Is CBD Stronger When You Eat It, Like THC?

Every state with legal marijuana has limits set for the amount of THC in edible products, and this makes sense. Not only do edibles take a while to kick in (allowing for time to take too much), but when THC gets metabolized, it actually becomes a stronger compound. So what about CBD? Is CBD also stronger when you eat it, like THC?

If CBD is stronger when you eat it, we don’t know about it just yet. But we know that’s the case with THC, and that means if you’re eating edibles, you’re experiencing 11-hydroxy-THC. When it comes to cannabis, there are tons of options, even outside of standard THC. Now, users can try delta-8 THC, THCV, HHC, and more. It’s a new year, and a great time to try something different, so check out our deals to get your year flying right. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


THC and CBD

Although we want to know if CBD is stronger when you eat it, it’s best to look at its half-brother delta-9 THC first. When I say half-brother, its because CBD and delta-9 share the same exact chemical formula of: C₂₁H₃₀O₂, but vary in the structure of their molecules, which provides for different effects from the two compounds. During research in the early-mid 1900’s, the difference between high-THC and low-THC cannabis wasn’t understood, or the role that CBD played, as neither had been isolated. In fact, discovering delta-9 THC was extremely difficult because scientists were often given hemp plants to work with out of confusion over where THC could be found.

CBD and delta-9 are what are called structural isomers because of the shared chemical formula. This means: “two or more organic compounds have the same molecular formulas but different structures.” There are different kinds of isomers that vary in different ways. Sometimes they are mirror opposites of each other, sometimes they are double bond stereoisomers like delta-9 and delta-8 which vary solely in the placement of a double bond, and sometimes there are other configurations as well.

Delta-9 THC is generally associated with getting high and psychoactive properties. In reality, though CBD is often considered non-psychoactive, this goes against the idea that it can be helpful with things like anxiety control and mood regulation. Though the idea of CBD causing some kind of high can be argued, it most certainly causes psychoactive effects, as those psychoactive effects are often the reason for taking CBD. This reputation of being non-psychoactive seems to be more in line with marketing campaigns used to separate CBD from THC in the minds of consumers. Or simply the confusion over what it means to be ‘high’, vs a ‘psychoactive’ effect.

THC and CBD

THC when eaten

The whole question of whether CBD is stronger when you eat it, comes from the idea that delta-9 THC converts to a metabolite which is stronger, when its eaten. For anyone who was unaware, the type of THC that makes us high when we eat edibles, is actually a variation of the type of THC that makes us high when we smoke a joint or use a vape. This is because when delta-9 is eaten, it goes through the digestive tract and is broken down by the liver.

This breakdown converts C₂₁H₃₀O₂ (also the chemical formula for CBD, remember) into C21H30O3, also known as 11-hydroxy-THC. This slight tweak to the chemistry makes a world of difference in the THC experience. As explained by Leafly researcher Nick Jikomes:

“The real difference between edibles and smoking or vaping is that with edibles, a much larger fraction of Delta-9-THC makes it to the liver first. There it gets converted to 11-hydroxy-THC.” He goes on, “So in other words, if you smoke or vape, the ratio of 11-hydroxy-THC to Delta-9-THC is quite low, and if you take an edible it’s much higher.”

When smoked, delta-9 gets into the bloodstream through the alveoli of the lungs. As blood is water based, the THC doesn’t break down well in this way. It binds to endocannabinoid receptors instead, and isn’t metabolized by the liver in large amounts. However, when eaten it goes through the digestive tract, and binds to a glurononide compound to create 11-hydroxy-THC. This version of THC is more water soluble, and therefore better at crossing the blood-brain barrier and getting around the body. Many believe this is at least partly why 11-hydroxy-THC can seem more potent, and explains why edibles cause a different reaction.

How is 11-hydroxy-THC different? Well, for one thing, the process by which THC is metabolized, slows down the onset of effects, and it can take 1-3 hours to feel the full results. This is in contrast to a near immediate effect when smoking. The effects of smoking peak within 30-60 minutes and then peter down, whereas 11-hydroxy-THC can produce a high that lasts for 4-6+ hours before starting to fade out.

While judging potency can be a little difficult, a 1973 study compared the effects of equivalent one mg doses of delta-9 and 11-hydroxy-THC, which were given intravenously to casual smokers. It was found that 11-hydroxy produced a quicker and more intense reaction. Whether 11-hydroxy is actually more potent is hard to say, as some research points to the two compounds being comparable. Whether or not it produces stronger effects, it most certainly produces longer effects, and the feeling has been noted to be much more of a body high.

cannabis edibles

Is CBD stronger when you eat it?

All of this now brings up the question of whether CBD is also stronger when you eat it, like delta-9 THC. So to understand better, we’d need to take a look at what happens to CBD when its ingested. Truth is, there isn’t research at this point covering all aspects of the topic, which is probably why it doesn’t come up very often. Research, in the form of a systematic review, has pointed to half-life estimates for different routes of administration:

CBD in oromucosal spray produced a half-life of 1.4 – 10.9 hours, chronic oral administration made for a half-life of two–five days, IV CBD produced a half-life of 24 hours, and the average half-life for smoking it was 31 hours. Bioavailability for smoking was put around 31%, but no other administration method was investigated. It should be noted that though it doesn’t say anything about potency, oral administration also has a much longer half-life than smoking, which is similar to the elongated half-life of THC when eaten.

The main metabolite of THC when metabolized through the digestive tract, is 11-hydroxy-THC, although this exists along with tons of other metabolites that show up in smaller amounts. In terms of CBD, “Due to extensive Phase I metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of CBD is complex and the bioavailability of oral CBD is low across species. In general, the most abundant metabolites are hydroxylated 7-COOH derivatives of CBD that are excreted either intact or as glucuronide conjugates. The route of administration affects the pharmacokinetics of CBD and high intra- and intersubject variability is common in humans…”

The same study goes on to point out: “In an early study with healthy volunteers who were given 20 mg [3H]CBD by intravenous injection, 7-COOH-CBD was the most abundant metabolite in the plasma, while 7-OH-CBD was only a minor biotransformation product (in the original publication, the compounds are referred to as 11-carboxy-CBD and 11-hydroxy-CBD, respectively).”

This is interesting because 11-hydroxy-CBD is the equivalent metabolite of 11-hydroxy-THC, the stronger (or at least longer lasting) form of THC. Is this CBD metabolite also more intense, or does it provide a different effect? Is it even the reason for the longer half-life when eaten? Honestly, hard to say from what’s online. This demonstrates the still large black hole that exists in the cannabis research world.

If a comparable metabolite of delta-9 provides stronger (or at least different/longer) effects than delta-9, then wouldn’t we want to know the same about CBD metabolites? Perhaps 11-hydroxy-CBD – whether coming with different effects or not, doesn’t show up in large enough quantities to make a difference anyway. What we can see from half-lives, is that something similar must be happening with CBD as with THC, because the half-life is elongated when eaten. What this means exactly though? Jury is out.

Into the future…

CBD edibles

I find it interesting that while we know delta-9 converts in the body to 11-hydroxy-THC, that less has been examined regarding CBD’s counterpart 11-hydroxy-CBD, or the other CBD metabolites formed. In my mind, the immediate question is, is there a different or more intense form of CBD which is created when CBD is metabolized? If so, it could provide new ways of using CBD for treatment.

While the medical world likes to seem sure of itself to consumers, when looking closely into a topic like this, it becomes clear how many black holes there are. This makes sense as research into these compounds was stymied for so long due to prohibition antics, and also makes clear the need to not create these black holes again, by keeping research veins open on topics of concern. Had research bans not been instated, we might have had the answer to this question already.

CBD might not be the cure-all it was originally touted as, but it sure does come with some great benefits. With research re-opening on these topics, we can finally start to catch up to where we should have already been. And part of that is establishing exactly what happens to CBD when ingested in different ways, and whether active metabolites are formed that can change the way we use the compound.

Conclusion

This topic does best to highlight the need for further research into the idea of whether CBD is stronger when you eat it, or when its taken in any specific way. It also highlights the need to not shut off research topics, and to always keep moving forward in terms of information collection and use.

Welcome! Thanks for joining us at CBDtesters.co, your one-stop-shop for the most important and thought-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news around the world. Check us out daily to stay aware of the ever-changing world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletter, to ensure you never miss a single story.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Is CBD Stronger When You Eat It, Like THC? appeared first on CBD Testers.

Rhode Island 1st State to Open Safe Use Sites for Drugs

You read it right! No, it’s not a real legalization, or even decriminalization. But for two years, Rhode Island is operating a pilot program with safe use sites that allows legal drug use. What will come after is hard to say, but for now, here are some details of this kind of cool – and necessary – new legislative move.

The new Rhode Island policy for safe use sites is meant to target extreme drug users. Luckily, cannabis doesn’t cause overdose deaths, so while smokers can take advantage of the sites, they don’t have the same concerns as opioid users. In fact, cannabis is often eyed as a tool for harm reduction from major drugs. But its also just a great plant that provides tons of useful compounds, not just standard THC. These days, there are tons of options available, so remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


Rhode Island to open safe use sites for legal drug use

Rhode Island isn’t a legalized state, though its certainly known to be a more liberal one. While 18 states have legal recreational cannabis (which should be 19), Rhode Island isn’t immediately going in that direction. But it is doing something very forward thinking and cool. Especially considering that there are major drug issues in America, which are causing massive death rates. Though these issues don’t involve cannabis, what Rhode Island is doing will help out cannabis users as well.

On Wednesday, July 7th, 2021, Rhode Island’s governor, Dan McKee signed into law a bill designed to combat the ongoing and growing opioid epidemic. This issue can be seen in Rhode Island, as well as the rest of the US, and around the world as well in smaller amounts. The new Rhode Island bill is a two-year pilot program aimed at preventing overdosing by providing safe injection/safe use sites. Rhode Island recorded 384 overdose deaths in 2020, and 322 through November of 2021. These sites will focus mainly on helping those who inject heroin and methamphetamine.

Rhode Island is the first US state to adopt a policy that allows legal drug use in designated areas as part of this two-year pilot program. This policy was not instituted with the thought of cannabis in mind, even if it proves useful to cannabis smokers. What the pilot program is most intended for, is providing a way for the hardest of drug users, using the most dangerous of drugs, to have a safe place to get high around professionals who can help if there is a problem.

safe use sites

What will the Rhode Island safe use sites entail?

