The Emerald Conference: 7th Annual Interdisciplinary Cannabis Science Event – Ticket Discounts Available!

The Emerald Conference (7th annual) is the longest running interdisciplinary cannabis science event, and the place to be for cultivators, extractors, physicians, product manufacturers, and anyone else interested in learning more about all the most important research going on behind the scenes of this multi-billion-dollar industry.  

Science and research are the backbone of the legal cannabis industry, especially in the medical sector. Without cannabis science, not only would we stay lagging on best practices in cultivation, production, and safety standards; but much of the western world would be still in the dark, largely unaware of the therapeutic potential of cannabis.  

For a 10% discount on tickets, make sure to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter, your top source for industry news, all the latest information, and exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products.  


Over the years, The Emerald Conference has become a who’s-who event of decision-makers in many cannabis industry niches including extraction methodology, analytical testing, research and development, formulations and blends, and clinical research.  

Aside from the connections to be made, the wealth of knowledge and expertise at this event is unmatched. In addition to some incredibly educational presentations and sessions, event curators make sure to provide plenty of time for open dialogue, so attendees can discuss the topics in depth.  

The goal is to “overcome black-market paranoia” through irrefutable scientific data and education of the masses. And the best way to do this is by bringing as many from the scientific community as possible to put things into perspective.  

According to David Dawson, Ph.D. Senior Scientist at Via Innovations, “The Emerald Conference is integral to this process, as its high standards for peer-reviewed work and desire for open collaboration amongst participants sets it apart from the vast majority of cannabis conferences.” 

This year’s conference 

This event is more tight-knit than other conferences, so don’t expect a turnout in the tens of thousands like MJ Biz Con. In my opinion, the low-key environment makes it considerably easier to stay focused. Plus, it’s better for meeting people, learning, and making those lasting industry connections.  

Hundreds of people from around the world are expected to attend. During the event, there will be more than 20 speakers, 25 presentations, and 50 exhibitors and sponsors. Furthermore, there will be 3 scheduled networking events, a welcome reception, and evening reception, and a “mimosa & Bloody Mary bar break”.   

The Emerald Conference will take place from February 27 – March 1, 2022, at San Diego Loews Coronado Bay Resort in San Diego, California.  

For a 10% discount on your tickets, subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter for a coupon code! 

The main areas of focus at this year’s event will be pre-clinical/clinical research, cultivation and alternative strategies, extraction and separation, formulation and fill/finish, and analytical testing solutions. 

MJ Biz acquisition  

In January 2020, Marijuana Business Daily purchased Emerald Conference from Emerald Scientific, who established the first event in 2015. The deal highlights the growing importance of legitimate research in the industry, as it continues.  

“When looking at where cannabis is going, we identified science as a pillar of the industry’s future,” says Chris Walsh, CEO and president of MJBizDaily. “With the legalization of hemp and inevitable changes to federal marijuana laws in the coming years, the amount of scientific research is going to balloon – as will the needs of the scientific and business communities. 

MJ Biz Daily has been partnering with Emerald to put on this conference ever since its second year running, and this partnership is what led to the eventual acquisition years later. MJ Biz is known for putting on excellent events, and the merger has proven to be beneficial for everyone involved. 

Get your tickets now! 

If you’re an industry stakeholder or another interested party that would like to learn more about cannabis science, The Emerald Conference is an event you don’t want to miss.  

Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter for a 10% percent discount on your tickets to The Emerald Conference – February 27th to March 1st, see you there! 


Hello to everyone..! Thanks for dropping by CBDtesters.co, the #1 internet source for cannabis and psychedelics-related news, offering up current and relevant stories from the industry today. Join us daily to stay on top of the fast-paced universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletterso you never miss a single thing. 

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High Thoughts: Can I Overdose on Cannabis?

Cannabis is a drug with a plethora of effects and purposes. For centuries, different groups of people have harnessed this drug for its euphoric and medical benefits. Rastafarians use it in their religious practises to encourage oneness, the ancient Egyptians would inhale it from burning rocks during ceremonies and, now, people can utilise it for its medical purposes.

The world of cannabis is, undoubtedly, complex and varied. Not only that, but the effects can be positive for some, whilst negative for others. Nonetheless, usually one effect will take place for the majority. This effect is the ‘high thought’. High thoughts are triggered by cannabis and cannabis only. The specific kind of ideas and questions that pop into your head during a THC high are one of a kind. Some can be lighthearted and fun, or inquisitive, spiritual and sentient, or even sometimes anxious in nature. In this article, we’ll be exploring one of the latter, and one that is particularly common among novice users. This question being: can I overdose on cannabis? Let’s delve into the truth and myths behind it. 

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What are High Thoughts?

The types of thoughts that can come into someone’s head during a high are, in want of a better word, special. They can be limitless. They can be sad. They can be happy. They can be basically anything. However, the high questions that can really boggle people’s brains are what we’re going to be focusing on today. These are the types of questions that when they’re asked, leave the high person dumbfounded. It can also leave them in a state of existential crisis. But where do these come from and why are they triggered by cannabis?

Science Behind High Thoughts

Cannabis is first and foremost a natural growing plant. Whilst many creative products and ways of consuming it have been created over the years, it begins as a plant. This plant contains around 400 compounds, 100 of these being terpenes and 100 of these being cannabinoids. The terpenes are responsible for the aromas and flavours of the specific cannabis strain. For example, Myrcene can be slightly musky, Limonene often smells of lemon and Caryophyllene can give herbal scents. 

Then there are cannabinoids, which are responsible for the effects of cannabis. These include the well-known CBD and THC, as well as the lesser known THCV and CBN. As research improves, more information is being found out about the many various cannabinoids within the cannabis plant. The cannabinoids react with the endocannabinoid system in the body and can alter the immune system, mood, memory, the muscles and appetite. THC, which is the most prominent psychoactive cannabinoid, alters the state of the mind and triggers the well known ‘high’ experience. Common effects of THC include: 

  • Euphoria
  • Relaxation
  • Giggliness
  • Increased appetite 
  • Deep thought
  • Openness 

Deep Thoughts 

Deep thoughts or high thoughts are triggered by cannabis. But why? Why do we have deeper thoughts and questions when we’re high? Well, some argue that this is due to the relaxation caused by CBD, mixed with the brain enhancing effects of THC. When you consume cannabis, your body and mind relaxes, allowing you to focus on the thoughts you may have usually ignored or found unimportant. It’s these questions that can suddenly come to the surface. Trips, caused by psychedelic drugs, create crazy thoughts and hallucinations. However, whilst a cannabis high is less potent, it can still have those same deep thoughts and questions. It’s like your brain, for the first time, is allowed to stop working so quickly and sit with one idea or concept at a time. 

However, there’s also suggestions that your brain works harder when you’re experiencing a high. 

Maxim states:

Cannabis enhances neural activity in the frontal cortex of your brain, which is essentially command central. It handles everything from attention and problem solving, to personality and temperament.”

And Growth Op also adds:

“Involving 32 volunteers who reported having previous experiences with cannabis, they were given either a placebo, or two intravenous doses of THC. MRI scans showed increased cerebral blood flow in several regions of the brain when THC was injected, while the placebo group demonstrated no detectable change.”

Therefore, the reason for high thoughts is not completely known. Nevertheless, they most definitely occur. That’s why, in this article, we’ll be delving into one that may come up more often than people will like to admit. ‘Can I overdose on cannabis?’

Can I Overdose on Cannabis?

It’s not uncommon for someone to ask this question when they’re high. Afterall, when most news articles or drug education sites speak about drugs, they’ll usually mention a collection of horrible stories of overdose. These stories are all valid and devastating, but the weaponization of them to discourage drug use can sometimes be more political and sinister than people think. The truth is, young people will probably always be interested in exploring themselves and substances, so surely the main priority should be to educate them in using them safely rather than avoiding the topic altogether.

Cannabis is a schedule II drug in the US and a class B drug in the UK. It’s not surprising then that people often wonder whether cannabis could also cause an overdose. The answer is, of course, yes. But before answering this question, we will first need to define the concept of overdosing, as the education behind this word is often skewed. 

The Definition of Overdose

What does overdosing actually mean? With mass hysteria often surrounding the world of drugs, sometimes the real definition of this word can be easily forgotten. Well, according to the Cambridge dictionary, the definition is: 

“too much of a drug taken or given at one time, either intentionally or by accident

Many people will assume that drug overdose means fatality. Whilst this is a type of overdose, overdose can also refer to someone taking a drug and experiencing unpleasant effects. This is why it’s so important to first define what the word ‘overdose’ actually means, otherwise cannabis users may not understand why they don’t always enjoy using a specific strain of weed. Overdosing is basically taking too many drugs, beyond the point of enjoyment.

