2022 Predictions for the Delta-8 THC Industry

The new year is upon us, and that means a restart to the business year, and all new things to look forward to. What will happen this year? Sure hard to say at the moment, but every new year comes with new stories of legalizations, court cases, innovative products, events, and medical findings. What about our newly discovered cannabinoids market? Here are some 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC and the rest of the lot.

My 2022 prediction for delta-8 THC is that the market will survive the year just fine. If you’re looking to try out delta-8 THC and the rest of the cannabinoids, you can do so, even outside of legal markets. In fact, since these products exist outside of regulation, you can buy them online as well. We’ve got great offers for the new year, so check out our deals to find your perfect product. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter all the latest news and industry stories, as well as exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other products. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!

What is delta-8 THC and the cannabinoids market?

If we’re getting into 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, best to know what we’re talking about first. Delta-8 THC is a naturally occurring isomer of delta-9 THC, which means they have the same chemical formula, but a different chemical structure. They are double bond stereoisomers since they vary only in the placement of a double bond.

While the exact way that delta-8 THC shows up naturally is still only theorized, its expected that delta-8 is a less-occurring degradant of delta-9, making up a tiny percentage, which doesn’t become CBN (the main degradant). Delta-8 is more stable than delta-9, having already oxidized, which gives it a longer shelf-life. Delta-8 occurs only in tiny amounts, and though it does show up on its own, it doesn’t in big enough quantities for product production. Thus, to be used in products, delta-8 must be made from delta-9 THC or from CBD, both of which require some amount of synthetic processing.

Perhaps none of this would matter, but delta-8, with its double bond on the eighth carbon atom, seems to have slightly different benefits from delta-9, which can make it preferable to some users. For example, it’s said that delta-8 causes less anxiety than delta-9, which is great for users who have an issue with this. It’s also said that it causes a more clear-headed high, which is slightly less intense than a delta-9 high, and without the couch-locking of standard weed. Medical patients especially, who want treatment without a cloudy head, may find delta-8 a better option.


You’ll notice, when I mentioned 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, that I included the rest of the cannabinoid offerings. Along with delta-8 THC, a range of other synthetically produced cannabinoids have been making it to the unregulated cannabis market.  This includes THCV, CBN, THC-O-A, HHC, and a bunch of others with varying letters to denote their similar-to-THC chemical makeup.

Why are we talking about delta-8 and other cannabinoids?

Also before getting into 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, its best to know why we’re talking about it, since the whole reason we’re talking about it, can be a reason why the current situation might change. Delta-8 THC is produced under the misconception of legality due to the 2018 US Farm Bill, a misconception that seems to be spurred along by the industry itself, likely in an attempt to continue to sell products without regulation.

The 2018 US Farm Bill legalized the production of industrial hemp only, by simply changing the definition of ‘hemp’ in order to separate it from the rest of cannabis. ‘Hemp’ now refers to lower-THC cannabis, while ‘marijuana’ refers to higher-THC cannabis. Both the US and Europe make the cutoff at .3% THC by dry weight as the divider.

This new definition for hemp, which has led to this mass confusion in the press (but which is soundly understood by any legal professional), is: “The plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of the plant, whether growing or not, including the plant’s seeds, and all the plant’s derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomers, acids, salts, and salts of isomers, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.”

The 2018 Farm Bill moved regulation of hemp from the FDA to the USDA, but retained FDA oversight for medicines, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages, meaning anytime a compound is sold for any of these purposes, it requires a pass through the FDA. As such, even CBD in supplements and food products, is not legal, let alone delta-8 and the rest of the cannabinoid crew.

This is partly because synthetics weren’t legalized by the Farm Bill either, meaning once a synthetic process is used to create a compound, it no longer fits under the definition of hemp. Synthetics of Schedule I substances (like delta-9) are also considered Schedule I, which means all these compounds are illegal under the Federal Analogue Act.

delta-8 laws

2022 predictions delta-8 THC

Now that the legal situation is understood, here are my general 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, and rest of the cannabinoid market.