These safe use sites, also known as “harm reduction centers,” and “safe injection sites”, will provide clean needles, drug testing, and other services like recovery assistance. Each site is to be staffed by medical/qualified personnel, who are trained in CPR, overdose protocols, and the administration of drugs like naloxone, an opioid antagonist. Each site will have all the necessary supplies to carry out these functions. Sites will operate under the control of a medical director to oversee clinical practices, and a harm reduction center director who oversees the administrative management of the location.

Apart from all this, the sites will function partly as social services, providing referrals for housing, employment, and legal assistance, if necessary, while also offering basic health services. Each center is required to report deaths and overdoses to the medical director as well as to the state Department of Health, with a mandate to report all overdoses and other causes of death within 24 hours. Non-fatal overdoses must be reported within 48 hours of the time they occurred.

All sites in Rhode Island must get licensing from the state, and an approval from the city or town in which the site will operate. Mobile units will exist as well, and must provide very specific schedules for where they will be including complete addresses and operation times. Licenses can be denied to operators, suspended if there are issues, or completely revoked if regulators see fit.

One of the interesting things to be offered at these sites, is drug testing. But not the kind of drug testing most are used to. This isn’t drug testing to see if someone used something, but a way to actually test the drugs about to be taken, particularly for the presence of fentanyl. Fentanyl is an extremely strong opioid drug which people take on purpose, but which is also often a reason for accidental overdose due to it being used as an adulterant in other drugs.

Is this new?

This is new for the US, yes, since no other programs like this currently exist. Detractors like Arthur Corvese, a Democratic Rhode Island State Representative, called the idea a ‘moral oxymoron’ since legal use is now going to be permitted in an otherwise illegal state. The idea of encouraging such legal use of illegal drugs has been criticized by opponents, who believe this will somehow increase crime in surrounding areas…although I haven’t seen an explanation of how this is thought to be the case.

In reality, outside of America, this isn’t new at all. And not only that, while detractors shoot their mouths off to a US audience which is probably unaware of comparable programs in other countries, those comparable programs have already been cited for their positive influence on drug using culture. Something that Americans should really be informed on, and considering in this.

drug overdose

Canada, Australia, and different parts of Europe, for example, have cumulatively opened around 100 comparable safe-use sites. The Netherlands has the largest number, with just under 40 locations. Its first was opened in 1996, and the country was able to reduce overdose deaths by ensuring users were getting pure heroin, rather than a heroin/fentanyl mix. Canada’s first site opened in 2003, in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver where there are many IV drug users.

Canada, between 2017-2019 alone had around two million visits to safe use sites. The country had 39 sites open as of last year, with an expected daily visitor amount of 3,000 people. The busiest sites in Canada can have up to 500 visits a day, according to Health-Infobase.  

Will this happen elsewhere in America?

Opioid overdoses are a massive issue in the US, and this is not debatable, even if specific numbers are. For example, in 2019 hhs.gov, said there were close to 71,000 overdose deaths, whereas drugabuse.gov, put the number at 50,000. Either way, it’s a ridiculous number of avoidable deaths. hhs.gov provided more statistics, saying there were 14,480 heroin overdoses that year, over 10 million people misusing pain killers, and 48,000 synthetic opioid deaths. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, total opioid overdose deaths went up to 93,000 in 2020.

It gets grosser. In 2017, over 191 million opioid prescriptions were written out in the US, meaning that 58.7 prescriptions were written for every 100 people. 45% of these were given by primary care physicians who are not supposed to write such prescriptions at all. The economic burden of this epidemic in terms of health care, emergency care services, addiction programs, lost productivity, and dealing with the criminal justice system, costs about $78.5 billion every year. Who do you think pays for that? That’s right, the same taxpayers who were put on these pharmaceutically pushed medications that the government allows through regulation, now have to pay for the damage they’re doing.

So, yes, these sites will likely be popping up all over the place in the future. In fact, this was not the first try. Back in 2020, Philadelphia went ahead with plans to open Safehouse, a safe injection site. This was ruled against in January, 2021, by the Philadelphia-based U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, stymieing the effort.

However, seven months later, the nonprofit behind the venture was already pushing back legally, announcing in the summer of 2021 that it would be filing a petition to take the case to the Supreme Court. Unfortunately, the US Supreme Court refused the case (likely something it will be sticking its foot in its mouth for later), in October, 2021.

safe use

This hasn’t deterred proponents, who are planning on relaunching the case at the district court level, with new arguments. Given Rhode Island passing this legislation, and increasing opioid deaths, I expect this time it will go through. While that’s just my opinion for now, that California and Massachusetts are also currently considering plans to implement a similar structure, indicates that this is actually a new trend being established in the fight against opioid addiction.

Conclusion

The whole thing is horrifying if you take a step back. The government fully approved and allowed these medications to be sold, and then didn’t respond to its people dying. In fact, it still hasn’t stopped the ability to write prescriptions for these medications. In fact, prescriptions haven’t gone down at all.

So not only did the government support – and is continuing to support – its people being killed by big pharma, but it’s working to stymie any progress in the fight against it, least of all anything related to helping citizens be safer with their pharmaceutically-induced drug issues. So here’s to Rhode Island, for being the first state to start the process of recovery through safe use sites, and for giving access to safe ways to use drugs for those who need it. No thanks to the federal government at all.

Hello and welcome to CBDtesters.co, the internet’s one-stop-shop for all the most relevant and ground-breaking cannabis and psychedelics-related news going on worldwide. Stop by regularly to stay informed on the quickly-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletter, so you’re the first to get all the news.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Rhode Island 1st State to Open Safe Use Sites for Drugs appeared first on CBD Testers.

2022 Predictions for the Delta-8 THC Industry

The new year is upon us, and that means a restart to the business year, and all new things to look forward to. What will happen this year? Sure hard to say at the moment, but every new year comes with new stories of legalizations, court cases, innovative products, events, and medical findings. What about our newly discovered cannabinoids market? Here are some 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC and the rest of the lot.

My 2022 prediction for delta-8 THC is that the market will survive the year just fine. If you’re looking to try out delta-8 THC and the rest of the cannabinoids, you can do so, even outside of legal markets. In fact, since these products exist outside of regulation, you can buy them online as well. We’ve got great offers for the new year, so check out our deals to find your perfect product. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


What is delta-8 THC and the cannabinoids market?

If we’re getting into 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, best to know what we’re talking about first. Delta-8 THC is a naturally occurring isomer of delta-9 THC, which means they have the same chemical formula, but a different chemical structure. They are double bond stereoisomers since they vary only in the placement of a double bond.

While the exact way that delta-8 THC shows up naturally is still only theorized, its expected that delta-8 is a less-occurring degradant of delta-9, making up a tiny percentage, which doesn’t become CBN (the main degradant). Delta-8 is more stable than delta-9, having already oxidized, which gives it a longer shelf-life. Delta-8 occurs only in tiny amounts, and though it does show up on its own, it doesn’t in big enough quantities for product production. Thus, to be used in products, delta-8 must be made from delta-9 THC or from CBD, both of which require some amount of synthetic processing.

Perhaps none of this would matter, but delta-8, with its double bond on the eighth carbon atom, seems to have slightly different benefits from delta-9, which can make it preferable to some users. For example, it’s said that delta-8 causes less anxiety than delta-9, which is great for users who have an issue with this. It’s also said that it causes a more clear-headed high, which is slightly less intense than a delta-9 high, and without the couch-locking of standard weed. Medical patients especially, who want treatment without a cloudy head, may find delta-8 a better option.

cannabinoids

You’ll notice, when I mentioned 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, that I included the rest of the cannabinoid offerings. Along with delta-8 THC, a range of other synthetically produced cannabinoids have been making it to the unregulated cannabis market.  This includes THCV, CBN, THC-O-A, HHC, and a bunch of others with varying letters to denote their similar-to-THC chemical makeup.

Why are we talking about delta-8 and other cannabinoids?

Also before getting into 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, its best to know why we’re talking about it, since the whole reason we’re talking about it, can be a reason why the current situation might change. Delta-8 THC is produced under the misconception of legality due to the 2018 US Farm Bill, a misconception that seems to be spurred along by the industry itself, likely in an attempt to continue to sell products without regulation.

The 2018 US Farm Bill legalized the production of industrial hemp only, by simply changing the definition of ‘hemp’ in order to separate it from the rest of cannabis. ‘Hemp’ now refers to lower-THC cannabis, while ‘marijuana’ refers to higher-THC cannabis. Both the US and Europe make the cutoff at .3% THC by dry weight as the divider.

This new definition for hemp, which has led to this mass confusion in the press (but which is soundly understood by any legal professional), is: “The plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of the plant, whether growing or not, including the plant’s seeds, and all the plant’s derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomers, acids, salts, and salts of isomers, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.”

The 2018 Farm Bill moved regulation of hemp from the FDA to the USDA, but retained FDA oversight for medicines, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages, meaning anytime a compound is sold for any of these purposes, it requires a pass through the FDA. As such, even CBD in supplements and food products, is not legal, let alone delta-8 and the rest of the cannabinoid crew.

This is partly because synthetics weren’t legalized by the Farm Bill either, meaning once a synthetic process is used to create a compound, it no longer fits under the definition of hemp. Synthetics of Schedule I substances (like delta-9) are also considered Schedule I, which means all these compounds are illegal under the Federal Analogue Act.

delta-8 laws

2022 predictions delta-8 THC

Now that the legal situation is understood, here are my general 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, and rest of the cannabinoid market.