Myths Vs Facts

There are many myths surrounding the idea of cannabis overdose, which we are here to debunk. Firstly, it’s definitely possible for someone to have an unpleasant experience, whilst using cannabis. Therefore, with the definition being what it is, it is of course possible to overdose. However, VeryWellMind states:

Marijuana doesn’t come with a clear definition of overdose. In fact, doctors aren’t entirely sure how much tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) it takes to overdose.”

The only way to measure an overdose is to ask the consumer how they feel. If they begin to feel unpleasant effects, then, in a sense, they are experiencing an overdose. In addition, THC isn’t the only psychoactive substance and causer of a potential bad experience. There are many other psychoactive cannabinoids, which have yet to be fully researched. In fact, some of these are reported to even be stronger than THC

Risk of Unpleasant Effects

Overdosing and experiencing negative effects is definitely common when consuming cannabis. Some experience it heavier with strains consisting of higher percentages of THC. 

These effects include:

  • Increased heart rate
  • Vomiting 
  • Decrease in blood sugar
  • Anxiety
  • Paranoia 
  • Psychosis 

As we’ve said, any negative experience using cannabis can be referred to as an overdose. Overdose doesn’t always have to link to deaths. These after-effects are common, especially for people who are unsure how much to take and what their body reacts well to. In addition, with cannabis education being so limited in certain countries, many people don’t fully understand how various strains can react differently with certain people. 

Cannabis & Alcohol

It’s also common for people to experience worse effects when mixing cannabis and alcohol together. Ever heard the common phrase: ‘weed before grass you’re on your ass. Grass before beer you’re in the clear’. Well, there’s some truth to it. People often experience nausea and can ‘throw a whitey’ when mixing the two substances. This is because alcohol can enhance the effects of THC, making the entire experience far more potent. This type of overdose is hard to blame entirely on cannabis, as it’s actually alcohol that is responsible for increasing THC’s effects.

Can Cannabis Be Fatal?

Some only consider an overdose to mean death. As we’ve discovered, overdosing simply means having an unpleasant experience after consuming a substance. Nevertheless, this does of course include potential death. Methamphetamine, cocaine, and heroin use have all been surrounded by news of devastating fatalities. What about cannabis? Healthline states:

“Most medical experts agree that while marijuana can have negative health consequences, it’s unlikely to cause death. The psychoactive effects of marijuana can be concerning, but not necessarily harmful.”

Some argue that cannabis can have adverse long-term effects that can cause mental health issues, which could end in death. However, when it comes to an instant death overdose, cannabis is very unlikely to cause this. In fact, many people would argue that this has never happened. Nonetheless, it’s a long running debate. It is certainly true however that cannabis is not a drug – much like some stimulants and opioids – that can commonly cause death by overdose. 

Conclusion

High thoughts are a common part of being high. Many questions will pop into people’s heads and leave them wanting to know more. Well, in this article, we’ve tackled the age old question of cannabis overdose. It’s mostly important to realise that overdosing doesn’t always mean fatality. In fact, overdosing can just mean an unpleasant experience. Therefore the answer is yes. You can overdose on cannabis. But, if you do your homework, learn what you like, then your experience with cannabis should be full of joy, not displeasure.

Hello to everyone..! Thanks for dropping by CBDtesters.co, the #1 internet source for cannabis and psychedelics-related news, offering up current and relevant stories from the industry today. Join us daily to stay on top of the fast-paced universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletterso you never miss a single thing. 

Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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Clones are consistent enough to prove cannabis is medicine, sometimes

Cannabis strains (cultivars) cause plenty of debate. Seeds from a single variety can express a multitude of phenotypes and profiles. And clones of a single phenotype can mutate and succumb to change. Terpene and cannabinoid profiles can, however, be kept consistent down a long lineage of generations, clone after clone. In fact, genetic stability has […]

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Don’t Get Ripped Off with a Fake Medical Cannabis Card 

The concept of getting a medical cannabis card seems like a fairly straight-forward process for the most part; you contact a physician or licensed medical cannabis doctor in your area, schedule an appointment, and once approved, you receive some type of documentation that allows you to buy medical cannabis. As simple as that should be, a growing number of unscrupulous doctors (or some cases, fake doctors altogether) are taking advantage of consumers and charging hundreds of dollars for counterfeit, invalid, or otherwise unusable medical cannabis recommendations.  

As much as we all love cannabis and wholeheartedly support the legal industry, no one can deny that there can be some shady dealings going on in the shadows. But such is the case in any multi-billion-dollar industry, unfortunately. As a consumer in today’s world, it is very important to do your due diligence before trusting a company and buying a product, and that applies when getting a medical cannabis card as well. For more articles like this one and exclusive deals on legal THC products, make sure to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter. Also save big on HHC-O, Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


Getting a medical cannabis card  

A medical cannabis card (or medical cannabis recommendation, as they’re often referred to), are state-issued identification documents that confirm the person carrying them has a medical condition that enables them to legally purchase, possess, and use cannabis. As regulations change and medical markets explode, the idea of paying for a medical card may seem obsolete, but there are some benefits carrying one still.  

Take California, for instance, where cannabis is in fact completely legal, but as a recreational customer, you’re stuck paying up to 45% in recreational, cultivation, excise, and local taxes. Plus, your purchases are limited to one ounce of flower and eight grams of concentrate. Patients with a doctor’s recommendation can possess up to 8 ounces, or 226.8 grams, of dried cannabis or concentrates, and they’re exempt from paying all the extra taxes.  

The qualifying conditions vary from state to state, and can also be at the discretion of the recommending physician. Ordinarily, the card will be valid for up to 12 months, at which point you will need to schedule a follow-up appointment for another evaluation. It used to be that you had to do a lot of searching and often, quite a bit of driving, to find a “marijuana doctor” who was willing to write these recommendations, but now, everything can be done remotely.  

The process for getting a medical cannabis card can vary a bit from state to state, but overall, it’s pretty similar across the board. You can apply your through state’s medical cannabis registry and try find a physician who is willing to write you a recommendation, which can be tricky since most doctors are prohibited from prescribing or even suggesting cannabis. Or, you could pay a third-party company to do it for you. The latter can be equally complicated, because, although some companies are legit, professional, and affordable, others will issue a fake or invalid medical card at exorbitant prices.  

Counterfeits running rampant  

Missouri’s medical marijuana program announced late Friday that it launched an investigation after it determined that patient medical marijuana cards have been issued to applicants whose doctor paperwork was sent in with an unauthorized signature.  

“It was a person/people impersonating a doctor,” Department of Health and Senior Services spokesperson Lisa Cox told the News-Leader in a text message. She said some 600 patients were affected, and that the department could not comment on who was being impersonated. 

Alex Griffith, a 30-year-old retired military veteran who lives in Delhi Township, recently paid $220 for a doctor’s recommendation he hoped would allow him to use marijuana to treat his PTSD. “Marijuana helps me control my condition way better than Prozac and all those other pills doctors want to give you,” said Griffith, who suffers from bouts of depression and suicidal thoughts.  

Pills or cannabis?

A recommendation letter from a doctor working for the Ohio Cannabis Connection, verifying the client is eligible to be treated with medical marijuana. The letter is needed to apply for a medical marijuana patient ID, but the letter alone can’t be used to purchase marijuana for a retail dispensary. The former Marine infantryman who served in Afghanistan from 2011 to 2012 said he wants to be “first in line” when the 56 retail dispensaries licensed to sell medical marijuana in Ohio begin opening their doors in the coming months.  

But the one-page recommendation letter he got from Dr. Trent Austin, an emergency medicine doctor in Batesville, Ind., who’s also licensed in Ohio, won’t do him much good. In Ohio, the recommendation does not stand alone, and patients need to submit their information and register with the Ohio Board of Pharmacy. 

“At some level, they’re fooling people into believing they have something that they don’t,” said Dr. William Sawyer, a Sharonville family physician and one of about 300 doctors certified by the state to recommend medical marijuana, referring to the confusion between a recommendation letters and actual ID cards in some states. “It’s unfortunate that that’s happening because it creates problems for us who are doing it correctly.” 

How to avoid getting ripped off  

Below are some ways to know if your medical marijuana doctor is legit;  

Use a Registry  

While this may not apply in all the states, some cannabis-legal states have an organized medical marijuana card issuance. For instance, Florida has a real-time database that updates and keeps track of all certified marijuana doctors authorized by the state to approve applications for any patient looking for an MMJ card online.  

Referrals  

If you have no clue where to get a marijuana doctor or medical marijuana card near me, you can start by asking for referrals from your close contacts. As mentioned, the buzzing medical marijuana use attracted many industry players, including self-proclaimed doctors. With many doctors out there, it becomes hard to differentiate legitimate from fake doctors. Fortunately, you can get recommendations from your friends, relatives, or family members. You can also ask for referrals and read what other people think about your preferred doctor from the Marijuanadoctors.com review.  