  • Delta-8 will continue on. As a part of the no-one-will-do-anything-about-it loophole, delta-8 enjoys being in a position where there doesn’t seem to be an ability to go after it by the federal government. And if there is an ability, but the federal government is choosing not to at the moment, I don’t think anything will explicitly happen in 2022 that will change this situation. Best to keep an eye on the news to ensure no sweeping legal updates, or increased law enforcement in this area.
  • Delta-8 will not threaten the standard cannabis industry. Though delta-8 created a lot of press stories about the possibility of threatening the regular weed market earlier on, this seems like media overkill on the wrong point. Truth is, weed is a standard, and its existed for thousands of years in its own market that never required synthetics to be made. People want the regular thing, and the regular thing is not delta-8 THC. Plus, regular cannabis can be grown by a user, meaning its far more accessible, and easier to get a clean product.
  • Delta-8 sales might go down by year’s end. Though I expect it to continue on just fine, my 2022 prediction for delta-8 is that by year’s end this fad will be fading out. I don’t think it has to do with illegalization either, simply with the fact that temporary fads are temporary fads. Delta-8 is up against regular cannabis, and its hard to imagine such a seismic shift in a stable industry.
  • The delta-8 market will get increasingly dirty, and this says something as it already operates as a pretty dirty industry. How dirty? These companies aren’t being regulated which means they can put anything they want in their products, or use any processing techniques desirable. In fact, the industry is so dirty, that it developed its own black-market testing to give the illusion that testing is going on, when in reality this has been exposed as a sham. With a mad dash to get any income from it, I expect companies will get seedier and seedier in their attempts to seem like the good guy in a sea of criminals.
  • More states will create legislation specifically banning this market. Technically this is overkill since no state allows synthetics in their markets legally. Even so, state after state has been setting specific legislation, possibly at the behest of the US government, which doesn’t appreciate untaxed items being sold. I expect more will follow this pattern in 2022.
  • Little to no regulation will be made. The previous point goes along with this point. While states will likely be making legislation to ban the market, this will be done instead of regulating it to ensure no bad chemicals or processing are used. Since these products are being sold outside of regulation, it would make way more sense to simply regulate them, and bring them to the above board market. The lack of regulation hints at the federal government looking to simply wait out the fad (or to wait for a tank out and then pharma/corporate buyout of the current industry, which it might be more excited to police).
  • More fear stories will come out. Whether about people getting sick from adulterants put in, or stories of faked lab results, I expect more and more news on the dangers of delta-8 and the other cannabinoids, will fill the press. These stories will not be centered around the dangers of the compounds, but the dangers of what can happen to them in an unregulated market. They won’t be framed as such though, but rather they’ll be framed to give the story that the compounds themselves are dangerous.
no additives
  • I think the rest of the cannabinoid market will start to peter out. Delta-8 is one thing, but when a new compound comes out everyday, there’s no way consumers can keep up, or care. THCP, THCVA, CBDVA…I mean, come on, it starts to look shady, and untrustworthy. And it’s not very smart. Focusing on a couple cannabinoids might have worked, but inundating the masses with compound after compound, when these compounds aren’t even understood in the world of science, is a great way to scare people off them entirely.
  • CBD might finally get some legalization. CBD is essentially just as illegal as the other compounds mentioned, not because its synthetic, but because its already an active ingredient in a pharmaceutical medication, and in the US, that makes it a no-no for use in supplements or food products. There has been a push to get some level of legalization for CBD, and I think 2022 might see some progress in this vein, particularly because the UN already gave CBD a pass as a medicine. It should be remembered that what qualifies as a ‘medicine’ in one place, can qualify as a ‘supplement’ in another.
  • The last 2022 prediction I’ll make for delta-8 THC and the cannabinoids market, is that I think people will realize more during this year that these products can’t change their lives, if they aren’t going to make changes outside of them. With any fad that comes without the lasting power to stay, once people realize the answer isn’t as easy as they think, they generally decide to try something else instead. Does this mean people will start making bigger changes to the rest of their lives? Well, maybe not, but I expect they’ll start looking for a new easy answer.


Maybe I’m right on some of these points, and maybe I’m wrong. When it comes to 2022 predictions for delta-8 THC, we can all have our own, but in the end, we just have to wait and see what happens.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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Psychedelic Industry Predictions for 2022

It’s been a whirlwind rise for psychedelics in general in the past few years, with tons of research into medical properties, and new legal policies being set in different parts of the country to allow medical use, or decriminalize recreational use. What’s in store for this class of drugs? Here are my 2022 predictions for psychedelics.

My 2022 predictions for psychedelics are mainly that the industry will grow more with steps toward legalization, which is the same for the cannabis industry, which should also see growth in many ways in 2022. This can already be seen in the new cannabinoids industry, which allows the sale of compounds outside of regulation, and outside of dispensaries. For more articles like this one, remember to subscribe to the our Psychedelics Weekly Newsletteryour top source for everything related to this growing industry.

What are psychedelics?

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs, which are themselves a subset of psychoactive drugs. Psychedelics can be naturally occurring like magic mushrooms or DMT, or made in a lab like LSD and ketamine. Either way, these compounds are specifically related to producing hallucinations, wherein a user experiences a sensation (hearing, seeing, feeling, tasting, smelling) of something that is not there.

Along with hallucinations, these drugs are known for inciting spiritual experiences in users; bringing on feelings of connectedness between users, and between users and the universe at large; stimulating feelings of euphoria, and wellbeing; and causing alterations in perception, mood, and cognitive function. Users have throughout time reported life-changing experiences regarding life and consciousness when on these drugs.

While psychedelics are generally safe, with no actual death or disability count directly related, there is one aspect to be wary of: the bad trip. In a bad trip, a user can experience negative – even frightening, hallucinations, and have physical symptoms like anxiety, nausea, erratic heartbeat, vomiting, chills, dizziness, paranoia, and raised blood pressure. This seems to be a big aspect of dosing, with correct dosing, or the use of micro-doses, eliminating the majority of these problem. People more sensitive to these drugs might want to try in smaller quantities.

magic mushrooms

The illegalization of psychedelics

Psychedelics gained momentum in the mid-1900’s after LSD was synthesized by Albert Hofmann in 1938 (but more formally realized in 1943), in Sandoz laboratories in Switzerland. This set off a cascade of LSD products being sold throughout the world. By the 1950’s it had been adopted by the world of psychiatry, with over 10,000 studies published between 1943-1970 according to the Oxford Press. LSD was the basis for the Saskatchewan trials in Canada led by Humphrey Osmond and Abram Hoffer, where it was shown to help alcoholics quit the juice. It was also big in England, where Ronald Sandison showed the benefit of LSD with psychoneurotic patients.

All of this ended by the late 1960’s when the US forged a campaign against psychedelics, likely in response to the unpopular Vietnam was, as a way of targeting counter-culture folks who were known for peace-loving and draft-dodging. This was done in the US with the Staggers-Dodd bill in 1968 followed by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act in 1970. It was done in England through the 1973 Misuse of Drugs Act. The Convention on Psychotropic Substances in 1971 made psychedelic compounds illegal globally.