  • Delta-8 will continue on. As a part of the no-one-will-do-anything-about-it loophole, delta-8 enjoys being in a position where there doesn’t seem to be an ability to go after it by the federal government. And if there is an ability, but the federal government is choosing not to at the moment, I don’t think anything will explicitly happen in 2022 that will change this situation. Best to keep an eye on the news to ensure no sweeping legal updates, or increased law enforcement in this area.
  • Delta-8 will not threaten the standard cannabis industry. Though delta-8 created a lot of press stories about the possibility of threatening the regular weed market earlier on, this seems like media overkill on the wrong point. Truth is, weed is a standard, and its existed for thousands of years in its own market that never required synthetics to be made. People want the regular thing, and the regular thing is not delta-8 THC. Plus, regular cannabis can be grown by a user, meaning its far more accessible, and easier to get a clean product.
  • Delta-8 sales might go down by year’s end. Though I expect it to continue on just fine, my 2022 prediction for delta-8 is that by year’s end this fad will be fading out. I don’t think it has to do with illegalization either, simply with the fact that temporary fads are temporary fads. Delta-8 is up against regular cannabis, and its hard to imagine such a seismic shift in a stable industry.
  • The delta-8 market will get increasingly dirty, and this says something as it already operates as a pretty dirty industry. How dirty? These companies aren’t being regulated which means they can put anything they want in their products, or use any processing techniques desirable. In fact, the industry is so dirty, that it developed its own black-market testing to give the illusion that testing is going on, when in reality this has been exposed as a sham. With a mad dash to get any income from it, I expect companies will get seedier and seedier in their attempts to seem like the good guy in a sea of criminals.
  • More states will create legislation specifically banning this market. Technically this is overkill since no state allows synthetics in their markets legally. Even so, state after state has been setting specific legislation, possibly at the behest of the US government, which doesn’t appreciate untaxed items being sold. I expect more will follow this pattern in 2022.
  • Little to no regulation will be made. The previous point goes along with this point. While states will likely be making legislation to ban the market, this will be done instead of regulating it to ensure no bad chemicals or processing are used. Since these products are being sold outside of regulation, it would make way more sense to simply regulate them, and bring them to the above board market. The lack of regulation hints at the federal government looking to simply wait out the fad (or to wait for a tank out and then pharma/corporate buyout of the current industry, which it might be more excited to police).
  • More fear stories will come out. Whether about people getting sick from adulterants put in, or stories of faked lab results, I expect more and more news on the dangers of delta-8 and the other cannabinoids, will fill the press. These stories will not be centered around the dangers of the compounds, but the dangers of what can happen to them in an unregulated market. They won’t be framed as such though, but rather they’ll be framed to give the story that the compounds themselves are dangerous.
no additives
  • I think the rest of the cannabinoid market will start to peter out. Delta-8 is one thing, but when a new compound comes out everyday, there’s no way consumers can keep up, or care. THCP, THCVA, CBDVA…I mean, come on, it starts to look shady, and untrustworthy. And it’s not very smart. Focusing on a couple cannabinoids might have worked, but inundating the masses with compound after compound, when these compounds aren’t even understood in the world of science, is a great way to scare people off them entirely.
  • CBD might finally get some legalization. CBD is essentially just as illegal as the other compounds mentioned, not because its synthetic, but because its already an active ingredient in a pharmaceutical medication, and in the US, that makes it a no-no for use in supplements or food products. There has been a push to get some level of legalization for CBD, and I think 2022 might see some progress in this vein, particularly because the UN already gave CBD a pass as a medicine. It should be remembered that what qualifies as a ‘medicine’ in one place, can qualify as a ‘supplement’ in another.
  • The last 2022 prediction I’ll make for delta-8 THC and the cannabinoids market, is that I think people will realize more during this year that these products can’t change their lives, if they aren’t going to make changes outside of them. With any fad that comes without the lasting power to stay, once people realize the answer isn’t as easy as they think, they generally decide to try something else instead. Does this mean people will start making bigger changes to the rest of their lives? Well, maybe not, but I expect they’ll start looking for a new easy answer.

Conclusion

Maybe I’m right on some of these points, and maybe I’m wrong. When it comes to 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, we can all have our own, but in the end, we just have to wait and see what happens.

Hello and welcome… Thank you for stopping by CBDtesters.co, your #1 web source for the most relevant and interesting cannabis and psychedelics-related news going on globally. Check us out daily to stay in-the-know on the fast-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletter, so you’re first to get every news story.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post 2022 Predictions for the Delta-8 THC Industry appeared first on CBD Testers.

Did Psychedelics Help Our Brains Evolve?

There are tons of theories of evolution that attempt to explain how we went from single-celled organisms to the highly complicated structures we are today. I’m not getting into that entire process, but instead, am focusing on the more recent changeover from early cave-dwelling humans to the 21st century beings we are today. What happened to make us what we are? And did psychedelics help our brains evolve?

If psychedelics helped our brains evolve, there’s no telling how useful they could be in the future. It could even mean that we’re not done evolving yet!! For more articles like this one, remember to subscribe to the our Psychedelics Weekly Newsletteryour top source for everything related to this growing and important industry.


What are psychedelics?

It’s quite a question of whether psychedelics did help our brains evolve. Before getting to that, let’s identify what we’re talking about in general. Psychedelic drugs go under the heading of hallucinogens, which are a part of the psychoactive drugs grouping. Psychedelic compounds can be found all over nature in the form of magic mushrooms, DMT, peyote, and ayahuasca. Or, they can be made in a lab like LSD, DXM, and ketamine.

Psychedelics are associated with hallucinations, though different compounds cause varying effects. Hallucinations include a sensory experience that isn’t actually there, like seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, or feeling something that doesn’t exist. They are also widely known for causing spiritual experiences for users; making users feel more connected to each other, and the universe as a whole; inciting feelings of euphoria, and wellbeing; altering perception, and mood; and affecting cognitive function. This all includes what users have repeatedly called ‘life-changing experiences’ connected to life and consciousness, when on these drugs.

While psychedelics have repeatedly shown to be safe, and without a death and disability count, there is the possibility of experiencing a ‘bad trip’. A bad trip is as it sounds. A generally not fun incident wherein users experience negative hallucinations, and physical symptoms like anxiety, paranoia, nausea, raised blood pressure, erratic heartbeat, vomiting, chills, and dizziness. There are several things a person can do to avoid a bad trip, which is mostly about getting the dosage correct. However, there are other things that can be controlled for, like taking the trip in a place that’s comfortable, or being around the right people.

magic mushrooms

Psychedelics have been used widely throughout ancient history, but were essentially banned after the creation and marketization of LSD in the mid-late 1900’s. The Vietnam war was likely a catalyst, as drugs were used to denigrate the anti-war movement which was tightly tied to counterculture and draft-dodging. In the US, the Staggers-Dodd bill was passed in 1968 specifically illegalizing LSD and magic mushrooms, and this was followed up by the passing of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. Globally, the UN’s Convention on Psychotropic Substances in 1971 made these compounds illegal all over the world.

What is evolution?

For most people, the idea of evolution is understood, though many see it as truth, and many see it as a lie. In all honesty, regardless of how much this answer is liked, it really is only a theory. The theory of evolution is “The scientific theory explaining the appearance of new species and varieties through the action of various biological mechanisms (such as natural selection, genetic mutation or drift, and hybridization).” This includes the “descent with modification from preexisting species: cumulative inherited change in a population of organisms through time leading to the appearance of new forms: the process by which new species or populations of living things develop from preexisting forms through successive generations.”

Essentially, it’s a theory that seeks to explain how life might have changed on this planet over time, allowing one form of living species to become something else. It doesn’t propose this happened randomly, but as a response to different factors like mutation, or the right attributes helping some survive over others in a particular environment.

I was on a message board once, where whether the theory of evolution was ‘true’ or not was being discussed. I was personally disgusted by how many medical and scientific research professionals touted it as a truth, when indeed our history cannot be tested, meaning it’s not a provable theory by default. Though changes have been identified in more recent times (like sherpas, and their acquired ability in recent history to use oxygen more efficiently at high altitudes) the reason the theory of evolution is called ‘the theory of evolution’ and not the ‘law of evolution’, is because like it or not, and whether it’s the best answer we have or not, there is no hard proof that this theory is true.

We learn a lot through history. It’s always good to remember that it was once thought the sun moved around the earth, or that tiny people were in our bodies making things function, or that letting out blood could cure illness. We constantly find new ruins and artifacts that change the story, like that neanderthal DNA can be found in our DNA, something ruled out previously. So though I myself see evolution as the best answer, unlike the scientists erroneously saying it ‘has to’ be true, I also understand it’s a huge topic for which we don’t understand everything.

While many detractors choose a more religious, god-centered story to explain how we came to be, others point to possibilities like genetic material landing on earth from a meteor, while others propose that aliens had something to do with it. And like it or not, we as a people can’t technically rule any of this out, even if the go-to answer has become evolution.

brain evolution

Did psychedelics help our brains evolve?

Now that psychedelics have been described, we can get more into how they might have affected the human brain through time. In fact, psychedelics are under much investigation at the moment for help with things like depression, anxiety, and drug addiction. LSD studies from the mid-1900’s did well to draw out the possible ability for the compound to help hardcore drinkers stop in their tracks. The FDA is supporting research into MDMA and psilocybin through giving ‘breakthrough therapy’ designations to both. These designations are given when research is underway on something that shows to be a better answer to a problem than a standard remedy.

All of the things mentioned denote the idea that psychedelic compounds can help change the way the brain works. In fact, esketamine, (the legalized version of ketamine), as well as ketamine itself which is widely used in clinics for therapy as an off-label product, have both shown to be great helps with major depression. More so than monoamine antidepressants, which have been the pharmaceutical answer that realistically never worked. Psychedelics seem to be able to allow the brain to make new connections, and essentially, reformulate parts of itself.

Early humans did not function like we do today. Their brain capacity was much more limited, which is known by their limited abilities to establish societies, or live outside of basic, wild, animal means. We know the brain would have had to change extensively to allow us to be what we currently are (assuming evolution is the answer), meaning, something led to that happening. Maybe it was just mutation, or natural selection. Or maybe, early humans ate some plants that helped them expand their minds, and grow their brains.

More on the theory that psychedelics helped our brains evolve

So where is this idea backed up? In more and more places these days. First off, before worrying about evolution specifically, and whether psychedelics did help our brains evolve, the first thig to understand is that psychedelics may change the structure of brain cells. In 2018, Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity was published in Cell Reports, which found four key points of interest:

  1. That serotonergic psychedelics (most psychedelics are in this category) increase neuritogenesis (the sprouting of neurites from a cell, which is the first step in the development of a mature neuronal morphology), spinogenesis (the development of dendritic spines in neurons), and synaptogenesis (the formation of new synapses).
  2. That psychedelics promote plasticity (the brain’s ability to change and adapt as a result of experience) via an evolutionarily conserved mechanism.
  3. That TrkB (receptor), mTOR (protein kinase), and 5-HT2A (receptor) signaling underlie psychedelic-induced plasticity. As in, these three help psychedelics to change the brain.
  4. That noribogaine (primary metabolite of ibogaine), but not ibogaine (psychedelic compound found in many plants), is capable of promoting structural neural plasticity.