Price  

The cost of the marijuana doctor is another essential guiding factor. Essentially, any physician who charges less than $50 may not be offering legitimate services. Your best bet is to compare rates from different clinics. The charges of all clinics should be within a given range. If one clinic’s charges are extremely low, chances are you can get a fake card. On the other hand, if the costs are way up, you might be exploited to get a card that should cost less. 

Make sure your doctor is legit

Final thoughts  

Hello to everyone..! Thanks for dropping by CBDtesters.co, the #1 internet source for cannabis and psychedelics-related news, offering up current and relevant stories from the industry today. Join us daily to stay on top of the fast-paced universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletterso you never miss a single thing. 

Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Don’t Get Ripped Off with a Fake Medical Cannabis Card  appeared first on CBD Testers.

Rhode Island 1st State to Open Safe Use Sites for Drugs

You read it right! No, it’s not a real legalization, or even decriminalization. But for two years, Rhode Island is operating a pilot program with safe use sites that allows legal drug use. What will come after is hard to say, but for now, here are some details of this kind of cool – and necessary – new legislative move.

The new Rhode Island policy for safe use sites is meant to target extreme drug users. Luckily, cannabis doesn’t cause overdose deaths, so while smokers can take advantage of the sites, they don’t have the same concerns as opioid users. In fact, cannabis is often eyed as a tool for harm reduction from major drugs. But its also just a great plant that provides tons of useful compounds, not just standard THC. These days, there are tons of options available, so remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


Rhode Island to open safe use sites for legal drug use

Rhode Island isn’t a legalized state, though its certainly known to be a more liberal one. While 18 states have legal recreational cannabis (which should be 19), Rhode Island isn’t immediately going in that direction. But it is doing something very forward thinking and cool. Especially considering that there are major drug issues in America, which are causing massive death rates. Though these issues don’t involve cannabis, what Rhode Island is doing will help out cannabis users as well.

On Wednesday, July 7th, 2021, Rhode Island’s governor, Dan McKee signed into law a bill designed to combat the ongoing and growing opioid epidemic. This issue can be seen in Rhode Island, as well as the rest of the US, and around the world as well in smaller amounts. The new Rhode Island bill is a two-year pilot program aimed at preventing overdosing by providing safe injection/safe use sites. Rhode Island recorded 384 overdose deaths in 2020, and 322 through November of 2021. These sites will focus mainly on helping those who inject heroin and methamphetamine.

Rhode Island is the first US state to adopt a policy that allows legal drug use in designated areas as part of this two-year pilot program. This policy was not instituted with the thought of cannabis in mind, even if it proves useful to cannabis smokers. What the pilot program is most intended for, is providing a way for the hardest of drug users, using the most dangerous of drugs, to have a safe place to get high around professionals who can help if there is a problem.

safe use sites

What will the Rhode Island safe use sites entail?

These safe use sites, also known as “harm reduction centers,” and “safe injection sites”, will provide clean needles, drug testing, and other services like recovery assistance. Each site is to be staffed by medical/qualified personnel, who are trained in CPR, overdose protocols, and the administration of drugs like naloxone, an opioid antagonist. Each site will have all the necessary supplies to carry out these functions. Sites will operate under the control of a medical director to oversee clinical practices, and a harm reduction center director who oversees the administrative management of the location.

Apart from all this, the sites will function partly as social services, providing referrals for housing, employment, and legal assistance, if necessary, while also offering basic health services. Each center is required to report deaths and overdoses to the medical director as well as to the state Department of Health, with a mandate to report all overdoses and other causes of death within 24 hours. Non-fatal overdoses must be reported within 48 hours of the time they occurred.

All sites in Rhode Island must get licensing from the state, and an approval from the city or town in which the site will operate. Mobile units will exist as well, and must provide very specific schedules for where they will be including complete addresses and operation times. Licenses can be denied to operators, suspended if there are issues, or completely revoked if regulators see fit.

One of the interesting things to be offered at these sites, is drug testing. But not the kind of drug testing most are used to. This isn’t drug testing to see if someone used something, but a way to actually test the drugs about to be taken, particularly for the presence of fentanyl. Fentanyl is an extremely strong opioid drug which people take on purpose, but which is also often a reason for accidental overdose due to it being used as an adulterant in other drugs.

Is this new?

This is new for the US, yes, since no other programs like this currently exist. Detractors like Arthur Corvese, a Democratic Rhode Island State Representative, called the idea a ‘moral oxymoron’ since legal use is now going to be permitted in an otherwise illegal state. The idea of encouraging such legal use of illegal drugs has been criticized by opponents, who believe this will somehow increase crime in surrounding areas…although I haven’t seen an explanation of how this is thought to be the case.

In reality, outside of America, this isn’t new at all. And not only that, while detractors shoot their mouths off to a US audience which is probably unaware of comparable programs in other countries, those comparable programs have already been cited for their positive influence on drug using culture. Something that Americans should really be informed on, and considering in this.

drug overdose

Canada, Australia, and different parts of Europe, for example, have cumulatively opened around 100 comparable safe-use sites. The Netherlands has the largest number, with just under 40 locations. Its first was opened in 1996, and the country was able to reduce overdose deaths by ensuring users were getting pure heroin, rather than a heroin/fentanyl mix. Canada’s first site opened in 2003, in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver where there are many IV drug users.

Canada, between 2017-2019 alone had around two million visits to safe use sites. The country had 39 sites open as of last year, with an expected daily visitor amount of 3,000 people. The busiest sites in Canada can have up to 500 visits a day, according to Health-Infobase.  

Will this happen elsewhere in America?

Opioid overdoses are a massive issue in the US, and this is not debatable, even if specific numbers are. For example, in 2019 hhs.gov, said there were close to 71,000 overdose deaths, whereas drugabuse.gov, put the number at 50,000. Either way, it’s a ridiculous number of avoidable deaths. hhs.gov provided more statistics, saying there were 14,480 heroin overdoses that year, over 10 million people misusing pain killers, and 48,000 synthetic opioid deaths. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, total opioid overdose deaths went up to 93,000 in 2020.

It gets grosser. In 2017, over 191 million opioid prescriptions were written out in the US, meaning that 58.7 prescriptions were written for every 100 people. 45% of these were given by primary care physicians who are not supposed to write such prescriptions at all. The economic burden of this epidemic in terms of health care, emergency care services, addiction programs, lost productivity, and dealing with the criminal justice system, costs about $78.5 billion every year. Who do you think pays for that? That’s right, the same taxpayers who were put on these pharmaceutically pushed medications that the government allows through regulation, now have to pay for the damage they’re doing.

So, yes, these sites will likely be popping up all over the place in the future. In fact, this was not the first try. Back in 2020, Philadelphia went ahead with plans to open Safehouse, a safe injection site. This was ruled against in January, 2021, by the Philadelphia-based U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, stymieing the effort.

However, seven months later, the nonprofit behind the venture was already pushing back legally, announcing in the summer of 2021 that it would be filing a petition to take the case to the Supreme Court. Unfortunately, the US Supreme Court refused the case (likely something it will be sticking its foot in its mouth for later), in October, 2021.

safe use

This hasn’t deterred proponents, who are planning on relaunching the case at the district court level, with new arguments. Given Rhode Island passing this legislation, and increasing opioid deaths, I expect this time it will go through. While that’s just my opinion for now, that California and Massachusetts are also currently considering plans to implement a similar structure, indicates that this is actually a new trend being established in the fight against opioid addiction.

Conclusion

The whole thing is horrifying if you take a step back. The government fully approved and allowed these medications to be sold, and then didn’t respond to its people dying. In fact, it still hasn’t stopped the ability to write prescriptions for these medications. In fact, prescriptions haven’t gone down at all.

So not only did the government support – and is continuing to support – its people being killed by big pharma, but it’s working to stymie any progress in the fight against it, least of all anything related to helping citizens be safer with their pharmaceutically-induced drug issues. So here’s to Rhode Island, for being the first state to start the process of recovery through safe use sites, and for giving access to safe ways to use drugs for those who need it. No thanks to the federal government at all.

Hello and welcome to CBDtesters.co, the internet’s one-stop-shop for all the most relevant and ground-breaking cannabis and psychedelics-related news going on worldwide. Stop by regularly to stay informed on the quickly-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletter, so you’re the first to get all the news.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Rhode Island 1st State to Open Safe Use Sites for Drugs appeared first on CBD Testers.

Cannabis Compounds Can Help Prevent COVID-19, but Not in the Way You Might Expect

Social media has been abuzz this week with news of a recently published laboratory study that found compounds in cannabis had the potential to stop COVID-19 from entering human cells. So does getting high increase immunity against COVID-19, or is it all too good to be true? 