How do we know about drug smear campaigns in relation to the war and racism? In 1994, John Ehrlichman, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Nixon, released this statement:

“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.”

My 2022 predictions for psychedelics

The class of psychedelics is gaining momentum, possibly inspired by the success of the cannabis industry, and its ability to change perceptions about the plant in the last couple decades. There’s a lot going on in the industry, so here are my 2022 predictions for what can be expected with psychedelics.

  • More states, cities, and individual locations will continue to pass laws like Oregon and Detroit to decriminalize recreational use, or legalize medical markets. These may be done through ballot measures during elections, or made as legislation by local governments.
  • In terms of ketamine, this might be the biggest standout of 2022. Ketamine clinics are already becoming very popular, which can be seen in the government’s attempt to divert the market to a pharmaceutical one by way of the legalization of esketamine. Esketamine will likely do nothing to stop the ketamine clinic industry, which, since it offers a seemingly better answer to monoamine antidepressants, should take off even further in 2022.
ketamine therapy
  • The tide will continue turning with psychedelics in the mainstream, with more and more people changing tack as they did with cannabis. This will likely be from the growing body of research into positive benefits, with the lack of negative results that were cried about for so long, becoming more obvious.
  • Having said this, since the government will badly want to keep a handle on it, there is also likely to be a continuation of smear campaigns aimed at driving fear and confusion into users. This in an effort to point them toward pharmaceutical options, rather than having the masses attempt to obtain these compounds illicitly or grow them on their own.
  • My 2022 predictions for the illicit psychedelics market, are that this will grow as well, with tons of illicit online retailers popping up, and a dirty, unregulated industry taking over. This is similar to the current state of affairs in the cannabis industry, exemplified by the unregulated cannabinoids market. This will help drive fear campaigns by targeting stories of seedy operators and adulterated products.
  • Magic mushrooms and psilocybin will be another big winner according to my 2022 predictions for psychedelics. As one of the compounds more immediately up for legalization, magic mushrooms also present the situation of being the most cannabis-like drug, in that they can be grown easily at home by users. Not only will magic mushrooms creep closer to a federal medical legalization, but I expect 2022 will see a huge push in home growing of these mushrooms.
  • MDMA is the other compound nearing legalization in the states, and 2022 should also be a year of progress for this drug, with further research getting it that much closer to a medical legalization. Though this is unlikely to happen in 2022, by the end of the year we might have a clearer picture of when this can be expected.
  • Another of my 2022 predictions for psychedelics is that we’re going to start seeing more legislation being floated in congress for federal legalization measures. This isn’t to say that any will succeed, but by the end of 2022, I expect several different bills for different purposes related to psychedelics, to come up and be discussed.
  • Lastly, I believe more politicians will come out openly supporting psychedelics and their uses in 2022. This will likely be on both the medical and recreational fronts, making upcoming legalizations that much more government-accepted.

What is the state of psychedelics currently in the US?

To give an idea of where things are now with psychedelics in the US, here is the basic rundown. Seattle didn’t exactly decriminalize legally, but in October of 2021, the city council unanimously voted on a non-binding resolution meant to discourage law enforcement from going after psychedelics users. It is not, however, a legal mandate. The most recent city to fall legally was Detroit, which decriminalized psychedelic (entheogenic) plants in November 2021 through Proposal E passed by voters.

entheogenic plants

Other specific locations that have set legal mandates include Denver, Colorado, which was first in 2019; and Oakland and Santa Cruz in California which made their own measures that same year, and the following year respectively. In 2020, An Arbor, Michigan; and Washington DC set decriminalization policies. This was followed by Washtenaw County, Michigan; Somerville, Cambridge, Northampton, and Easthampton in Massachusetts; and Arcata, California in 2021.

Of course, the biggest psychedelics champions right now is Oregon, which was the first state to adopt a statewide policy, with two ballot measures in 2020: Measure 109 – to legalize the medical use of psilocybin, and Measure 110 to decriminalize many drugs statewide. Both measures passed making Oregon the first state to allow legal medical use of a psychedelic, as well as the decriminalization statewide of many recreational drugs.

Two other states did institute lesser policies. On Thursday February, 4th, 2021, New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy signed a law that reclassified magic mushrooms to be a ‘disorderly persons offense’ so long as the amounts don’t go over one ounce. The maximum fine is now $1,000, and the maximum jail sentence is six months. While this pales in comparison to what Oregon did, it does greatly reduce penalties from $15,000 and five years in prison.

Rhode Island, on the other hand, signed into policy on July 7th, 2021, a law that allows for consumption sites for illegal drugs, where they can be accessed safely. This is a two-year pilot program that aims to give medical supervision to drug use, and individual municipalities are charged with authorizing facilities for this to happen. What will happen in the future, or if this will continue after two years, is hard to say, but for now it allows the use of drugs – including psychedelics – in specialized locations, without the threat of arrest.

In the works…

Currently there are two other statewide initiatives to legalize psychedelics. California has been working on the California Psilocybin Legalization Initiative, which is possibly slated to appear on the November 2022 ballot as a referendum, and which seeks to “legalize psilocybin, including psilocybin mushrooms, truffles, sclerotia, and mycelium, in California.” This would allow the “cultivation, manufacture, processing, distribution, transportation, possession, storage, consumption, and retail sale of psilocybin mushrooms.”