The study was conducted on several different animals, from rats and other rodents, to zebrafish embryos. These studies were not done on humans, which should be considered when looking at results. It should be remembered, however, that we regularly rely on animal studies to give us information about what will work for humans. According to the study investigators:

psychedelics brains evolve

“Here, we report that, like ketamine, serotonergic psychedelics are capable of robustly increasing neuritogenesis and/or spinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These changes in neuronal structure are accompanied by increased synapse number and function, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology. The structural changes induced by psychedelics appear to result from stimulation of the TrkB, mTOR, and 5-HT2A signaling pathways and could possibly explain the clinical effectiveness of these compounds.”

Going further into the possibility that psychedelics helped our brains evolve

Yet another recent study got into this idea. On September 29th, 2021, Psychedelics, Sociality, and Human Evolution was published in Frontiers in Psychology. The study authors start out by saying: “Our hominin ancestors inevitably encountered and likely ingested psychedelic mushrooms throughout their evolutionary history”, which they relate back as far as the Pliocene age.

According to researchers, “Psilocybin and similar psychedelics that primarily target the serotonin 2A receptor subtype stimulate an active coping strategy response that may provide an enhanced capacity for adaptive changes through a flexible and associative mode of cognition. Such psychedelics also alter emotional processing, self-regulation, and social behavior, often having enduring effects on individual and group well-being and sociality.”

They go on to say, “A homeostatic and drug instrumentalization perspective suggests that incidental inclusion of psychedelics in the diet of hominins, and their eventual addition to rituals and institutions of early humans could have conferred selective advantages.”

Finally, they break it down to, “the evolutionary scenario put forward suggests that integration of psilocybin into ancient diet, communal practice, and proto-religious activity may have enhanced hominin response to the socio-cognitive niche, while also aiding in its creation. In particular, the interpersonal and prosocial effects of psilocybin may have mediated the expansion of social bonding mechanisms such as laughter, music, storytelling, and religion, imposing a systematic bias on the selective environment that favored selection for prosociality in our lineage.”

They broke this into four aspects:

  1. Management of psychological distress and treatment of health problems
  2. Enhanced social interaction and interpersonal relations
  3. Facilitation of collective ritual and religious activities
  4. Enhanced group decision-making
brain evolution

Conclusion

How we really got to be who and what we are is a massive question that no one has a definitive answer to right now, no matter what they may think they know. Recent research has certainly opened the door to the exploration of psychedelics as a factor in our growth and development through history, but much more needs to be learned. If there is truth in this, it speaks volumes to what we can do with psychedelics, and how useful they can potentially be in our future growth and development.

Welcome readers! Thanks for joining us at CBDtesters.co, your one-stop-shop for the most important and relevant cannabis and psychedelics-related news happening now. Read-thru the site regularly to stay informed on the constantly-in-motion universe of cannabis, and medical psychedelics, and sign up for the The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter, so you’re always on top of what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Did Psychedelics Help Our Brains Evolve? appeared first on CBD Testers.

DIY: How to Make Your Own CBN

There’s a lot of talk about different cannabinoids, and the growing unregulated cannabinoids market. One of the cannabinoids of interest is CBN, for its possible ability to help with sleep. Unlike many cannabinoids which require synthetization, CBN can be made pretty easily, and not as a synthetic. Read on for tips on how to make your very own CBN.

With a wide-ranging cannabinoids market out there, there are now tons of ways of enjoying cannabis besides standard THC. Whether you’re interested in delta-8 THC which causes less anxiety, CBN which might be good for promoting sleep, THCV which has shown as a possible aid in weight loss, or HHC a minimized version of THC, options abound, and we’ve got plenty for you. Check out all our deals on these compounds, and find the ones that work best for you.


What is CBN

Before getting into how to make CBN, we need to know more about what it is. The cannabis plant is made up of many components including flavonoids, terpenes, chlorophyll, lipids, cannabinoids, and other compounds. In fact, the main association with cannabis, is the cannabinoid delta-9 THC, sometimes erroneously called ‘THC’. This term actually stands for ‘tetrahydrocannabinols’, which can involve more cannabinoids than just delta-9, but somehow that slang term has prevailed, even showing up in medical literature. However, what we are actually speaking of, is delta-9 THC.

Cannabis plants can be split into two general types of plants, though both categories fit under the umbrella of ‘cannabis’. One, which we refer to as ‘hemp’ has lower amounts of delta-9 (which actually shows in a live plant as the acid THCA), and higher amounts of CBD (which shows in a live plant as the acid CBDA). On the other hand, ‘marijuana’ is now the term used for plants higher in THCA than CBDA.

Both THCA and CBDA are ‘phytocannabinoids’ because they appear in the plant. And both convert in the presence of light and heat to their respective cannabinoid counterparts THC (delta-9) and CBD. But this is not the end of the story. Once converted to delta-9 and CBD, these new cannabinoids can eventually degrade further into what we call ‘degradants’. These degradants can be entirely new cannabinoids. And this is where CBN comes in. CBN is the main degradant of delta-9, for which the vast majority of delta-9 will become. This makes CBN a rather prevalent cannabinoid in comparison to others like delta-8 or THCV, which only ever show in miniscule amounts. The chemical formula for CBN is C21H26O2, and it’s considered only minorly intoxicating.

make CBN

While it’s hard to say exactly what CBN is capable of, there is a growing belief that it could be related to properties like the ability to help with sleep and anxiety. This thought came around because of the noticed effect of older cannabis (which is more degraded than a new flower), making people more relaxed and tired. Plenty of research is currently being done into the possible existence of these properties. Apart from a sleep aid, CBN has many other similar benefits to delta-9 THC and other cannabinoids.

The history of CBN

Weirdly enough, CBN was the first cannabinoid of the cannabis plant to be discovered. This was not the goal at all, though, as the goal was to find the intoxicating element of the plant, for which CBN was confused. This research to establish the intoxicating element was already underway in the late 1800’s, being led by different scientists, namely Thomas Easterfield. And it was his discovery that led to the finding of other cannabinoids like CBD and THC.

To find this intoxicating element, cannabis was distilled into what was referred to as a ‘red oil’, and this was the first form to be studied in modern times. This red oil was discovered by Dr. Thomas Easterfield, who was a member of the Cambridge Group, and a lecturer at Cambridge University. When he first wrote about this ‘red oil’, he gave it the name ‘cannabinol’. These days we know that term to specifically mean the compound CBN, but at the time, it was related to the red oil distilled from the plant, as well as what was thought to be the intoxicating factor.

It was thought at that time that cannabinol was a narcotic substance, which was later clarified to be untrue. Easterfield was the first to isolate cannabinol, which, he stated in his late 1800’s writing, as being the intoxicating factor. Perhaps Easterfield would have gotten further, but a couple incidences got in the way of research.

One involved the accidental death of two collaborators in a lab accident. The other is a strange story of the voluntary ingestion of a large dose of CBN by another guy, leading to this guy getting extremely high and somehow catching on fire. Don’t worry, it was extinguished and he was fine, but research stopped upon media reports exaggerating the circumstances for smear campaigns against cannabis (started that early!) Research was halted for decades.

Things didn’t really pick up again until the 1930’s when Dr. Robert S. Cahn began studying CBN again. Cahn started calling the red oil ‘crude cannabinol’, and started using the term ‘cannabinol’ for the actual cannabinoid compound. Through his research he was able to validate that CBN was not the intoxicating factor. Cahn did map the structure of CBN, but many questions were still left unanswered until future scientists finally discovered CBD and THC. Separately, Easterfield and Cahn made the initial discoveries into CBN.

CBN

How to make CBN

When it comes to how to make CBN, the important thing to remember is that it’s a degradant of delta-9 THC, and that means you can make CBN from regular marijuana. Though it can be made from a hemp plant, since a hemp plant has considerably less THCA, it would require synthetization, rather than being made naturally. The best way to make CBN, therefore, is by using high-THC marijuana plants.

So how do you make CBN? It’s actually quite easy. Just add the things that naturally convert THC to CBN, light and/or heat. Both of these options essentially speed up time, allowing for a quicker degradation process that allows for CBN to be made. When made industrially, CBN is often created using solvents and metallic catalysts. However, if you do it yourself, not only do you know you’re getting the right product, but you can actually make a cleaner product. This can go for many cannabis products, where DIY methods can often net a better result when done correctly.

Heating: If you want to use the heating method (and you probably do as its more defined), you need to go through the regular process of decarboxylation that turns THCA into delta-9. However, in this case, you need to go a little further, to degrade the delta-9 in order to make CBN. Regular decarboxylation to convert THCA to delta-9 is usually done for no more than 20-40 minutes at a temperature of 230-250°F. These temperatures are low enough that the further conversion to CBN and degradation of other plant compounds, isn’t a problem. In this case, though, you would decarb at higher than 302º F, for a total of 15 minutes, although some publications say that 300º F for one hour also works. And that’s it. After this, you can go on to use the bud to make oil, butter, or whatever other product you know how to make, or can find instructions for.

UV light: The other option to age the plant in order to make CBN from delta-9, is with UV light. Unfortunately, less has been published about the specifics for this method, apart from the fact that a very intense light would need to be used. How intense, and for how long, is harder to say. Perhaps in the future, as CBN becomes more popular, this topic will get further flushed out.

There is, however, plenty of information about how light effects the cannabis plant, and much can be gleaned from this explanation:

“In cannabis, Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) naturally degrades to cannabinol (CBN) over time. Light exposure supplies energy and speeds up this process. The ratio of THC to CBN in a stored sample of cannabis can actually be used to indicate age and quality of storage.

Lindholst (2010) examined tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa) in cannabis extracts. Samples exposed to daylight degraded at a half-life of 35 days, while those kept in darkness degraded at a half-life of 91 days (an approximate 250% difference).”

Cannabis UV light

While this is not specific, it does indicate that if you leave your weed out in bright sunlight, or put it under a UV light, that the process of converting delta-9 to CBN is much faster. I didn’t see an exact consensus on how to do this online, but several message boards contained different instructions by different people, and interested parties should check through to find more specific information if this is a desirable method to try. Personally, I suggest using the heat method.