The idea of using cannabis compounds to prevent or treat COVID-19 is exciting, but not unheard of. So many plants have antiviral properties, nature is essentially a giant, partially untapped medicine cabinet. To learn more about natural compounds, and for exclusive deals on all the trending cannabinoid products, remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


So, does smoking weed really prevent coronavirus? 

Short answer: no. I’ve been getting this question all week and to clarify, no, smoking cannabis will not prevent or treat COVID-19, as far as we know anyway. But a combination of terpenes along with two minor cannabinoids found in the raw plant matter can help – CBDA and CBGA.  

There are two studies in question that have been getting a lot of attention lately. First, we’ll take a look at the most recent, which was published on January 10, 2022, in the Journal of Natural Products. The study was conducted by researchers at Oregon State University, using a chemical screening technique invented on campus. They found that Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) bound to coronavirus spike proteins and were able to inhibit the virus’s ability to enter healthy cells, at least in a petri dish.  

“These cannabinoid acids are abundant in hemp and in many hemp extracts,” says Richard van Breemen, study lead and researcher with Oregon State’s Global Hemp Innovation Center, College of Pharmacy, and Linus Pauling Institute. “They are not controlled substances like THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, and have a good safety profile in humans. And our research showed the hemp compounds were equally effective against variants of SARS-CoV-2, including variant B.1.1.7, which was first detected in the United Kingdom, and variant B.1.351, first detected in South Africa.” 

The second study, titled “In Vitro Evaluation of the Activity of Terpenes and Cannabidiol against Human Coronavirus E229,” was published by the peer-reviewed journal Life on March 29, 2021. The research studied the antiviral action of a proprietary formulation of terpenes. The blend, known as NT-VRL, is a combination of 30 terpenes including beta-caryophyllene, eucalyptol and citral developed by cannabis technology company Eybna. 

Antiviral plants, nature’s medicine cabinet

Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years to treat various ailments; it’s how the human race has survived centuries-worth of plagues, pandemics, and other outbreaks of disease. Interestingly, many animals such as deer, bear, elk, apes, some birds, lizards, and spiders, are all known to self-medicate with several local plants as well.  

As far detached as we are from natural treatments, it’s estimated that even in modern western medicine, up to 25% of commonly used prescription and OTC medications contain compounds isolated from plants, or synthetic versions of these compounds. Take Marinol, for instance, a prescription anti-nausea medicine contains synthetic THC.

Healing plants work synergistically with the body’s natural capabilities, and they also boost the immune system making it less likely to get sick again in the future. Additionally, natural products typically work without destroying important cells and compounds that already exist in the body. Plant compounds can treat and prevent many different conditions including inflammation, bacterial infections, nausea, diarrhea, and viral infections.  

A lot of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Commonly used antiviral plants include: oregano, sage, basil, fennel, garlic, lemon balm (not lemon, but rather a lemon-scented plant that comes from the mint family), peppermint, rosemary, echinacea, sambucus, licorice, astragalus, ginger, ginseng, and dandelion. 

Get paid to try cannabis products

What are cannabinoid acids? 

Simply explained, cannabinoid acids are precursors to the cannabinoids we all know and love, like THC and CBD. They are found on the stems, leaves and flowers of certain strains of raw cannabis before any type of heat application or processing takes place. Decarboxylation, also referred to as “decarbing” for short, is the process of using heat (and sometimes light and oxygen exposure) to convert cannabinoids from their natural acidic state to their ‘activated’ form. By heating raw cannabinoids, a chemical reaction takes place that removes the carboxyl acid group and releases CO2.  

Cannabis doesn’t create cannabinoids in the way we are familiar with them. Instead, it synthesizes several different cannabinoid acids; eight that we know of, to be specific. In order to become cannabinoids, these acids must be activated – or decarboxylated – using heat, light, and oxygen exposure. Above we briefly mentioned THCA and CBDA, but let’s quickly go over all of the known cannabinoid acids: 

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  • CBGA (Cannabigerolic acid, becomes cannabigerol) 
  • THCA (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, becomes tetrahydrocannabinol) 
  • CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid, becomes cannabidiol) 
  • CBCA (Cannabichromenenic acid, becomes cannabichromene) 
  • CBGVA (Cannabigerovarinic acid, becomes cannabigerovarin) 
  • THCVA (Tetrahydrocanabivarinic acid, becomes tetrahydrocannabivarin) 
  • CBDVA (Cannabidivarinic acid, becomes cannabidivarin) 
  • CBCVA (Cannabichromevarinic acid, becomes cannabichromevarin) 

CBGA, THCA, CBDA, and CBCA are the most abundant cannabinoid acids. All of the plant’s compounds start as CBGA and various enzymes eventually convert it into the other three. In addition to these major acids, there are another four corresponding “V” compounds with slightly shorter chemical structures, and they are: CBGVA, THCVA, CBDVA, and CBCVA. 

Cannabinoid acids do not have any psychoactive effects, however, they do have numerous medical benefits. In the few studies that have emerged, cannabinoid acids were found to have antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal properties. In nature, their function is to defend the plant, so it makes sense that they work similarly in humans. 

cannabis covid-19

More about terpenes 

Terpenes are a very large and diverse class of organic compounds that are produced by a wide variety of plants including herbs, trees, flowers, and fruit. In cannabis, they are secreted by the same glands that produce some of the most prominent cannabinoids including THC and CBD; but their role and effects are vastly different. Terpenes are aromatic plant oils that, when combined with other plant compounds, create a limitless palate of scents and flavors. In nature, terps serve as a defense mechanism by deterring herbivores who are turned away by the smells, and by attracting predators and parasites that attack herbivores. 

Chemically, terpenes are hydrocarbon and they are the major component of rosin, a waxy type of sap that produced and developed throughout the life cycle of the cannabis plant. There are curing processes that can improve the final quality and content of the terpenes, but other factors that impact their development are climate, weather, age and maturation, fertilizers, soil type, and light cycles. 

As far as cannabis goes, terpenes – not classification – are key to differentiating between the effects and flavors of various strains. Some terpenes are relaxing, like those found in lavender, while others are energizing, like the terps abundant in citrus fruit. Some smell fruity, some are piney, and others are musky. The possible variations are endless. So far, over 100 different terpenes have been discovered in cannabis plants alone, and each strain typically has its own unique blend and composition of terps. 

Terpenes have long been known to hold great therapeutic value, and some of the more common ones – like limonene, pinene, and caryophyllene – have been studied more extensively, considering they’re found in many different types of legal plants. More research is needed to determine the extent of their medicinal effects when combined with other cannabis plant compounds. 

Final thoughts on cannabis and COVID-19

To summarize, both of these studies are extremely promising, albeit not very surprising, knowing what we already know about plant compounds. More research needs to be done to see exactly how cannabis-based treatments, cannabinoid acids specifically, can be used to treat or possibly prevent COVID-19. Keep in mind that simply smoking weed will not prevent coronavirus, and if you’re already sick, it could make matters worse by further irritating the throat and lungs. To utilize CBDA and CBGA, you will need to find products that contain these cannabinoids, or eat raw cannabis.

THC Testers Needed

Hello and Welcome! Thanks for making it to CBDtesters.co, the internet’s preeminent location for the most important and though-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news globally. Visit us whenever you can to stay on top of the always-in-flux universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out The THC Weekly Newsletterto ensure you always know what’s going on.

Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, especially regarding cannabis as part of medicinal regimen or any questions about COVID-19, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Cannabis Compounds Can Help Prevent COVID-19, but Not in the Way You Might Expect appeared first on CBD Testers.

Did Psychedelics Help Our Brains Evolve?

There are tons of theories of evolution that attempt to explain how we went from single-celled organisms to the highly complicated structures we are today. I’m not getting into that entire process, but instead, am focusing on the more recent changeover from early cave-dwelling humans to the 21st century beings we are today. What happened to make us what we are? And did psychedelics help our brains evolve?

If psychedelics helped our brains evolve, there’s no telling how useful they could be in the future. It could even mean that we’re not done evolving yet!! For more articles like this one, remember to subscribe to the our Psychedelics Weekly Newsletteryour top source for everything related to this growing and important industry.


What are psychedelics?

It’s quite a question of whether psychedelics did help our brains evolve. Before getting to that, let’s identify what we’re talking about in general. Psychedelic drugs go under the heading of hallucinogens, which are a part of the psychoactive drugs grouping. Psychedelic compounds can be found all over nature in the form of magic mushrooms, DMT, peyote, and ayahuasca. Or, they can be made in a lab like LSD, DXM, and ketamine.

Psychedelics are associated with hallucinations, though different compounds cause varying effects. Hallucinations include a sensory experience that isn’t actually there, like seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, or feeling something that doesn’t exist. They are also widely known for causing spiritual experiences for users; making users feel more connected to each other, and the universe as a whole; inciting feelings of euphoria, and wellbeing; altering perception, and mood; and affecting cognitive function. This all includes what users have repeatedly called ‘life-changing experiences’ connected to life and consciousness, when on these drugs.