Michigan has also made strides in this direction, introducing Senate Bill 631, in September, 2021. This bill floated would legalize psychedelic compounds recreationally statewide, and has been referred to the Committee on Judiciary and Public Safety for further review. The bill would legalize the cultivation, delivery, creation, possession, and communal use of plant-derived recreational psychedelics. This would not allow sales, except in the cases of “counseling, spiritual guidance, or a related service that is provided in conjunction with the use of an entheogenic plant or fungus under the guidance and supervision of an individual providing the service”, in which case a fee can be charged.

Beyond this, while psychedelics are federally illegal, apart from esketamine and DXM (found in cough syrup), both MDMA and psilocybin have been given a ‘breakthrough therapy’ designation by the FDA in reference to research being conducted. Compass Pathways, and Usona Institute won this designation for research into psilocybin for major depression, while the organization MAPS not only got this designation for research into MDMA, but designed its phase three trials in conjunction with the FDA to ensure results meet regulation. Which means a federal government body is pushing for these legalizations.


With everything on the cusp of explosion, 2022 predictions for psychedelics can certainly be blown out of the water easily. It will be an interesting year to watch progress and see what happens, and it could very well be that some unexpected big moves could happen before year’s end.

Hello and welcome readers! You’ve arrived at CBDtesters.co, the best web source for the most interesting and essential cannabis and psychedelics-related news going on worldwide. Stop by regularly to stay abreast of the always-in-motion landscape of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out the The Psychedelics Weekly Newsletter, so you never miss an important story.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Psychedelic Industry Predictions for 2022 appeared first on CBD Testers.

Bring the Dose Down: Reverse Tolerance and Cannabis

Have you ever had the experience with any drug or compound, where in the beginning you built up a nice big tolerance, just to find one day that you didn’t need as much to achieve the same effects? It happens in life. So what is reverse tolerance in cannabis, and is it actually a thing?

Reverse tolerance with cannabis doesn’t have to kill the experience, after all, it just means you need less! If you do find yourself unhappy with a reverse tolerance effect, maybe change up what you’re using. Today’s cannabinoid market offers all new things to try like delta-8 THC, HHC, and THCV, among a host of others. We’ve got great deals on all compounds in this growing market, so take a look at what we’ve got on offer to figure out what works best for you. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter for deals on legal cannabis products, as well as all the latest news and industry stories. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


Drug tolerance is “a person’s diminished response to a drug, which occurs when the drug is used repeatedly and the body adapts to the continued presence of the drug.” This is different from drug resistance which “refers to the ability of microorganisms or cancer cells to withstand the effects of a drug usually effective against them.” For our purposes, we’re interested in tolerance.

What this means is that with repeated use of a drug (including cannabis), it requires larger doses to obtain the same high – or the same effects – that were once achieved at lower doses. This happens often as a result of how the drug is metabolized within the body, with repeated exposure allowing the body to essentially be more productive at getting the job done, which focuses mainly on liver enzymes increasing activity. Tolerance also occurs when the number of drug receptor sites decrease, as well as how strongly the bonds are made between the drug and the receptor.

The important thing to remember about most substances, is that we take them (and they are prescribed) within limits that are safe to take, at least in initial amounts. While prescription medication, especially drugs that are more dangerous, generally won’t be prescribed above a certain amount even with tolerance, what a person does on their own can often be more dangerous.

drug sensitization

The reason for this is that when we speak of ‘tolerance’, we’re speaking of the effects the drug has through receptors, and how it makes us feel. But drugs have other effects that we do not build tolerance to. For example, no matter how much fentanyl a person takes, they aren’t going to increase their bodies ability to deal with the effects to the autonomic nervous system, the part of the nervous system that controls things like breathing, body temperature, and heartrate. So, if a person must take a large dose of fentanyl to get high because of tolerance to its analgesic effects, this makes it that much easier for them to overdose, due to aspects of the drug which effect this part of the nervous system.

What is reverse tolerance?

I think we’re all relatively familiar with tolerance. The next question is, what’s reverse tolerance? The phenomenon of reverse tolerance, also known as drug sensitization, describes when a person has an increased reaction to the same amount of a drug, following regular use. Sensitization is the idea that the person is more sensitive to a substance than they were initially.

One of the examples often used to show this has to do with alcohol. For anyone who drinks out there, it’s understood that increased amounts are necessary to achieve the same feeling of drunkenness over time. However, because drinking leads to liver damage, and this can impair the liver, causing it to work in an impeded way, those with liver damage experience reverse tolerance. Since they can’t clear the alcohol from their system as fast, they can feel drunker off of smaller amounts.

Both tolerance and reverse tolerance are not specific to any one drug, nor do either apply to all. These things, similar to other issues involving the personal experience of drugs, can vary from user to user. Some will experience higher levels of tolerance to a substance that others might develop lower tolerance to, and some will experience reverse tolerance to substances that others never will for. Because of this last statement, it can often be hard to get a consensus on when and where reverse tolerance can be expected.

Reverse tolerance and cannabis

Currently, the jury seems to be out in the medical world as to whether reverse tolerance for cannabis exists. Some studies point to its existence, and others point to nothing. Perhaps, this itself simply backs up the idea that personal experience can vary greatly. Sometimes it will be seen, sometimes it won’t, so the idea the medical world would be split, is a good indication that though there is plenty of evidence to back it up, that it won’t always be seen.

