the European and South American markets.

It is in the process of undertaking a tour of European countries including Germany, UK, Austria, Switzerland, Greece and Portugal to drum up interest from investors.

And, it has appointed former Canopy growing boss Alan Cooke to its advisory board. Mr. Cooke was previously responsible for over four million sq. ft. of cultivation operations across Canada.

Strategic Partners

In a market release its states how it aims to achieve its global ambitions by ‘collecting strategic partners’.

It describes its goal as being the creation of a ‘powerful education-based, analytics-backed digital CBD marketplace for the European and South American markets using a framework similar to that of global giants Alibaba and Amazon’, it says in a market statement.

EuroLife’s COO Steve Loutskou had earlier told investors that it has  been ‘aggressive in taking advantage of our deep connections in various CPG (Consumer Packaged Goods) brand industries suitable for CBD infusion’.

Following the renaming EuroLife obtained the exclusive rights to the True Focus brand, which develops a product that lessens the effects of THC overconsumption.

Culinary CBD

The company says it making investments into hemp and CBD for pets as well as CBD-based culinary experiences. And it has also launched its first international cannabis education platform for the booming German market, Cannvas.de.

EuroLife said it expects to announce new partnerships in the coming months as its management team meets with some of the largest cultivators in the E.U., as well as CBD extraction companies and other entrepreneurs in the CBD space, reports Proactive Investors. EuroLife describes itself as a data driven learning platform for those interested in cannabis, as well as a digital marketplace for CBD products.

“We continue to drive company success across Europe and South America with potential investment and brand partners while vetting out strategic opportunities to expand business and increase shareholder value,” says a bullish Mr Loutskou.

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