While psychedelics have repeatedly shown to be safe, and without a death and disability count, there is the possibility of experiencing a ‘bad trip’. A bad trip is as it sounds. A generally not fun incident wherein users experience negative hallucinations, and physical symptoms like anxiety, paranoia, nausea, raised blood pressure, erratic heartbeat, vomiting, chills, and dizziness. There are several things a person can do to avoid a bad trip, which is mostly about getting the dosage correct. However, there are other things that can be controlled for, like taking the trip in a place that’s comfortable, or being around the right people.

magic mushrooms

Psychedelics have been used widely throughout ancient history, but were essentially banned after the creation and marketization of LSD in the mid-late 1900’s. The Vietnam war was likely a catalyst, as drugs were used to denigrate the anti-war movement which was tightly tied to counterculture and draft-dodging. In the US, the Staggers-Dodd bill was passed in 1968 specifically illegalizing LSD and magic mushrooms, and this was followed up by the passing of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. Globally, the UN’s Convention on Psychotropic Substances in 1971 made these compounds illegal all over the world.

What is evolution?

For most people, the idea of evolution is understood, though many see it as truth, and many see it as a lie. In all honesty, regardless of how much this answer is liked, it really is only a theory. The theory of evolution is “The scientific theory explaining the appearance of new species and varieties through the action of various biological mechanisms (such as natural selection, genetic mutation or drift, and hybridization).” This includes the “descent with modification from preexisting species: cumulative inherited change in a population of organisms through time leading to the appearance of new forms: the process by which new species or populations of living things develop from preexisting forms through successive generations.”

Essentially, it’s a theory that seeks to explain how life might have changed on this planet over time, allowing one form of living species to become something else. It doesn’t propose this happened randomly, but as a response to different factors like mutation, or the right attributes helping some survive over others in a particular environment.

I was on a message board once, where whether the theory of evolution was ‘true’ or not was being discussed. I was personally disgusted by how many medical and scientific research professionals touted it as a truth, when indeed our history cannot be tested, meaning it’s not a provable theory by default. Though changes have been identified in more recent times (like sherpas, and their acquired ability in recent history to use oxygen more efficiently at high altitudes) the reason the theory of evolution is called ‘the theory of evolution’ and not the ‘law of evolution’, is because like it or not, and whether it’s the best answer we have or not, there is no hard proof that this theory is true.

We learn a lot through history. It’s always good to remember that it was once thought the sun moved around the earth, or that tiny people were in our bodies making things function, or that letting out blood could cure illness. We constantly find new ruins and artifacts that change the story, like that neanderthal DNA can be found in our DNA, something ruled out previously. So though I myself see evolution as the best answer, unlike the scientists erroneously saying it ‘has to’ be true, I also understand it’s a huge topic for which we don’t understand everything.

While many detractors choose a more religious, god-centered story to explain how we came to be, others point to possibilities like genetic material landing on earth from a meteor, while others propose that aliens had something to do with it. And like it or not, we as a people can’t technically rule any of this out, even if the go-to answer has become evolution.

brain evolution

Did psychedelics help our brains evolve?

Now that psychedelics have been described, we can get more into how they might have affected the human brain through time. In fact, psychedelics are under much investigation at the moment for help with things like depression, anxiety, and drug addiction. LSD studies from the mid-1900’s did well to draw out the possible ability for the compound to help hardcore drinkers stop in their tracks. The FDA is supporting research into MDMA and psilocybin through giving ‘breakthrough therapy’ designations to both. These designations are given when research is underway on something that shows to be a better answer to a problem than a standard remedy.

All of the things mentioned denote the idea that psychedelic compounds can help change the way the brain works. In fact, esketamine, (the legalized version of ketamine), as well as ketamine itself which is widely used in clinics for therapy as an off-label product, have both shown to be great helps with major depression. More so than monoamine antidepressants, which have been the pharmaceutical answer that realistically never worked. Psychedelics seem to be able to allow the brain to make new connections, and essentially, reformulate parts of itself.

Early humans did not function like we do today. Their brain capacity was much more limited, which is known by their limited abilities to establish societies, or live outside of basic, wild, animal means. We know the brain would have had to change extensively to allow us to be what we currently are (assuming evolution is the answer), meaning, something led to that happening. Maybe it was just mutation, or natural selection. Or maybe, early humans ate some plants that helped them expand their minds, and grow their brains.

More on the theory that psychedelics helped our brains evolve

So where is this idea backed up? In more and more places these days. First off, before worrying about evolution specifically, and whether psychedelics did help our brains evolve, the first thig to understand is that psychedelics may change the structure of brain cells. In 2018, Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity was published in Cell Reports, which found four key points of interest:

  1. That serotonergic psychedelics (most psychedelics are in this category) increase neuritogenesis (the sprouting of neurites from a cell, which is the first step in the development of a mature neuronal morphology), spinogenesis (the development of dendritic spines in neurons), and synaptogenesis (the formation of new synapses).
  2. That psychedelics promote plasticity (the brain’s ability to change and adapt as a result of experience) via an evolutionarily conserved mechanism.
  3. That TrkB (receptor), mTOR (protein kinase), and 5-HT2A (receptor) signaling underlie psychedelic-induced plasticity. As in, these three help psychedelics to change the brain.
  4. That noribogaine (primary metabolite of ibogaine), but not ibogaine (psychedelic compound found in many plants), is capable of promoting structural neural plasticity.

The study was conducted on several different animals, from rats and other rodents, to zebrafish embryos. These studies were not done on humans, which should be considered when looking at results. It should be remembered, however, that we regularly rely on animal studies to give us information about what will work for humans. According to the study investigators:

psychedelics brains evolve

“Here, we report that, like ketamine, serotonergic psychedelics are capable of robustly increasing neuritogenesis and/or spinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These changes in neuronal structure are accompanied by increased synapse number and function, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology. The structural changes induced by psychedelics appear to result from stimulation of the TrkB, mTOR, and 5-HT2A signaling pathways and could possibly explain the clinical effectiveness of these compounds.”

Going further into the possibility that psychedelics helped our brains evolve

Yet another recent study got into this idea. On September 29th, 2021, Psychedelics, Sociality, and Human Evolution was published in Frontiers in Psychology. The study authors start out by saying: “Our hominin ancestors inevitably encountered and likely ingested psychedelic mushrooms throughout their evolutionary history”, which they relate back as far as the Pliocene age.

According to researchers, “Psilocybin and similar psychedelics that primarily target the serotonin 2A receptor subtype stimulate an active coping strategy response that may provide an enhanced capacity for adaptive changes through a flexible and associative mode of cognition. Such psychedelics also alter emotional processing, self-regulation, and social behavior, often having enduring effects on individual and group well-being and sociality.”

They go on to say, “A homeostatic and drug instrumentalization perspective suggests that incidental inclusion of psychedelics in the diet of hominins, and their eventual addition to rituals and institutions of early humans could have conferred selective advantages.”

Finally, they break it down to, “the evolutionary scenario put forward suggests that integration of psilocybin into ancient diet, communal practice, and proto-religious activity may have enhanced hominin response to the socio-cognitive niche, while also aiding in its creation. In particular, the interpersonal and prosocial effects of psilocybin may have mediated the expansion of social bonding mechanisms such as laughter, music, storytelling, and religion, imposing a systematic bias on the selective environment that favored selection for prosociality in our lineage.”

They broke this into four aspects:

  1. Management of psychological distress and treatment of health problems
  2. Enhanced social interaction and interpersonal relations
  3. Facilitation of collective ritual and religious activities
  4. Enhanced group decision-making
brain evolution

Conclusion

How we really got to be who and what we are is a massive question that no one has a definitive answer to right now, no matter what they may think they know. Recent research has certainly opened the door to the exploration of psychedelics as a factor in our growth and development through history, but much more needs to be learned. If there is truth in this, it speaks volumes to what we can do with psychedelics, and how useful they can potentially be in our future growth and development.

Welcome readers! Thanks for joining us at CBDtesters.co, your one-stop-shop for the most important and relevant cannabis and psychedelics-related news happening now. Read-thru the site regularly to stay informed on the constantly-in-motion universe of cannabis, and medical psychedelics, and sign up for the The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter, so you’re always on top of what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Did Psychedelics Help Our Brains Evolve? appeared first on CBD Testers.

DIY: How to Make Your Own CBN

There’s a lot of talk about different cannabinoids, and the growing unregulated cannabinoids market. One of the cannabinoids of interest is CBN, for its possible ability to help with sleep. Unlike many cannabinoids which require synthetization, CBN can be made pretty easily, and not as a synthetic. Read on for tips on how to make your very own CBN.