In a 1971 study by Lemberger et al., study participants were given an IV injection of .5mg of THC. While subjects inexperienced with cannabis received no response to this small amount, experienced users reported a high lasting an average of 90 minutes, even when told beforehand they were being given a non-active version. Because of the IV administration, the idea of inexperienced smokers simply not knowing how to smoke correctly, is controlled for.


Lemberger and team in 1971 and 1972, and Raphael Mechoulam in 1970, both posited that this was because of a possibility the enzymes for converting THC to other compounds, requires a person to have used it already. This wouldn’t back up that the study showed reverse tolerance, but it could help explain why the more experience a person has with cannabis, the more their body might be able to sensitize to it.

On the other hand, in 1972, Mendelson et al. conducted trials where no reverse tolerance was found in a population with an average of five years of marijuana use. In these trials, some users not only showed no reverse tolerance, but showed increased regular tolerance (not unexpected). Now, as there wouldn’t be an expected time frame for when reverse tolerance could occur, a study like this cannot, obviously, speak to any changes within users that might have happened with an average of closer to 20-30 years of use.

A little more data on reverse tolerance and cannabis

On a more chemical level, in 2004, this study came out: Reversal of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced tolerance by specific kinase inhibitors, in which the investigators evaluated reverse tolerance through “kinase involvement in the expression of tolerance to the above four THC-induced behaviors.” These behaviors are: “Kinase inhibitors that specifically inhibit cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (PKC) and src tyrosine kinase”.

A kinase inhibitor is something that blocks enzymes called kinases, which are enzymes used to add phosphates to other molecules, and which are used to transmit signals and regulate many cellular processes. How they behave has an impact on the effects you get when using cannabis. And tolerance or reverse tolerance to them can change how a person experiences different effects of cannabis. Cannabis causes many effects beyond just getting high, so when speaking of tolerance, we’re speaking about all of these effects.

The results showed: “PKG and PKC inhibitors did not reverse tolerance in any behavioral measure. Src tyrosine kinase inhibition reversed tolerance to only the hypoactive effects of THC. PKA inhibition reversed tolerance to all measures, although the doses of inhibitor and time-course of inhibition varied among behaviors.” Regardless of how well your chemistry brain works, the takeaway is that some inhibitors caused a reverse tolerance reaction to THC, some didn’t, and there were not necessarily specific time frames for these reactions. This backs up the ability for reverse tolerance to at least some effects of cannabis.

On a last note, when looking for personal experiences on Reddit, I found a lack of general understanding for what reverse tolerance and sensitization are, so much so that even when this exact thing was being described, it seemed not to be understood by any responders.

reverse tolerance

This particular situation I’m noting actually sounds nearly identical to mine (read on), where a person required less and less to get to the point of THC overconsumption (seen in the form of anxiety/THC sickness). An issue not seen with repeated use until a certain point. Like with me, I can’t say this was exactly the case, but I did find it funny that responders were quick to give the opinion that reverse tolerance for weed doesn’t exist, while trying to figure out why this guy showed a massive increase in sensitization to it.

My own experience with reverse tolerance and cannabis

I actually brought up this subject today for a reason, as this issue of reverse tolerance and cannabis is one I seem to be experiencing. Whatever the cause, I can’t say, nor if it will last. But I can say that within the past six months or so, the larger amounts of cannabis I was smoking, now create too strong a reaction, and I can only use it in smaller amounts.

This is probably a good time to remind that there are different effects that tolerance can be built to, and different effects a person might become more sensitized to. I can get high off of a little less, for example, but that’s not the issue for me. The main thing I noticed was a sensitization to the effects of anxiety produced by the cannabis. And this for me has been intense, to the point of THC sickness.

I used to not have issues with cannabis causing major anxiety, nor have I often otherwise experienced THC sickness. In fact, though I got a little paranoid here and there, it was never a highly noticeable thing, and certainly not more than the standard paranoia of weed smoking. While I noticed this change in the past six months, I expect it’s been going on a bit longer, only getting to recognizable points in the last several months. After all, when you’ve never had an issue repeatedly using something before, it can take some time to make the connection that this thing is now causing a different response.

I don’t have to experience anxiety from cannabis – I actually tested it out. When taking extremely small doses (think micro-dosing or slightly above), I can experience whatever high comes from it, but without noticeably increased anxiety, and without feeling sick. Once I get anywhere near regular levels, or what I used to use, I’m going to feel it all throughout my body. Essentially, it starts to give me the feeling of THC overdose, at a much lesser amount than ever caused the reaction before.

Now, could this be issues of products and quality, of pesticides and additives (I do use oil vapes at times)? Could be. I performed no actual study, so all conclusions I’ve drawn are related to me paying attention to my own experience. Sure, it could be that I’ve had higher exposure to pesticides, and that that’s what’s causing the problem, but I’ve been a weed smoker for decades, have lived around the world, and somehow only have this problem now. I certainly can’t rule out other factors, but the best and most consistent answer I can find for myself involving cannabis, is that I’m experiencing reverse tolerance to the THC in the form of a massive sensitization to it.

drug tolerance


In my mind, it would be a hard argument to make that cannabis can’t cause reverse tolerance, though there is also nothing saying that it must. For all we seem to know about varying personal experience with compounds, this is not always taken into account in research. As more studies are done in the future showing this ability for variation on the subject of reverse tolerance, there will likely be a widening understanding of this phenomenon as it relates to weed.