How this differs from other minor cannabinoids

The cannabinoids market of today offers tons of options of both naturally occurring and synthetic cannabinoids. What’s the catch? Even the naturally occurring ones (besides THC and CBD) don’t occur in high enough amounts for extraction without synthetization. Meaning if you’re buying a product, even if it’s something like delta-8, which most definitely is naturally occurring (as likely another minor degradant of delta-9), your product will have gone through processing. This likely means the involvement of harsh chemicals or processes that may not be safe, and which aren’t currently being regulated.

Beyond that, the lack of regulation means its hard to know you’re getting the product you’re paying for, and that it’s not a fake, or filled with adulterants. For this reason, this has become a questionable market in terms of safety and product quality. And this goes for any cannabinoid product that fits the category of requiring synthetization. It also goes for many other cannabis products, but minor cannabinoids in particular we already know cannot be easily and directly extracted for use.

The difference with CBN is that it can be made to appear in large enough amounts, by simple methods that don’t involve synthetic processing. However, for the other reasons mentioned, this doesn’t mean that because you’re buying a CBN product, that it will be real. And that brings us to the other difference with CBN and other minor cannabinoids. Much like delta-9 itself, it can be made DIY style, giving users the ability to make a clean product, and to know for sure what that product is.

Conclusion

CBN likely has plenty of medical benefits, and one seems to be the ability to help with sleep and anxiety, though this is not formally stated. Research has been inconclusive, and is ongoing, but message boards are already filled with people talking up these qualities. Perhaps in the future we’ll know more. Let’s remember one thing. The government never likes when people can make their own products, or buy them outside of regulation, since it means less money in taxes for the government.

The push to say CBN isn’t effective for sleep could be more related to trying to save it for the pharmaceutical market, or simply to keep people from buying it, than trying to help people find a safe method to promote sleep. This is supposition, but something to consider in the whole ongoing cannabis debate, and with the rapid growth of the government backed pharma market.

Hello and Welcome! Thanks for making it to CBDtesters.co, the internet’s preeminent location for the most important and though-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news globally. Visit us whenever you can to stay on top of the always-in-flux universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out The THC Weekly Newsletter, to ensure you always know what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post DIY: How to Make Your Own CBN appeared first on CBD Testers.

Psychedelic Industry Predictions for 2022

It’s been a whirlwind rise for psychedelics in general in the past few years, with tons of research into medical properties, and new legal policies being set in different parts of the country to allow medical use, or decriminalize recreational use. What’s in store for this class of drugs? Here are my 2022 predictions for psychedelics.

My 2022 predictions for psychedelics are mainly that the industry will grow more with steps toward legalization, which is the same for the cannabis industry, which should also see growth in many ways in 2022. This can already be seen in the new cannabinoids industry, which allows the sale of compounds outside of regulation, and outside of dispensaries. For more articles like this one, remember to subscribe to the our Psychedelics Weekly Newsletteryour top source for everything related to this growing industry.


What are psychedelics?

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs, which are themselves a subset of psychoactive drugs. Psychedelics can be naturally occurring like magic mushrooms or DMT, or made in a lab like LSD and ketamine. Either way, these compounds are specifically related to producing hallucinations, wherein a user experiences a sensation (hearing, seeing, feeling, tasting, smelling) of something that is not there.

Along with hallucinations, these drugs are known for inciting spiritual experiences in users; bringing on feelings of connectedness between users, and between users and the universe at large; stimulating feelings of euphoria, and wellbeing; and causing alterations in perception, mood, and cognitive function. Users have throughout time reported life-changing experiences regarding life and consciousness when on these drugs.

While psychedelics are generally safe, with no actual death or disability count directly related, there is one aspect to be wary of: the bad trip. In a bad trip, a user can experience negative – even frightening, hallucinations, and have physical symptoms like anxiety, nausea, erratic heartbeat, vomiting, chills, dizziness, paranoia, and raised blood pressure. This seems to be a big aspect of dosing, with correct dosing, or the use of micro-doses, eliminating the majority of these problem. People more sensitive to these drugs might want to try in smaller quantities.

magic mushrooms

The illegalization of psychedelics

Psychedelics gained momentum in the mid-1900’s after LSD was synthesized by Albert Hofmann in 1938 (but more formally realized in 1943), in Sandoz laboratories in Switzerland. This set off a cascade of LSD products being sold throughout the world. By the 1950’s it had been adopted by the world of psychiatry, with over 10,000 studies published between 1943-1970 according to the Oxford Press. LSD was the basis for the Saskatchewan trials in Canada led by Humphrey Osmond and Abram Hoffer, where it was shown to help alcoholics quit the juice. It was also big in England, where Ronald Sandison showed the benefit of LSD with psychoneurotic patients.

All of this ended by the late 1960’s when the US forged a campaign against psychedelics, likely in response to the unpopular Vietnam was, as a way of targeting counter-culture folks who were known for peace-loving and draft-dodging. This was done in the US with the Staggers-Dodd bill in 1968 followed by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act in 1970. It was done in England through the 1973 Misuse of Drugs Act. The Convention on Psychotropic Substances in 1971 made psychedelic compounds illegal globally.

How do we know about drug smear campaigns in relation to the war and racism? In 1994, John Ehrlichman, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Nixon, released this statement:

“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.”

My 2022 predictions for psychedelics

The class of psychedelics is gaining momentum, possibly inspired by the success of the cannabis industry, and its ability to change perceptions about the plant in the last couple decades. There’s a lot going on in the industry, so here are my 2022 predictions for what can be expected with psychedelics.

  • More states, cities, and individual locations will continue to pass laws like Oregon and Detroit to decriminalize recreational use, or legalize medical markets. These may be done through ballot measures during elections, or made as legislation by local governments.
  • In terms of ketamine, this might be the biggest standout of 2022. Ketamine clinics are already becoming very popular, which can be seen in the government’s attempt to divert the market to a pharmaceutical one by way of the legalization of esketamine. Esketamine will likely do nothing to stop the ketamine clinic industry, which, since it offers a seemingly better answer to monoamine antidepressants, should take off even further in 2022.
ketamine therapy
  • The tide will continue turning with psychedelics in the mainstream, with more and more people changing tack as they did with cannabis. This will likely be from the growing body of research into positive benefits, with the lack of negative results that were cried about for so long, becoming more obvious.
  • Having said this, since the government will badly want to keep a handle on it, there is also likely to be a continuation of smear campaigns aimed at driving fear and confusion into users. This in an effort to point them toward pharmaceutical options, rather than having the masses attempt to obtain these compounds illicitly or grow them on their own.
  • My 2022 predictions for the illicit psychedelics market, are that this will grow as well, with tons of illicit online retailers popping up, and a dirty, unregulated industry taking over. This is similar to the current state of affairs in the cannabis industry, exemplified by the unregulated cannabinoids market. This will help drive fear campaigns by targeting stories of seedy operators and adulterated products.
  • Magic mushrooms and psilocybin will be another big winner according to my 2022 predictions for psychedelics. As one of the compounds more immediately up for legalization, magic mushrooms also present the situation of being the most cannabis-like drug, in that they can be grown easily at home by users. Not only will magic mushrooms creep closer to a federal medical legalization, but I expect 2022 will see a huge push in home growing of these mushrooms.
  • MDMA is the other compound nearing legalization in the states, and 2022 should also be a year of progress for this drug, with further research getting it that much closer to a medical legalization. Though this is unlikely to happen in 2022, by the end of the year we might have a clearer picture of when this can be expected.
  • Another of my 2022 predictions for psychedelics is that we’re going to start seeing more legislation being floated in congress for federal legalization measures. This isn’t to say that any will succeed, but by the end of 2022, I expect several different bills for different purposes related to psychedelics, to come up and be discussed.
  • Lastly, I believe more politicians will come out openly supporting psychedelics and their uses in 2022. This will likely be on both the medical and recreational fronts, making upcoming legalizations that much more government-accepted.

What is the state of psychedelics currently in the US?

To give an idea of where things are now with psychedelics in the US, here is the basic rundown. Seattle didn’t exactly decriminalize legally, but in October of 2021, the city council unanimously voted on a non-binding resolution meant to discourage law enforcement from going after psychedelics users. It is not, however, a legal mandate. The most recent city to fall legally was Detroit, which decriminalized psychedelic (entheogenic) plants in November 2021 through Proposal E passed by voters.

entheogenic plants

Other specific locations that have set legal mandates include Denver, Colorado, which was first in 2019; and Oakland and Santa Cruz in California which made their own measures that same year, and the following year respectively. In 2020, An Arbor, Michigan; and Washington DC set decriminalization policies. This was followed by Washtenaw County, Michigan; Somerville, Cambridge, Northampton, and Easthampton in Massachusetts; and Arcata, California in 2021.

Of course, the biggest psychedelics champions right now is Oregon, which was the first state to adopt a statewide policy, with two ballot measures in 2020: Measure 109 – to legalize the medical use of psilocybin, and Measure 110 to decriminalize many drugs statewide. Both measures passed making Oregon the first state to allow legal medical use of a psychedelic, as well as the decriminalization statewide of many recreational drugs.

Two other states did institute lesser policies. On Thursday February, 4th, 2021, New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy signed a law that reclassified magic mushrooms to be a ‘disorderly persons offense’ so long as the amounts don’t go over one ounce. The maximum fine is now $1,000, and the maximum jail sentence is six months. While this pales in comparison to what Oregon did, it does greatly reduce penalties from $15,000 and five years in prison.

Rhode Island, on the other hand, signed into policy on July 7th, 2021, a law that allows for consumption sites for illegal drugs, where they can be accessed safely. This is a two-year pilot program that aims to give medical supervision to drug use, and individual municipalities are charged with authorizing facilities for this to happen. What will happen in the future, or if this will continue after two years, is hard to say, but for now it allows the use of drugs – including psychedelics – in specialized locations, without the threat of arrest.

In the works…

Currently there are two other statewide initiatives to legalize psychedelics. California has been working on the California Psilocybin Legalization Initiative, which is possibly slated to appear on the November 2022 ballot as a referendum, and which seeks to “legalize psilocybin, including psilocybin mushrooms, truffles, sclerotia, and mycelium, in California.” This would allow the “cultivation, manufacture, processing, distribution, transportation, possession, storage, consumption, and retail sale of psilocybin mushrooms.”

Michigan has also made strides in this direction, introducing Senate Bill 631, in September, 2021. This bill floated would legalize psychedelic compounds recreationally statewide, and has been referred to the Committee on Judiciary and Public Safety for further review. The bill would legalize the cultivation, delivery, creation, possession, and communal use of plant-derived recreational psychedelics. This would not allow sales, except in the cases of “counseling, spiritual guidance, or a related service that is provided in conjunction with the use of an entheogenic plant or fungus under the guidance and supervision of an individual providing the service”, in which case a fee can be charged.