With a wide-ranging cannabinoids market out there, there are now tons of ways of enjoying cannabis besides standard THC. Whether you’re interested in delta-8 THC which causes less anxiety, CBN which might be good for promoting sleep, THCV which has shown as a possible aid in weight loss, or HHC a minimized version of THC, options abound, and we’ve got plenty for you. Check out all our deals on these compounds, and find the ones that work best for you.


What is CBN

Before getting into how to make CBN, we need to know more about what it is. The cannabis plant is made up of many components including flavonoids, terpenes, chlorophyll, lipids, cannabinoids, and other compounds. In fact, the main association with cannabis, is the cannabinoid delta-9 THC, sometimes erroneously called ‘THC’. This term actually stands for ‘tetrahydrocannabinols’, which can involve more cannabinoids than just delta-9, but somehow that slang term has prevailed, even showing up in medical literature. However, what we are actually speaking of, is delta-9 THC.

Cannabis plants can be split into two general types of plants, though both categories fit under the umbrella of ‘cannabis’. One, which we refer to as ‘hemp’ has lower amounts of delta-9 (which actually shows in a live plant as the acid THCA), and higher amounts of CBD (which shows in a live plant as the acid CBDA). On the other hand, ‘marijuana’ is now the term used for plants higher in THCA than CBDA.

Both THCA and CBDA are ‘phytocannabinoids’ because they appear in the plant. And both convert in the presence of light and heat to their respective cannabinoid counterparts THC (delta-9) and CBD. But this is not the end of the story. Once converted to delta-9 and CBD, these new cannabinoids can eventually degrade further into what we call ‘degradants’. These degradants can be entirely new cannabinoids. And this is where CBN comes in. CBN is the main degradant of delta-9, for which the vast majority of delta-9 will become. This makes CBN a rather prevalent cannabinoid in comparison to others like delta-8 or THCV, which only ever show in miniscule amounts. The chemical formula for CBN is C21H26O2, and it’s considered only minorly intoxicating.

make CBN

While it’s hard to say exactly what CBN is capable of, there is a growing belief that it could be related to properties like the ability to help with sleep and anxiety. This thought came around because of the noticed effect of older cannabis (which is more degraded than a new flower), making people more relaxed and tired. Plenty of research is currently being done into the possible existence of these properties. Apart from a sleep aid, CBN has many other similar benefits to delta-9 THC and other cannabinoids.

The history of CBN

Weirdly enough, CBN was the first cannabinoid of the cannabis plant to be discovered. This was not the goal at all, though, as the goal was to find the intoxicating element of the plant, for which CBN was confused. This research to establish the intoxicating element was already underway in the late 1800’s, being led by different scientists, namely Thomas Easterfield. And it was his discovery that led to the finding of other cannabinoids like CBD and THC.

To find this intoxicating element, cannabis was distilled into what was referred to as a ‘red oil’, and this was the first form to be studied in modern times. This red oil was discovered by Dr. Thomas Easterfield, who was a member of the Cambridge Group, and a lecturer at Cambridge University. When he first wrote about this ‘red oil’, he gave it the name ‘cannabinol’. These days we know that term to specifically mean the compound CBN, but at the time, it was related to the red oil distilled from the plant, as well as what was thought to be the intoxicating factor.

It was thought at that time that cannabinol was a narcotic substance, which was later clarified to be untrue. Easterfield was the first to isolate cannabinol, which, he stated in his late 1800’s writing, as being the intoxicating factor. Perhaps Easterfield would have gotten further, but a couple incidences got in the way of research.

One involved the accidental death of two collaborators in a lab accident. The other is a strange story of the voluntary ingestion of a large dose of CBN by another guy, leading to this guy getting extremely high and somehow catching on fire. Don’t worry, it was extinguished and he was fine, but research stopped upon media reports exaggerating the circumstances for smear campaigns against cannabis (started that early!) Research was halted for decades.

Things didn’t really pick up again until the 1930’s when Dr. Robert S. Cahn began studying CBN again. Cahn started calling the red oil ‘crude cannabinol’, and started using the term ‘cannabinol’ for the actual cannabinoid compound. Through his research he was able to validate that CBN was not the intoxicating factor. Cahn did map the structure of CBN, but many questions were still left unanswered until future scientists finally discovered CBD and THC. Separately, Easterfield and Cahn made the initial discoveries into CBN.

CBN

How to make CBN

When it comes to how to make CBN, the important thing to remember is that it’s a degradant of delta-9 THC, and that means you can make CBN from regular marijuana. Though it can be made from a hemp plant, since a hemp plant has considerably less THCA, it would require synthetization, rather than being made naturally. The best way to make CBN, therefore, is by using high-THC marijuana plants.

So how do you make CBN? It’s actually quite easy. Just add the things that naturally convert THC to CBN, light and/or heat. Both of these options essentially speed up time, allowing for a quicker degradation process that allows for CBN to be made. When made industrially, CBN is often created using solvents and metallic catalysts. However, if you do it yourself, not only do you know you’re getting the right product, but you can actually make a cleaner product. This can go for many cannabis products, where DIY methods can often net a better result when done correctly.

Heating: If you want to use the heating method (and you probably do as its more defined), you need to go through the regular process of decarboxylation that turns THCA into delta-9. However, in this case, you need to go a little further, to degrade the delta-9 in order to make CBN. Regular decarboxylation to convert THCA to delta-9 is usually done for no more than 20-40 minutes at a temperature of 230-250°F. These temperatures are low enough that the further conversion to CBN and degradation of other plant compounds, isn’t a problem. In this case, though, you would decarb at higher than 302º F, for a total of 15 minutes, although some publications say that 300º F for one hour also works. And that’s it. After this, you can go on to use the bud to make oil, butter, or whatever other product you know how to make, or can find instructions for.

UV light: The other option to age the plant in order to make CBN from delta-9, is with UV light. Unfortunately, less has been published about the specifics for this method, apart from the fact that a very intense light would need to be used. How intense, and for how long, is harder to say. Perhaps in the future, as CBN becomes more popular, this topic will get further flushed out.

There is, however, plenty of information about how light effects the cannabis plant, and much can be gleaned from this explanation:

“In cannabis, Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) naturally degrades to cannabinol (CBN) over time. Light exposure supplies energy and speeds up this process. The ratio of THC to CBN in a stored sample of cannabis can actually be used to indicate age and quality of storage.

Lindholst (2010) examined tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa) in cannabis extracts. Samples exposed to daylight degraded at a half-life of 35 days, while those kept in darkness degraded at a half-life of 91 days (an approximate 250% difference).”

Cannabis UV light

While this is not specific, it does indicate that if you leave your weed out in bright sunlight, or put it under a UV light, that the process of converting delta-9 to CBN is much faster. I didn’t see an exact consensus on how to do this online, but several message boards contained different instructions by different people, and interested parties should check through to find more specific information if this is a desirable method to try. Personally, I suggest using the heat method.

How this differs from other minor cannabinoids

The cannabinoids market of today offers tons of options of both naturally occurring and synthetic cannabinoids. What’s the catch? Even the naturally occurring ones (besides THC and CBD) don’t occur in high enough amounts for extraction without synthetization. Meaning if you’re buying a product, even if it’s something like delta-8, which most definitely is naturally occurring (as likely another minor degradant of delta-9), your product will have gone through processing. This likely means the involvement of harsh chemicals or processes that may not be safe, and which aren’t currently being regulated.

Beyond that, the lack of regulation means its hard to know you’re getting the product you’re paying for, and that it’s not a fake, or filled with adulterants. For this reason, this has become a questionable market in terms of safety and product quality. And this goes for any cannabinoid product that fits the category of requiring synthetization. It also goes for many other cannabis products, but minor cannabinoids in particular we already know cannot be easily and directly extracted for use.

The difference with CBN is that it can be made to appear in large enough amounts, by simple methods that don’t involve synthetic processing. However, for the other reasons mentioned, this doesn’t mean that because you’re buying a CBN product, that it will be real. And that brings us to the other difference with CBN and other minor cannabinoids. Much like delta-9 itself, it can be made DIY style, giving users the ability to make a clean product, and to know for sure what that product is.

Conclusion

CBN likely has plenty of medical benefits, and one seems to be the ability to help with sleep and anxiety, though this is not formally stated. Research has been inconclusive, and is ongoing, but message boards are already filled with people talking up these qualities. Perhaps in the future we’ll know more. Let’s remember one thing. The government never likes when people can make their own products, or buy them outside of regulation, since it means less money in taxes for the government.

The push to say CBN isn’t effective for sleep could be more related to trying to save it for the pharmaceutical market, or simply to keep people from buying it, than trying to help people find a safe method to promote sleep. This is supposition, but something to consider in the whole ongoing cannabis debate, and with the rapid growth of the government backed pharma market.