Welcome and thanks for joining us! You’ve made it to CBDtesters.co, your #1 source for the most recent and important cannabis and psychedelics-related news going on now. Read-thru the site whenever you can to stay abreast of the ever-changing world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and check out The THC Weekly Newsletter, so you’re never late on getting a story.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Bring the Dose Down: Reverse Tolerance and Cannabis appeared first on CBD Testers.

Pfizer Entering Cannabis Space Through $6.7 Billion All-Cash Acquisition

Pharmaceutical giant Pfizer Inc. is getting involved in the medical cannabis industry through the $6.7 billion, all-cash acquisition of Arena Pharmaceuticals, a California-based company specializing in autoimmune and cardiovascular treatments, who also has a cannabinoid medication currently in their pipeline.  

The two publicly traded companies confirmed the deal last week. As per the agreement, Pfizer will own all outstanding shares of Arena, which they purchased for a total of $100 per share. This marks their eighth major acquisition over the last 20 years.  

Like with most other beneficial compounds, big pharma is looking to take over cannabis too. Only, when pharma comes in, you get much less of the natural healing compounds and a whole lot of synthetics and derivatives. That said, now is the time to shop for products, while we still can. For more articles like this one, and for exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other legal products, remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter for deals on legal cannabis products, as well as all the latest news and industry stories. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!

Pfizer and their rise to fame 

Pfizer Inc. is a multinational, American-headquartered, pharmaceutical and biotech corporation based in Manhattan, New York City, NY. The company was founded by two German immigrants in 1849, Charles Pfizer and his cousin Charles F. Erhart.  

By the 1950s, Pfizer was now a global company with offices in Canada, Belgium, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, and the United Kingdom, as well as many locations throughout the United States. In 1960, their major US research facility was moved from New York City to Groton, Connecticut.  

In 1980, Pfizer released its first billion-dollar product – Feldene (piroxicam), a prescription-only anti-inflammatory treatment. Their next major product to receive approval was Diflucan (fluconazole) in 1981, an oral medication used to treat several types of fungal infections including candidiasis, blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, dermatophytosis, and pityriasis versicolor. 

In 1989, Pfizer accidentally created one of their most popular medications, Viagra. Initially intended to treat high blood pressure and angina, early trials showed it was not effective for these conditions. It did, however, have an interesting side effect. Trial volunteers reported increased erections after taking the medicine. It was patented for this purpose and received approval from the FDA in March 1998. By the end of 1999, Pfizer had already made $1 billion off Viagra sales.  

Along with Viagra, Pfizer also released Zoloft around the same time. Zoloft is a highly controversial anti-depressant that has been the central focus of hundreds of lawsuits. At the heart of many cases was an increased risk of violent behavior, mania, aggression, and even suicidal tendencies; the exact conditions a medication like this is supposed to alleviate. These symptoms were common at the start of treatment or anytime the patients’ doses were changed.

Additional side effects of Zoloft include: agitation, hallucinations, fever, overactive reflexes, tremors; nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, feeling unsteady, loss of coordination; trouble concentrating, memory problems, weakness, fainting, seizure, shallow breathing, or breathing that stops. 

COVID-19 Vaccine 

Despite their long list of existing – albeit sometimes questionable – medications and practices, it wasn’t until the start of this year that Pfizer truly became a household name in nearly every country on earth, following the development of their mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. As controversial as this vaccine may be, there is one thing that no one can deny – it’s a serious money maker.  

By June, the company had already made roughly $11.3 billion off the vaccine, based on their Q1 and Q1 reports. Now that the booster is available, Pfizer expects its Covid-19 vaccines to bring in roughly $33.5 billion in revenue by the end of 2021, which would make it one of their best-selling medications, ever.  

According to a review of 120,000 COVID-19 hospitalizations between June and September 2021, 15 percent are breakthrough cases, and that number is expected to rise significantly with the omicron variant. Some experts believe that soon, most Covid cases will be breakthroughs. A “breakthrough” case refers to new covid cases in vaccinated patients.  

Considering the short-lived efficiency of the vaccine, and the fact that pharmaceutical companies are pushing for boosters every six months, there’s certainly a lot of money to be made in the vaccine game, for those who were able to get a foot in early on.  

Who is Arena Pharmaceuticals? 

Arena Pharmaceuticals is a biotechnology company based San Diego, California and founded in 1997. Their main area of study, up until now, has been in the fields of autoimmune, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal diseases and they’ve been working on different small molecule medicines for these conditions.

The cannabinoid medication they’re formulating is called Olorinab (APD371). It’s an oral medication that will function as a full agonist of the CB2 receptors. They are researching the effectiveness of this treatment against numerous different health conditions and symptoms, but they are focused primarily on visceral pain associated with gastrointestinal illness.  

In other, non-cannabinoid areas of the pipeline, Arena has been working on medications for the treatment of many different immuno-inflammatory diseases, heart conditions, gastroenterology, and dermatology. Currently, all their drugs are still in the development stage.  

About the $6.7 billion all-cash deal 

“The proposed acquisition of Arena complements our capabilities and expertise in Inflammation and Immunology, a Pfizer innovation engine developing potential therapies for patients with debilitating immuno-inflammatory diseases with a need for more effective treatment options,” stated Mike Gladstone, global president & general manager, Pfizer Inflammation and Immunology.  

“Utilizing Pfizer’s leading research and global development capabilities, we plan to accelerate the clinical development of etrasimod for patients with immuno-inflammatory diseases,” he added. Etrasimod is Arena’s prime future treatment option for immune-mediated inflammatory disease.  