Beyond this, while psychedelics are federally illegal, apart from esketamine and DXM (found in cough syrup), both MDMA and psilocybin have been given a ‘breakthrough therapy’ designation by the FDA in reference to research being conducted. Compass Pathways, and Usona Institute won this designation for research into psilocybin for major depression, while the organization MAPS not only got this designation for research into MDMA, but designed its phase three trials in conjunction with the FDA to ensure results meet regulation. Which means a federal government body is pushing for these legalizations.

Conclusions

With everything on the cusp of explosion, 2022 predictions for psychedelics can certainly be blown out of the water easily. It will be an interesting year to watch progress and see what happens, and it could very well be that some unexpected big moves could happen before year’s end.

Hello and welcome readers! You’ve arrived at CBDtesters.co, the best web source for the most interesting and essential cannabis and psychedelics-related news going on worldwide. Stop by regularly to stay abreast of the always-in-motion landscape of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out the The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter, so you never miss an important story.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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Marijuana Company Curaleaf Pays Out For Tainted CBD Products

CBD is a dicey subject because of laws relating to the legality and sale of products. This extends to most retailers as no regulation exists federally, and is not always followed by states. As an example of the growing issues in the industry, well-known company Curaleaf, just had to pay out as a result of lawsuits about tainted CBD products.

Curaleaf and its tainted CBD products highlight a major regulation issue in the legal cannabis industry, but this doesn’t mean there aren’t good products, just that consumers must do their due diligence. This is also true of the cannabinoids market which contains products like delta-8 THC, THCV, and HHC. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


What’s the news?

The Massachusetts-based company Curaleaf, which also operates out of facilities in Oregon and as well as being on the Canadian stock exchange as CURA, found itself in hot water this year with 10 lawsuits waged against it for selling tainted CBD products. How were they tainted? They contained a large dose of THC, which was not listed on the packaging, and not a part of the marketing for the products.

The products in question are Curaleaf’s Select brand CBD Wellness Drops, which the company says workers in a Portland facility managed to confuse with THC drops. The CBD drops are made from hemp, and are not supposed to have THC in them, or at the very least, not in the large quantity that apparently made it in.

Curaleaf paid out $50,000 to settle a case in September, brought on by Ayuba Agbonkhese, an Idaho resident who claimed he ended up in an emergency room after ingesting the drops without knowing their THC content. Agbonkhese specifically wanted the public to know all the terms of this deal, in order to bring more awareness to this tainted products problem. He is, in fact, quite correct about the size of the problem, and the need for more attention on it. In his words:

CBD settlement

“It was important for me to make sure that the company, as well as other companies like this, become more accountable. I want a safer community. That is my main reason for doing this in this way… I want them to be better and I want the industry to be better.” Apparently, though Curaleaf did pay out, it did not see fit to formally apologize.

Agbonkhese is not the only person to have an issue. At least four others had to be treated in an emergency room after using the same tainted CBD products. Agbonkhese’s case was the only one where the terms were made public, but nine other cases total have been settled by Curaleaf for its tainted CBD products.

Is that it?

Nope. Three other cases remain open, including a wrongful death suit. Honestly, while Curaleaf represents a huge issue in the CBD industry, the wrongful death case does seem to be a stretch, and also likely representative of opportunism for a payout. In that particular case, the person died weeks after ingesting the drops, and was otherwise sick, making the claim not only a bit silly, but unwise considering it dilutes what are actual and legitimate claims.

The Oregon Liquor and Cannabis Commission (OLCC) is currently investigating Curaleaf. Curaleaf acquired Cura Cannabis (Select), in 2019, and has sold hundreds of tainted CBD products throughout Oregon in the past year. It should be mentioned, that while an unexpected THC overdose is certainly not fun, and in these cases, 100% unexpected, it is also non-lethal. But the whole idea of tainted CBD products begs the question of whether there could be other issues with Curaleaf’s products, and similar products on the market.

Curaleaf did recall both the products in question, the Select CBD Wellness Drops, and the high-THC drops. But this happened because they were forced to by Oregon regulators. The OLCC has been investigating the situation since that time, as it represents the first time this has really become a large news story.

While Curaleaf has said very little about the settlements, it has stated that the cause of these issues was ‘human error’, and that processes have been updated as a result of the incidences. The company has not stated whether anyone was held accountable, or how these mistakes were actually made. As it was an ongoing issue with this company that spanned months of time, these questions are very relevant, along with what else could be wrong with these products if they haven’t gone through the testing they were supposed to.

tainted CBD products

The problem with the CBD industry

The main issue with the CBD industry at large, is that it’s not federally legal, and therefore not federally regulated. The reason CBD is technically illegal for food, as a supplement, or a non-prescription medicine, is that CBD is already the active ingredient of an approved pharmaceutical medication (Epidiolex), and under US law, once a compound is an active ingredient in an approved medication, it can no longer be marketed as a dietary supplement, or be used in food products. Therefore the CBD industry in the US at large (with a few exceptions), isn’t legal, and products on the market are not being regulated for what is in them.

However, this doesn’t actually apply to Oregon as a legalized state. Since Oregon set laws counter to the US federal government, though it is breaking federal law with these sales, it’s legal due to state laws. And that means CBD sales are perfectly legal in Oregon, and able to be regulated!

There is a lot that’s said about the growing cannabinoids industry in the US, which includes CBD as well as minor cannabinoids like delta-8 THC, THCV, and HHC. There is increasing wariness of the industry, and for good reason, as it operates 100% as an unregulated black market, selling products outside of legal dispensaries, offering illegal merchandise online, and creating black market testing facilities to give the illusion of regulation, though these have repeatedly shown to be scams.

But once again, Oregon is a legalized state, so these issues, though still existent since synthetics are not legalized in the state, at least shouldn’t apply to the CBD industry. And yet, we can see they clearly do. If Curaleaf had this ongoing issue for months, then whatever product testing it was supposed to be doing that whole time, obviously wasn’t being done at all. If this is the best we can expect out of a legal company, it really doesn’t imply anything good about any delta-8 company, or any other company not working within legal parameters.

What this means is that there are substantial problems with getting things done properly in the cannabis industry. Whether this is because companies don’t have the money to pay out to testing facilities, whether bribes are being made to pass products illegally, or if this simply represents greed by large companies (we see this literally all the time), is hard to say. But when the legit industry starts looking like the black market, you know there’s definitely a problem.

What this means for buyers

While this problem could be specific to Curaleaf, nothing about this industry indicates it is, and if a bigger company with means isn’t going about things properly, what can we realistically expect of the rest? On the other hand, big corporations are sometimes known for being a lot dirtier in their practices than smaller mom and pops. Perhaps it indicates more a showing of the general corporate attitude of not caring about consumers, let alone their own workers, than an actual inability to create decent products consistently.

know your brands

This undoubtedly creates a big issue for users, when what are seen as legit companies cannot be trusted. Ordinarily I say ‘know your brands’ and perhaps this is still the best answer, but it’s not a great one. With newer industries, after all, the idea of knowing a brand is limited to only the recent future, and sometimes, like with CBD products, without any history of other products to know them by. As such, the idea of knowing your brands is not as easy as it might be when buying other products with more established brands.

It does mean that customers are now really put to the task of doing due diligence. Especially if they don’t want to solely depend on state regulators to decide if a company is safe, and if its doing everything it’s supposed to be doing to ensure safe products, that are what they say they are.

Conclusion

Truth is, I expect there to be more of these cases. The weed industry is a dirty place these days, way dirtier than when it was a 100% illegal industry. So far, legalizations have done nothing but get us overpriced dispensaries, massive fakes markets, and adulterated products. If not for the fact that it might be slightly harder to get arrested in some places, not much really good has been accomplished by all this, with Curaleaf standing as a beacon to this sentiment.

Welcome to CBDtesters.co, your #1 internet spot for all the most important and thought-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news relevant today. Visit us whenever you can to stay educated on the fast-paced universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out The THC Weekly Newsletter, so you never miss a single thing.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Marijuana Company Curaleaf Pays Out For Tainted CBD Products appeared first on CBD Testers.

How to Get Supplements to Work? Change Your Life

There are some very intense realities to life, and one is that if you really want change, you need to really make changes. Though the addition of supplements may be useful, if you really want them to work, you might need to change other aspects of your life.

Supplements can improve your health, but if you really want them to work, you might need to change other parts of your life. The cannabis plant provides many compounds that can be used as supplements for sleep, weight loss, stress reduction, and more. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter for deals on legal cannabis products, as well as all the latest news and industry stories. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


Supplements

These days there are supplements for pretty much anything. You don’t eat meat and you’re not getting enough B12? Well, there’s a capsule for that. Not enough fermented foods in your diet and your guts are acting up? Take yourself a probiotic. Eating a diet full of omega-6 and you feel a little swollen, best to swallow down some fish oil. Overweight and trying to deal with it, maybe add some THCV into your diet.

A supplement is something that is added into a diet, generally to make the addition of something that is lacking, or for a particular purpose. Supplements generally contain “minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, enzymes” as well as other possible ingredients. They can come as tablets, gummies, capsules, tinctures, oils, powders, drinks, energy bars, and pretty much any other way to get something in you.

Dream Job Alert: Get Paid To Try Cannabis Products

A lot of things can be used as supplements in a diet, although the term ‘dietary supplement’ is a specific term made by congress that rules out many compounds. Some supplements are taken specifically to obtain nutrients that aren’t being acquired in a regular diet. These kinds of supplements can be for essential nutrients which are not made by the human body, (and must be taken from the environment around), or non-essential nutrients which the body can produce, even if it can’t produce enough. Examples of essential nutrients are fats like omega-3, amino acids like lysine, vitamins like vitamin A and the vegan-loved B12, and minerals like calcium, magnesium, and zinc.

Nonessential nutrients are those that can be made in large enough quantities by the human body, but for whatever reason are lacking. Nonessential nutrients include amino acids like tyrosine and L-cysteine, and vitamins like vitamin D and biotin. Another thing not produced by the body (though not considered a nutrient) is fiber, which many people also take as a supplement to improve digestive function.