Hello and Welcome! Thanks for making it to CBDtesters.co, the internet’s preeminent location for the most important and though-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news globally. Visit us whenever you can to stay on top of the always-in-flux universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out The THC Weekly Newsletter, to ensure you always know what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post DIY: How to Make Your Own CBN appeared first on CBD Testers.

Psychedelic Industry Predictions for 2022

It’s been a whirlwind rise for psychedelics in general in the past few years, with tons of research into medical properties, and new legal policies being set in different parts of the country to allow medical use, or decriminalize recreational use. What’s in store for this class of drugs? Here are my 2022 predictions for psychedelics.

My 2022 predictions for psychedelics are mainly that the industry will grow more with steps toward legalization, which is the same for the cannabis industry, which should also see growth in many ways in 2022. This can already be seen in the new cannabinoids industry, which allows the sale of compounds outside of regulation, and outside of dispensaries. For more articles like this one, remember to subscribe to the our Psychedelics Weekly Newsletteryour top source for everything related to this growing industry.


What are psychedelics?

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs, which are themselves a subset of psychoactive drugs. Psychedelics can be naturally occurring like magic mushrooms or DMT, or made in a lab like LSD and ketamine. Either way, these compounds are specifically related to producing hallucinations, wherein a user experiences a sensation (hearing, seeing, feeling, tasting, smelling) of something that is not there.

Along with hallucinations, these drugs are known for inciting spiritual experiences in users; bringing on feelings of connectedness between users, and between users and the universe at large; stimulating feelings of euphoria, and wellbeing; and causing alterations in perception, mood, and cognitive function. Users have throughout time reported life-changing experiences regarding life and consciousness when on these drugs.

While psychedelics are generally safe, with no actual death or disability count directly related, there is one aspect to be wary of: the bad trip. In a bad trip, a user can experience negative – even frightening, hallucinations, and have physical symptoms like anxiety, nausea, erratic heartbeat, vomiting, chills, dizziness, paranoia, and raised blood pressure. This seems to be a big aspect of dosing, with correct dosing, or the use of micro-doses, eliminating the majority of these problem. People more sensitive to these drugs might want to try in smaller quantities.

magic mushrooms

The illegalization of psychedelics

Psychedelics gained momentum in the mid-1900’s after LSD was synthesized by Albert Hofmann in 1938 (but more formally realized in 1943), in Sandoz laboratories in Switzerland. This set off a cascade of LSD products being sold throughout the world. By the 1950’s it had been adopted by the world of psychiatry, with over 10,000 studies published between 1943-1970 according to the Oxford Press. LSD was the basis for the Saskatchewan trials in Canada led by Humphrey Osmond and Abram Hoffer, where it was shown to help alcoholics quit the juice. It was also big in England, where Ronald Sandison showed the benefit of LSD with psychoneurotic patients.

All of this ended by the late 1960’s when the US forged a campaign against psychedelics, likely in response to the unpopular Vietnam was, as a way of targeting counter-culture folks who were known for peace-loving and draft-dodging. This was done in the US with the Staggers-Dodd bill in 1968 followed by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act in 1970. It was done in England through the 1973 Misuse of Drugs Act. The Convention on Psychotropic Substances in 1971 made psychedelic compounds illegal globally.

How do we know about drug smear campaigns in relation to the war and racism? In 1994, John Ehrlichman, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Nixon, released this statement:

“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.”

My 2022 predictions for psychedelics

The class of psychedelics is gaining momentum, possibly inspired by the success of the cannabis industry, and its ability to change perceptions about the plant in the last couple decades. There’s a lot going on in the industry, so here are my 2022 predictions for what can be expected with psychedelics.

  • More states, cities, and individual locations will continue to pass laws like Oregon and Detroit to decriminalize recreational use, or legalize medical markets. These may be done through ballot measures during elections, or made as legislation by local governments.
  • In terms of ketamine, this might be the biggest standout of 2022. Ketamine clinics are already becoming very popular, which can be seen in the government’s attempt to divert the market to a pharmaceutical one by way of the legalization of esketamine. Esketamine will likely do nothing to stop the ketamine clinic industry, which, since it offers a seemingly better answer to monoamine antidepressants, should take off even further in 2022.
ketamine therapy
  • The tide will continue turning with psychedelics in the mainstream, with more and more people changing tack as they did with cannabis. This will likely be from the growing body of research into positive benefits, with the lack of negative results that were cried about for so long, becoming more obvious.
  • Having said this, since the government will badly want to keep a handle on it, there is also likely to be a continuation of smear campaigns aimed at driving fear and confusion into users. This in an effort to point them toward pharmaceutical options, rather than having the masses attempt to obtain these compounds illicitly or grow them on their own.
  • My 2022 predictions for the illicit psychedelics market, are that this will grow as well, with tons of illicit online retailers popping up, and a dirty, unregulated industry taking over. This is similar to the current state of affairs in the cannabis industry, exemplified by the unregulated cannabinoids market. This will help drive fear campaigns by targeting stories of seedy operators and adulterated products.
  • Magic mushrooms and psilocybin will be another big winner according to my 2022 predictions for psychedelics. As one of the compounds more immediately up for legalization, magic mushrooms also present the situation of being the most cannabis-like drug, in that they can be grown easily at home by users. Not only will magic mushrooms creep closer to a federal medical legalization, but I expect 2022 will see a huge push in home growing of these mushrooms.
  • MDMA is the other compound nearing legalization in the states, and 2022 should also be a year of progress for this drug, with further research getting it that much closer to a medical legalization. Though this is unlikely to happen in 2022, by the end of the year we might have a clearer picture of when this can be expected.
  • Another of my 2022 predictions for psychedelics is that we’re going to start seeing more legislation being floated in congress for federal legalization measures. This isn’t to say that any will succeed, but by the end of 2022, I expect several different bills for different purposes related to psychedelics, to come up and be discussed.
  • Lastly, I believe more politicians will come out openly supporting psychedelics and their uses in 2022. This will likely be on both the medical and recreational fronts, making upcoming legalizations that much more government-accepted.

What is the state of psychedelics currently in the US?

To give an idea of where things are now with psychedelics in the US, here is the basic rundown. Seattle didn’t exactly decriminalize legally, but in October of 2021, the city council unanimously voted on a non-binding resolution meant to discourage law enforcement from going after psychedelics users. It is not, however, a legal mandate. The most recent city to fall legally was Detroit, which decriminalized psychedelic (entheogenic) plants in November 2021 through Proposal E passed by voters.

entheogenic plants

Other specific locations that have set legal mandates include Denver, Colorado, which was first in 2019; and Oakland and Santa Cruz in California which made their own measures that same year, and the following year respectively. In 2020, An Arbor, Michigan; and Washington DC set decriminalization policies. This was followed by Washtenaw County, Michigan; Somerville, Cambridge, Northampton, and Easthampton in Massachusetts; and Arcata, California in 2021.

Of course, the biggest psychedelics champions right now is Oregon, which was the first state to adopt a statewide policy, with two ballot measures in 2020: Measure 109 – to legalize the medical use of psilocybin, and Measure 110 to decriminalize many drugs statewide. Both measures passed making Oregon the first state to allow legal medical use of a psychedelic, as well as the decriminalization statewide of many recreational drugs.

Two other states did institute lesser policies. On Thursday February, 4th, 2021, New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy signed a law that reclassified magic mushrooms to be a ‘disorderly persons offense’ so long as the amounts don’t go over one ounce. The maximum fine is now $1,000, and the maximum jail sentence is six months. While this pales in comparison to what Oregon did, it does greatly reduce penalties from $15,000 and five years in prison.

Rhode Island, on the other hand, signed into policy on July 7th, 2021, a law that allows for consumption sites for illegal drugs, where they can be accessed safely. This is a two-year pilot program that aims to give medical supervision to drug use, and individual municipalities are charged with authorizing facilities for this to happen. What will happen in the future, or if this will continue after two years, is hard to say, but for now it allows the use of drugs – including psychedelics – in specialized locations, without the threat of arrest.

In the works…

Currently there are two other statewide initiatives to legalize psychedelics. California has been working on the California Psilocybin Legalization Initiative, which is possibly slated to appear on the November 2022 ballot as a referendum, and which seeks to “legalize psilocybin, including psilocybin mushrooms, truffles, sclerotia, and mycelium, in California.” This would allow the “cultivation, manufacture, processing, distribution, transportation, possession, storage, consumption, and retail sale of psilocybin mushrooms.”

Michigan has also made strides in this direction, introducing Senate Bill 631, in September, 2021. This bill floated would legalize psychedelic compounds recreationally statewide, and has been referred to the Committee on Judiciary and Public Safety for further review. The bill would legalize the cultivation, delivery, creation, possession, and communal use of plant-derived recreational psychedelics. This would not allow sales, except in the cases of “counseling, spiritual guidance, or a related service that is provided in conjunction with the use of an entheogenic plant or fungus under the guidance and supervision of an individual providing the service”, in which case a fee can be charged.