President and CEO of Arena Pharmaceuticals, Amit D. Munshi, stated that they are “thrilled” to have been acquired by Pfizer, and remarked on “Arena’s potentially best in class S1P molecule and our contribution to addressing unmet needs in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Pfizer’s capabilities will accelerate our mission to deliver our important medicines to patients. We believe this transaction represents the best next step for both patients and shareholders.” 

Big Pharma Entering Cannabis Space 

As big of news as this is, it’s not the first example of a large pharmaceutical company getting involved in cannabis, and it certainly won’t be the last. Most recently, earlier this year, Jazz Pharmaceuticals purchased GW Pharmaceuticals, a cannabinoid drug company from the UK that developed Epidiolex, the first FDA-approved CBD medication. It has also earned approval in Japan and most of Europe. Epidiolex is used to treat two rare forms of childhood epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome and Dravet Syndrome.  

Back in 2018, Tilray, a major Canadian-based cannabis corporation, finalized a supply and distribution deal with Novartis AG, a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company. Johnson & Johnson is also eyeing the industry, and has even allowed cannabis company Avicanna to utilize their 40,000-square-foot research facility, Innovation JLABS@Toronto. This type of setup can provide startups with flexible and stable labs to test products, without the “investor” actually taking a financial stake in the company.  

Final Thoughts 

The main takeaway here is that big pharma is very familiar with the benefits of cannabis, and once it’s federally legal, large pharmaceutical companies will be making major moves in the medical sector. With companies like this, it’s all about the money, and they’re just waiting for the right time to pull the plug. But keep in mind that the minute real THC (not synthetic) is used in a pharmaceutical drug, it can no longer be sold as a wellness supplement or recreational product. So if the day ever comes that pharmaceutical companies start using plant-extracted THC in their formulations, the industry as we know it will cease to exist.

Hello and welcome! Thanks for stopping by CBDtesters.co, your #1 web source for cannabis and psychedelics-related news, offering the most interesting stories of today. Join us frequently to stay on-top of the quickly-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and remember to check out The THC Weekly Newsletterto ensure you’re never late on getting a story.

Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Pfizer Entering Cannabis Space Through $6.7 Billion All-Cash Acquisition appeared first on CBD Testers.

Is Cannabis Prohibition Unconstitutional?

The United States prides itself on being a nation of social and economic freedom. As a matter of fact, these are some of our founding principles and fundamental rights. Numerous documents have been drafted over the years to make sure these liberties are never taken away from us; the most important being the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.  

These documents outline our inalienable rights and the responsibilities of a government that works for us to protect said rights. This all sounds amazing, but what happens when there is a major discrepancy between our legal rights and what we consider our intrinsic rights? Regarding cannabis, this is a question coming up with more regularity; because, if we are granted “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”, why would something natural, non-toxic, and therapeutic – something that by all definitions, “makes us happy”, be prohibited?  

Getting straight to the point here, is cannabis prohibition unconstitutional? Numerous industry advocates and legal experts are raising this question in the United States Supreme Court.  

Weed legality is incredibly complicated and constantly changing. But one aspect of it that does not get challenged enough is whether cannabis prohibition is actually unconstitutional? Is banning cannabis, legal? Maybe focusing on our most important historical documents is the key to federal legalization. In the meantime, make sure to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter for deals on legal cannabis products, as well as all the latest news and industry stories. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!

The Declaration, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights 

Now, let’s get back to these important documents. Earlier I touched briefly on the Declaration, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights, but I would be remiss not to discuss each in further detail. After all, they are undeniably our most valued government documents.  

There are some obvious parallels between the three, starting with the fact that they all have a preamble – which are expressive, introductory statements. They were all written to ease civil unrest or general political turbulence. And most importantly, they all work together and play off each other to guarantee that our basic rights – which the founders believed came from God – are protected and that we, the people, have a way to hold our governing bodies accountable.  

That said, there are some critical differences between these documents as well – in how they are written, their history, and the purposes they serve. The Declaration and Constitution were both drafted in what is now known as Independence Hall, by a congress and convention that met in 1776 and 1787, whereas the Bill of Rights was written two years later, in 1789, by a congress that met in Federal Hall in New York.  

The Declaration was written almost entirely by Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison was the primary drafter of the Bill of Rights and Constitution, along with James Wilson. The Declaration was created as a rationale for breaking away from the oppressive British government; and the Constitution and Bill of Rights were constructed to establish a government that will defend our newly established freedoms, as per the Declaration of Independence. The Bill of Rights describes the rights and liberties of the American people, and the constitution details the government’s role in preserving these rights.  

Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness 

Regarding cannabis, let’s focus more on the part about “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”. In that short statement, the preamble to the Declaration of Independence basically encompasses the entire theory of a democratic, American government.  

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.—That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,—That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.” 

There are a few different interpretations of the “pursuit of happiness” segment, but there really are not very many ways to misconstrue that. Some describe it as the right to freely pursue anything joyous, as long as you live life in a way that is not violating the rights of another individual. Others take that definition one step further to include breaking the law as a barrier to “pursuing happiness”.  

Arguably, cannabis makes most people happy… it does me for sure. My cannabis use doesn’t harm others or infringe upon anyone else’s rights; however, it is still illegal. But legality is just about as subjective as defining happiness. I mean, interracial marriage was once illegal in the US, and the only people allowed to work, vote, and own property were white men. Laws are often unjust and society is waiting on the right people to make waves, shake things up a bit, and abolish the old, archaic ways.