‘Dietary supplement’ is a legal definition for what can be sold in a specific category, so not everything that acts as a supplement, is considered a dietary supplement. Insulin is a good example of this. It is most certainly supplemental, but not considered a supplement by definition. This is also legal, as insulin is in approved medications, and therefore can’t be marketed as a supplement.

Not all supplements were created equally, and this must be remembered. The supplements market is not regulated, and therefore, though the market is legal, what can go into products is not defined. This makes it a ‘know your labels’ industry, as cheaper brands might put in additives, use lesser quality materials, or sell you the wrong thing altogether. There is also the issue of chemicals used.

A supplement will contain several other ingredients not related to the actual purpose of the supplement. Think about the capsule it might be in, something put in it to keep it from spoiling, or whatever makes it that bright blue color. Depending on what you want to stay away from in life, picking the right supplements as per the desired ingredients, is also important.

Do supplements work?

This is a great question in life, and different people will give you different answers. The most honest answer is, sometimes it’s hard to tell. If a person isn’t taking something where they expect to see a direct effect, it might be hard to tell if there is one. There are a lot of factors that can complicate life, and its often hard to tell exactly what is causing each response.

Many supplements fit the bill for ambiguous results. If a vegan is taking B12 to make up for not ingesting animal products, and their energy improves, it will still be hard for them to rule out other factors that could’ve caused the improvement. Maybe they simultaneously also started getting more sleep, or inadvertently upped protein without realizing it, through a dietary change.

When a person takes an antibiotic to kill an infection, an improvement in symptoms will generally be related to that medication. If a person has an infected cut that won’t heal on its own, and then the application of hydrogen peroxide or alcohol decreases infection, the two are likely correlated. Does it mean they have to be related? No, but in general practice, they are.

If a supplement is taken for something that it can help with, it probably will. Think about people with diabetes. Technically, the insulin they take is supplemental because its not the insulin made by their bodies. We consider insulin a medication, not a supplement, because its in approved mediations, but this doesn’t change that its acting as a supplement.

Generally, taking insulin will reverse symptoms by temporarily solving the problem of not enough insulin produced in the body. For a Type I diabetic, insulin is actually an essential supplement, because the body isn’t producing enough. Whereas for Type II, its nonessential because there isn’t a problem with production, but rather with production being enough for an expanded body size (assuming the issue is weight). In the case of diabetes, the user will most certainly know if the supplemental insulin is working.

The above example is very different from a person supplementing with something like probiotics. In this case, the difference can still be incredibly intense, but it won’t necessarily be quite as direct, and can often take a long time for full effects. Probiotics can be very useful, and I personally attest to the difference it can make in the digestive tract when a person consistently takes a quality product.

Best way to make supplements work, is to change your life

This is not a desired headline for many people, but it’s still mostly true. Unless a supplement is always going to work for everyone, there isn’t a guarantee for effectiveness. Realistically, this is also relevant for the standard medical world. Think of how often we speak of antibiotic resistance… well, that denotes people not getting the intended effect of the antibiotic. Supplements might work better in some bodies than in others, but there is still a hard and fast truth to easy answers.

Let’s be honest, most people take supplements to solve a problem, or improve their health in some way. Like taking those probiotics. It’s a great idea, BUT, if a person is going to continue with bad habits, the probiotics might not be very effective. If a person is eating a diet full of chemicals and processed foods, simply taking a probiotic might not be enough to counter or reverse years of internal damage and the continuation of what caused the damage in the first place. If you are concerned enough about your digestive health to take a probiotic regularly, you might want to consider a change to your life in the form of a better actual diet.

Another example is if a person is having problems sleeping, and attempting to remedy the situation by taking a CBN product. Expecting the CBN to work, despite ingesting caffeine and living by a schedule not conducive to good sleep, is a little off base. But if the person in question also takes caffeine out of their diet, gets some exercise, and works their schedule to be more conducive to a natural sleep cycle, that supplement might work way better.

To some, this takes away the idea of the easy answer, but realistically, easy answers don’t exist. The person with sleeping problems might require something more to help sleep, even despite making lifestyle changes. However, this doesn’t mean a certain amount can’t be achieved through those lifestyle changes alone. It also doesn’t mean the supplement absolutely will work if changes are made, but better overall lifestyle habits can influence overall supplement performance.

One of the biggest issues where supplements come into play, is weight loss. Everyone wants an easy answer, and no one wants to do the work. Whether the work means getting to the gym and working out, or establishing a healthy diet that promotes weight loss, (or more likely, both together) it’s incredibly common for people to try to cut corners with bad diets, and supplemental weight loss products. Compounds like ephedra, or the cannabis cannabinoid THCV, are examples of supplements used for dieting. However, if you pay attention to what goes on in the world of weight loss, you already know that if you want to lose weight, its not about the pill, it’s about making a change in your life.

If a person really wants to lose weight, they’ll probably need to start exercising. If a person really wants to improve their sleep, they’ll probably have to cut out caffeine and assess other aspects of their diet and schedule. And if a person with digestive issues really wants to improve them, taking a probiotic is great, but cutting out foods that are bad for the guts, will make those probiotics way more effective.

Conclusion

Very few people will take a supplement without the notion that it’ll do something for them. However, in looking for answers, it’s not uncommon to rely on something like a supplement without considering the realities of every other aspect of life. When looking to improve health, it’ll infrequently be done by simply popping a capsule, though that capsule can still be beneficial. If you want real change, the right supplement can certainly help, but the unfortunate reality is that you’ll probably need to change your life in other ways, if you really want to chase that positive result.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post How to Get Supplements to Work? Change Your Life appeared first on CBD Testers.

Detroit the Latest to Decriminalize Magic Mushrooms

It’s definitely becoming a trend that can’t be ignored. Individual locations in the US are passing legislation to legalize and decriminalize magic mushrooms, and other entheogenic plants. Newest is Detroit, which passed a voter measure to decriminalize magic mushrooms in late 2021.

The Detroit measure to decriminalize magic mushrooms makes psychedelics that much more mainstream. A federal legalization probably won’t be until after cannabis is legalized though. Remember to subscribe to The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter for more articles like this one and all the latest, most exciting industry news. And save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10THCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


What’s the news?

On Tuesday November 2nd, 2021, Detroit voters passed Proposal E, to decriminalize magic mushrooms and other entheogenic plants. The definition of entheogen, is “a psychoactive, hallucinogenic substance or preparation (such as psilocybin or ayahuasca) especially when derived from plants or fungi and used in religious, spiritual, or ritualistic contexts.”

The measure was passed with 61% of voters in favor, and 39% against. Included in the ‘in favor’ category was mayor Mike Duggan, who also won re-election that day. Said Michigan Michigan State Sen. Adam Hollier at the news: “The war on drugs was a war on Black and brown communities and it’s good to see Black communities pushing back.”

The ballot measure stated that the change would amend the city’s code to “decriminalize to the fullest extent permitted under Michigan law the personal possession and therapeutic use of Entheogenic Plants by adults and make the personal possession and therapeutic use of Entheogenic Plants by adults the city’s lowest law-enforcement priority.”

Detroit referendum

As a decriminalization measure, and not a legalization, though the new mandate means the ability to posses these compounds within the city limits without it being a priority for law enforcement, no legalized commercial market was instituted in any form, medical or recreational. Though this effects many entheogenic plants, the main ones included are magic mushrooms, ibogaine, ayahuasca, and mescaline. 

Michigan at the forefront of psychedelics legalization

Detroit and its new policy to decriminalize magic mushrooms is just part of what’s going on in Michigan. Michigan certainly isn’t the first state to propose legislation for psychedelic decriminalization/legalization, but it is most definitely a front-runner in the fight to get these compounds approved in some way legally, with several moves putting it at the front of the current race.

Much of this has to do with SB 631 which was introduced on September 3rd, 2021. This bill would not only decriminalize psychedelic compounds, but actually legalize them statewide, making it the first state (along with California, which has its own bill in the works) to allow for recreational use of psychedelic compounds. The bill has been sitting in the Committee on Judiciary and Public Safety since the summer, so how much progress there will be, or when, is hard to say. However, the bill is still alive.

If it were to actually be passed, it would legalize the cultivation, delivery, creation, possession, and communal use of recreational entheogenic plants like magic mushrooms. This would not create a legal sales market, however, as the transfer of money for products would remain illegal. The one caveat to this, is in the circumstances of “counseling, spiritual guidance, or a related service that is provided in conjunction with the use of an entheogenic plant or fungus under the guidance and supervision of an individual providing the service”, when it would not be illegal to charge a fee.

Even without a regulated market, there don’t seem to be civil penalties attached, which would be the case with a standard decriminalization, thus making for an actual legalization. Though the bill co-authors worded it with the intention of use for religious purposes, there is no specification about showing religious intent, nor can any government tell a person how to be spiritual without breaking the first amendment of the constitution.

What else is going on in Michigan?

Trying to pass a state-wide psychedelics legalization measure is already quite forward thinking. And Michigan’s biggest city Detroit passing a bill to decriminalize psychedelics in the form of entheogenic plants will only help bolster this larger initiative. But elsewhere in Michigan, other things have also happened to promote these looser psychedelics measures.

entheogens

For one thing, Detroit is not the first location in Michigan to independently create a decriminalization measure. In 2020, Ann Arbor, Michigan passed a decriminalization measure, followed by Washtenaw County, Michigan in 2021. Ann Arbor passed its legislation by way of a unanimous city council vote which decriminalized possession, cultivation, and non-commercial use of entheogenic plants like magic mushrooms.

Washtenaw County did it differently, with the decriminalization coming by way of the County Prosecutor’s Office. The office created a directive for it to be the lowest priority of law enforcement to prosecute people for crimes involving such psychedelic plants. Much like Seattle, this is not a legal policy change, which should be considered, but rather a directive to law enforcement that they shouldn’t be going after these crimes. This lack of an actual legal basis, does not legally prevent such prosecutions, though.

Grand Rapids is also making some headway, but not in the form of a decriminalization or legalization measure. Instead, the city is pushing for more research into entheogens, so that more information can be collected for a possible future decriminalization.

Other locations in Michigan are also starting to mobilize efforts for legal changes concerning psychedelics in the form of entheogenic plants. These include Hazel Park and Madison Heights, both suburbs of Detroit; Lancing, the capital of Michigan; college town East Lancing; Traverse City, which is a big tourist destination; the city of Ypsilanti; and Flint, which given its issues simply getting clean water, should really just have drugs thrown at it at this point.