Beyond this, while psychedelics are federally illegal, apart from esketamine and DXM (found in cough syrup), both MDMA and psilocybin have been given a ‘breakthrough therapy’ designation by the FDA in reference to research being conducted. Compass Pathways, and Usona Institute won this designation for research into psilocybin for major depression, while the organization MAPS not only got this designation for research into MDMA, but designed its phase three trials in conjunction with the FDA to ensure results meet regulation. Which means a federal government body is pushing for these legalizations.

Conclusions

With everything on the cusp of explosion, 2022 predictions for psychedelics can certainly be blown out of the water easily. It will be an interesting year to watch progress and see what happens, and it could very well be that some unexpected big moves could happen before year’s end.

Hello and welcome readers! You’ve arrived at CBDtesters.co, the best web source for the most interesting and essential cannabis and psychedelics-related news going on worldwide. Stop by regularly to stay abreast of the always-in-motion landscape of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out the The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter, so you never miss an important story.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Psychedelic Industry Predictions for 2022 appeared first on CBD Testers.

Cannabinoid Blends and the Future of Cannabis Wellness 

We have reached a turning point in the cannabis industry, where, as consumers, we now have more choices than we know what to do with. When I was younger, shopping for weed consisted of calling one of the 3 or 4 dealers in my area and picking up whatever flower strain was available from whoever had the best product or lowest price, or a combination of the two. Now, whether you live in a legal state or not, you have options – from classic flowers, to vape products, edibles, topicals, and so much more.  

Obviously, legal markets are rife with product variety, but even in prohibition states you can check out smoke shops, gas stations, or online retailers and find a myriad of alternative cannabinoids, some intoxicating and some not, some safe and some sketchy. The more popular are products containing blends of three or more different cannabinoid compounds; for example, vape carts with delta 8 THC, delta 10 THC, and CBN.  

According to recent surveys, nearly half of all cannabis consumers prefer to use products that contain more than one cannabinoid, and that number is expected to grow. Knowing what we know about the entourage effect and how different plant compounds work together synergistically to provide the highest level of benefits, it’s no surprise that people are excited to try new combinations. But how exactly do these blends work? What are the best combinations? And what different effects can you expect to experience?    

Cannabis science has come a really long way since the initial discovery of individual cannabinoids back in the 1940s. To this day we continue to uncover new and exciting things about this incredible plant. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


What is the entourage effect? 

First noted in 1998 by Professors Raphael Mechoulam and Shimon Ben-Shabat, the entourage effect is a mechanism by which plant compounds work together, often resulting in more noticeable effects compared to when compounds are used individually. With cannabis, the entourage effect refers to the way different cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids offer the best health benefits and psychoactive effects when combined, and only when consuming the entire plant in its natural state. 

It has been attributed to the way the combination of compounds increases the activity of CB receptors one and two. Because these receptors are found throughout the entire body, the human endocannabinoid system plays a critical role in modulating many different physiological functions such as immune response, sleep/wake cycles, appetite, communication between cells, mental health, and more.   

In 2001, two highly notable researchers Ethan Russo (MD, is a board-certified neurologist, psychopharmacology researcher, and author) and John McPartland (DO, MS, University of Vermont, Department of Family Medicine), published a paper titled “Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts.” This research paper revisits the claims of Mechoulam and Ben-Shabat regarding how cannabinoids act with other cannabinoids, as well as their interactions with secondary compounds such as terpenes and flavonoids.  

Their research found supporting evidence that “extracts rich in both cannabinoids and terpenes increased pharmacological activities that strengthened and broadened clinical applications and improved the therapeutic index.” Simply put, the effects all-around are better when these compounds are allowed to do what they do naturally and work together. 

How many cannabinoids and terpenes are there? 

There are 113 cannabinoids and over 150 terpenes in cannabis. Russo explains in this detailed study how every single part of the plant matters, from more dominant cannabinoids to even the trace terpenes. Each compound in the plant has a specific role and they all influence each others’ modes of operation when consumed together. For reference, let’s quickly cover what each of these compounds are. 

  • Cannabinoids: Naturally occurring compounds, such as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), CBD (cannabidiol), CBN (cannabinol), etc., that interact with the endocannabinoid system in mammals. 
  • Terpenes: A diverse group of organic compounds found in most plants that give them their specific fragrances. 
  • Flavonoids: These are important antioxidants that give plants their pigments and attract pollinator animals. In cannabis they’re referred to as cannaflavins. 

For example, the terpene myrcene can help diminish resistance in the blood-brain barrier which allows other cannabinoids to access the central nervous system with more ease. Linalool and limonene, two terpenes commonly found in citrus fruits, show promise in managing symptoms of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) when combined with CBG (cannabigerol). The study covers many more instances of how all these chemicals work together to the patient’s advantage. 

More about terpenes 

Terpenes are compounds found in most plants that produce their aromas and flavors. For example, they give lemon its powerful citrus scent, and they are the reason cinnamon smells so crisp and spicy. Terpenes are also abundant in cannabis, which is it has such a distinct smell with varying undertones. Lesser known is that terpenes are not just a factor in flavor, they also contribute to the effects we feel when we use cannabis. There’s a heavy focus on cannabinoids in consumer products, but if it wasn’t for terpenes, cannabis would not get us as high the way it does, nor would we experience all the numerous health benefits the plant is known for. 

Terpenes are a very large and diverse class of organic compounds that are produced by a wide variety of plants including herbs, trees, flowers, and fruit. In cannabis, they are secreted by the same glands that produce some of the most prominent cannabinoids including THC and CBD; but their role and effects are vastly different. Terpenes are aromatic plant oils that, when combined with other plant compounds, create a limitless palate of scents and flavors. In nature, terps serve as a defense mechanism by deterring herbivores who are turned away by the smells, and by attracting predators and parasites that attack herbivores. 

Chemically, terpenes are hydrocarbons and they are the major component of rosin, a waxy type of sap that is produced and developed throughout the life cycle of the cannabis plant. There are curing processes that can improve the final quality and content of the terpenes, but other factors that impact their development are climate, weather, age and maturation, fertilizers, soil type, and light cycles. 

As far as cannabis goes, terpenes – not classification (sativa/indica) – are the key to differentiating between effects and flavors of a strain. Some terpenes are relaxing, like those found in lavender, while others are energizing, like the terps abundant in citrus fruit. Some smell fruity, some are piney, and others are musky. The possible variations are endless. So far, over 100 different terpenes have been discovered in cannabis plants alone, and each strain typically has its own unique blend and composition. 

Terpenes have long been known to hold great therapeutic value, and some of the more common ones – like limonene, pinene, and caryophyllene – have been studied more extensively since they’re found in many different types of legal plants. More research is needed to determine the extent of their medicinal effects when combined with other cannabis plant compounds. 

Common combinations  

There are a few different ways that you can utilize cannabinoid blends. First, you could buy products that are premixed with different ratios of various compounds. These products are not hard to find, but regulation of alternative cannabinoids is sketchy at best and non-existent at worst, so some people are choosing to mix compounds at home and formulate their own oil, vape liquids, edible products, and more.  

Honestly the latter is not a process I’m personally familiar with. However, there are a handful of retailers, like Rare Cannabinoid Company, that offer single minor cannabinoid extracts as well as how-to guides to help consumers mix their own oils. Below are some popular combinations, all using some type of broad-spectrum oil as a base.  

  • Energy / Appetite suppression: THCV + 3000mg CBD 
  • Relaxation / Sleep: CBN +  Delta-8 THC + Terpenes  
  • Post-exercise / Relief blend: CBG +  CBDV + Terpenes  
  • For low mood: CBC + THCV + Delta-8-THC  
  • For nausea: CBDA + Delta-8 THC + CBDV  
  • For focus: THCV + Delta-8 THC  

Final thoughts on cannabinoid blends

It’s a well-established fact that, in most cases, cannabinoid and terpene blends work better individual compounds. That’s not to say that isolated cannabinoids serve no purpose, because they do, especially in a clinical setting where precise dosing can be extremely important. But for overall wellness, and recreational aims, mixing cannabinoids or simply using raw flowers and live resin extracts with a combination of compounds is enough to boost your high and provide many therapeutic benefits.

Hello and welcome! Thanks for stopping by CBDtesters.co, your #1 web source for cannabis and psychedelics-related news, offering the most interesting stories of today. Join us frequently to stay on-top of the quickly-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out The THC Weekly Newsletterto ensure you’re never late on getting a story.

Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Cannabinoid Blends and the Future of Cannabis Wellness  appeared first on CBD Testers.