Psychedelics in the rest of the US

There are several state and local locations in the US that have already approved some kind of measure for the decriminalization of psychedelics, whether with formal legislation, or a directive to law enforcement. These include: Denver, Colorado; Oakland, Santa Cruz, and Arcata, California; Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, and Detroit, Michigan; Washington, DC; Somerville, Cambridge, Northampton, and Easthampton, Massachusetts; and Seattle, Washington.

In terms of statewide policies, Oregon leads the country with a November, 3rd, 2020 medical legalization measure (Measure 109), and a full state decriminalization policy (Measure 110) that were voted in on the same day. Both passed by voter referendum in 2020, making Oregon the first state to set such policies.

magic mushrooms

On February 4th, 2021, New Jersey instituted a lesser decriminalization policy that lowered penalties, but without getting rid of them. Whereas the fine for magic mushrooms used to be as high as $15,000, its now capped at $1,000. And whereas offenders used to face up to five years in prison, they now only face six months.

Rhode Island didn’t exactly set a specific decriminalization law, but on July 7th, 2021, it instituted a two-year pilot program for the use of illicit drugs in authorized consumption sites with medical supervision. Each municipality is in charge of giving authorization to facilities, and though this is not a legalization, it does provide a way to use drugs without legal repercussions, so long as it’s done in the correct area. What will happen after the pilot program ends, is hard to say.

Conclusion

While Detroit is the most recent to pass a measure to decriminalize magic mushrooms and other entheogenic plants, plenty of other locations in the US are also looking to loosen laws on this front. However, bills often come up and die, like with Florida, so waiting for a bill to gain traction before getting all excited, is sometimes best.

What can be said for sure, is that there is certainly a trend going on when it comes to the acceptance of psychedelics, both medically and recreationally. So even if current legislation in the pipelines doesn’t go through, there will surely be more attempts coming. Plus, with so any locations that have already approved measures, this is no longer a possible idea for the future, but something which is actively happening. 2022 should be a very interesting year when it comes to the further legalizations and decriminalization measures of psychedelic compounds.

Welcome all! You’ve made it to CBDtesters.co, your optimal web location for the most essential and thought-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news happening now. Join us whenever possible to stay informed on the always-in-flux landscape of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter, so you always know what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Detroit the Latest to Decriminalize Magic Mushrooms appeared first on CBD Testers.

Blood THC Content? The New Way to Get a DUI

We’ve all familiar with checkpoints and breathalyzers, even if we never had to deal with one ourselves. And we all know that drinking with a blood alcohol content over .08 is illegal, and leads to a DUI. But what about driving stoned? While driving under the influence can relate to many things, new laws to introduce blood THC content limits are putting a new spin on the standard practice of getting behind the wheel high.

Bet you didn’t think you’d have to worry about having your blood THC content checked? New laws for this make the need to be careful in states where such laws exist. Luckily, you can always enjoy your favorite cannabis products at home. Plus, with the new cannabinoid market, who said it has to be THC? With additions like delta-8 THC, HHC, and THCV, there are tons of ways of experiencing the cannabis plant. Check out our deals for all compounds, and remember to get high responsibly. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter for deals on legal cannabis products, as well as all the latest news and industry stories. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


What is a blood alcohol content limit?

This is a good question, and before getting into blood THC content, it’s best to start here. Blood THC content sounds oddly familiar, yet is new to most. It sounds oddly familiar because of the term ‘blood alcohol content’ which is well known, especially for the driving community. It’s the line between legal driving, and going before a judge. The breathalyzer test given by cops measures the amount of alcohol in the air being breathed out by a suspected drunk driver. Ever get in close to a drunk guy and smell the heavy scent of alcohol coming out of them? Well, this is what a breathalyzer measures.

When a person registers at .08% or above, its considered that they passed the legal limit if 21 or above. For those below 21, the limit is significantly lower, at 0-.02% depending on location. While .08 is a federal mandate, individual states are allowed to institute more restrictive laws. What does the .08% measurement actually mean?

It’s measured in grams per 100ml of blood. Meaning eight grams of alcohol per 10 deciliters of blood = .08%. Because this cut-off line exists, it allows law enforcement the presumption of guilt when a person registers this amount, regardless of actual driving ability. So if a person who is driving okay is stopped at a checkpoint, and does not pass a test, their actual ability to drive will not help them. This isn’t meant to be an argument against measures to stop drunk driving, its just to explain that the limit represents a law that is independent of actual behavior.

blood alcohol content

What is a blood THC content limit?

While we’re all familiar with the idea of drunk driving, and why it’s illegal (see below for statistics), the reality is that all states have something along the line of a ‘drugged driving’ law as well. Alcohol isn’t the only substance that can cause impairment behind the wheel, many drugs can. So drugged driving laws exist to cover the idea of being impaired on any substance. The difference between a vague ‘drugged driving’ law, and a law with specifics like a .08% limit, is that there isn’t a legal line that differentiates legal from non-legal amounts.

With illicit drugs, its obviously illegal to be caught possessing and using them, however, they can also incur a driving violation if it’s decided that the person was impaired while driving on them. Did you get the language? If it’s ‘decided’ by law enforcement. As in, in order to make a charge like that stick, impairment must be proven somehow. Given how life tends to work, this can create precarious situations as cops have the ability to get a person arrested based on their opinion of the situation, without something to point at to show an actual problem. Obviously in cases where there is an actual problem – a person very much compromised based on whatever drug, this is okay. However, particularly for legal compounds, or situations where cops might feel the need to go beyond their jurisdiction, this can create dicey situations.

And this is where testing for blood THC content comes in. Perhaps its been hard for law enforcement to make such charges stick against potheads, well with the institution of legal limits, the same presumption of guilt is allowed for cannabis, regardless of driving ability. I want to take a second here to state that I’m a cannabis user, and have been hanging out and driving in cars with other users for half my life. I’d never get in a car knowingly with someone who’s been drinking, but I don’t bat an eye at driving with a stoner.

So basically, a blood THC content is the measure of THC in the blood. Unlike a breathalyzer test, this can’t be picked up by someone breathing out, and requires a blood test. In the US, this is generally measured in nanograms per milliliter of blood, but only done on a state level as cannabis is federally illegal. Different legalized states have set their own limits, and some go by the idea of impairment only, without a limit to test for.

Which states test for blood THC content?

Right now there are 18 states that have legalized recreational cannabis, which means these states can institute limits if they choose to separate legal use with driving, from illegal use with driving. Of the 18 states that are legal, the following have laws for blood THC content limits.

Washington uses a maximum THC level for driving, and set the amount at five nanograms per milliliter or higher of THC in the blood stream. This same level is used by Colorado and Montana. Nevada is the one state going further than this right now. In this state, it’s considered under the influence if a driver’s blood test shows two nanograms of THC and five nanograms of metabolite when driving.

Vermont has not opened its market yet, but holds that any amount of illicit substance found in the system constitutes the ability for arrest when driving. It was not confirmed how this zero-tolerance policy effects a non-illicit substance like cannabis. Massachusetts also has a zero-tolerance policy, making any amount of cannabis found in the system of a driver enough for arrest.

cannabis and driving

New Jersey is still working on its legislation, as legalization was in the last year, and the laws aren’t concrete yet. It has been argued repeatedly to keep out restrictions for maximum THC content, although whether this relates strictly to products, or to driving as well, is not clear.

New York, New Mexico, Virginia, and Connecticut are also newly legalized states where legislation has not been hammered out. We’ll have to wait and see what restrictions these states choose to institute when their laws are made clearer. States that go by judging impairment as the deciding factor of law enforcement, include: California, Oregon, Illinois, Michigan, Alaska, Maine, Arizona, and the states that still need to present legislation: New York, New Mexico, Virginia, Connecticut, and New Jersey.

Statistics for driving while under the influence of cannabis

Like I said before, I won’t get in a car with a drunk driver, but I don’t mind someone that just smoked up getting behind the wheel. And that’s because through decades of time, it has consistently been reinforced by life that drinking really can cause immense dangers, and cannabis, for the most part, really doesn’t. At least in my experience. Here are some basic stats to show the picture in the US.

According to the CDC, in terms of alcohol in the US, approximately every 50 minutes, a drunk-driving related death is occurring. 29 happen every day. In 2016, this equaled 10,497 deaths related to drivers impaired by alcohol, making up about 28% of all deaths on the road. 1,233 of the total deaths in 2016 were children, with 17% of those deaths related to alcohol impairment.

When it comes to accidents involving cannabis, there are virtually no actual statistics, and certainly none put out by government agencies. In a study from 2010 (before the cannabis market really exploded) called The Effect of Cannabis Compared with Alcohol on Driving, researchers concluded that “Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk.” They went on to say

“The risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.” Of course, the problem with the last part, is that it then involves alcohol, which we already know causes many issues.

DUI

While the government provides no information, there are stories out about an increase in accidents related to cannabis use since legalizations. Perhaps this has more to do with testing for cannabis since legalizations occurred, since expecting that the actual smoking community changed so drastically by a legalization, is a little silly. Such headlines create the logical fallacy that the legalizations started the industry, and that this wouldn’t have been going on prior, which is incredibly mistaken. Logically, people were always smoking and driving, making these claims nonsensical, and sounding very much like fearmongering, especially when official numbers somehow can’t be provided.

In fact, in 2019, a USA Today article, citing research on crash fatalities in Colorado, Washington, and Oregon from 2019, found as little as a one per million people increase in fatalities after legalization. But then the numbers returned to normal the following year. Considering these aren’t even statistically significant results, and they didn’t hold, this backs up that there shouldn’t be any change due to legalizations, as smoking and driving habits would have been unlikely to be affected by legal measures.

Conclusion

Let’s be honest, cannabis and driving aren’t even remotely the issue that alcohol and driving is, and this shows up in all statistics. And so long as opiates are being doled out, and allergy medicines like Benadryl are available, making cannabis out to be the demon of driving, is ridiculous at best. Does this mean a person shouldn’t be careful when smoking and driving? Of course they should! But that’s always the case.

Alcohol will always be more dangerous, no matter how much information is distorted to try to sway opinions. My bet is these limits are being put in place to force fines, and that there isn’t any worry – and certainly not based on statistics – that would indicate this is really a problem worth responding to. Maybe further research will say otherwise. For now, best to be careful when driving with weed.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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