So, at this point, knowing the medicinal benefits of cannabis and how it functions in the human body; and taking into consideration that the level of intoxication and risk of adverse effects are both very low; how can the government justify prohibition anymore? If alcohol is legal, then yes, keeping cannabis illegal does seem to border on unconstitutional.  

Liberty vs Personal Sovereignty  

If you’ve been following any global cannabis news lately, you’ve likely noticed that some countries, like Mexico and South Africa, are pushing cannabis legalization through Supreme Courts using personal sovereignty clauses in their constitutions.  

Personal sovereignty can be defined as follows: To be sovereign over one’s self is to be free of the control or coercion of others – to truly direct one’s own life.” Summed up, it’s the concept of self-ownership and governing one’s own body without interference from anyone else, including the government. This applies to legal/inalienable rights, body and health-related rights, and simply being the sole controller over your own body and life. Personal sovereignty is a central idea rooted in several different political ideologies including liberalism, libertarianism, and anarchism. 

Many countries that have constitutional documents and supreme courts also have personal sovereignty clauses. What’s interesting is that even these “God-given” rights do vary based on your locality. So, what’s considered inviolable in one country might not be so in another country. That being said, no, the United States does not have a personal sovereignty clause in its constitution. The closest we get is that passionate preamble, which is not absolute and can be interpreted in different ways.  

Because cannabis laws are relaxing all over the world and a greater number of large-scale studies are becoming available, it’s possible, theoretically, that the “pursuit of happiness” argument could hold up in court, but as of now, that has not happened yet.  

NORML’s amicus brief  

In an amicus curiae brief filed last year by a NORML (National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Law) Legal Committee member David Holland, Esq., argued that the harsh federal scheduling of cannabis is unconstitutional because all three branches of our government (legislative, executive and judicial) have supported and promoted laws and policies that directly contradict the plant’s illegal status.  

Holland said: “The Brief exposes a fundamental paradox – if cannabis is federally illegal for all purposes, and the three coordinate branches of federal government have acted to allow for cannabis businesses, then the federal government is nullifying its own law. Simply put, under the Constitution, something cannot be illegal and legal at the same time especially when it comes to state laws that conflict with federal laws. The only resolution to this constitutional conflict is for the Supreme Court to invoke the doctrine of estoppel to prevent the federal government from reversing course and retroactively penalizing that which it has protected in fostering state cannabis programs and effectively legalizing it.” 

He added: “Federal precedent exists for the Court to invoke the doctrine and Attorney General William Barr has testified before Congress about his belief that it would be fundamentally unfair to penalize those who in good faith relied upon those government statements and policies because it would violate Due Process. Due Process and fairness are the very heart of the reasoning for the Court to invoke the doctrine of estoppel.” 

Click here to read the full text.  

What about Justice Clarence Thomas? 

A sudden and unlikely proponent of cannabis legalization is Justice Clarence Thomas, one of the Supreme Court’s most conservative members. Thomas is challenging federal cannabis prohibition based on the government’s inconsistent policies and enforcement. He asked whether the federal government had the right to undermine state-regulated markets, and what to make of all their contradicting messages.  

“Once comprehensive, the Federal Govern­ment’s current approach is a half-in, half-out regime that simultaneously tolerates and forbids local use of marijuana,” Thomas wrote. “This contradictory and unstable state of affairs strains basic principles of federalism and conceals traps for the un­wary.” 

Thomas’ newfound views stem from a case brought against the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) by a medical cannabis dispensary in Colorado. They sued over a tax code that blocked cannabis retailers from claiming regular business deductions that other industries were able to do.

cannabis unconstitutional
Justice Clarence Thomas

In 2009 and 2013, the Department of Justice issued memorandums instructing prosecutors to let cannabis businesses in legal states operate without interference. Additionally, congress passed a law in 2015 that completely prohibits the Justice Department to spend any money going after these legal operators. “Given all these developments, one can certainly understand why an ordinary person might think that the Federal Government has retreated from its once-absolute ban on marijuana,” Thomas wrote. 

“If the Government is now content to allow States to act ‘as laboratories’ ‘and try novel social and economic experiments,’ then it might no longer have authority to intrude on ‘the States’ core police powers . . . to define criminal law and to protect the health, safety and welfare of their citizens,’” he wrote. “A prohibition on intrastate use or cultivation of marijuana may no longer be necessary or proper to support the Federal Government’s piecemeal ap­proach.”  

Jim Thorburn, the attorney who is representing the Colorado dispensary whose lawsuit Thomas commented on, believes there’s a way to legalize marijuana federally through the Supreme Court. “Justice Thomas is providing the roadmap to the end of Prohibition,” says Thorburn. “He’s trying to end the federal prohibition.” Thorburn believes that Thomas’ statement was a suggestion to attack Gonzales v. Raich head-on. “When he says this is straining the core of federalism, and calling Gonzalez v. Reich into question, whether the Court could support that case today—I think he’s suggesting that cannabis prohibition might be unconstitutional,” says Thorburn. 

Conclusion – Is cannabis prohibition unconstitutional or not?

The fight for cannabis, Thorburn says, could very well be decided by the Supreme Court, similar to how marriage equality, abortion rights, and other social issues have been historically resolved. Only time will where that final push to legalization will come from, but looking at some of our oldest and most important government documents may hold the answer.

Hello and welcome! You made it to CBDtesters.co, your one-stop-shop for the most up-to-date and thought-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news, offering up the most relevant stories of today. Join us frequently to stay informed on the quickly-moving universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletterto make sure you always know what’s going on first.

Disclaimer: Hi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Is Cannabis Prohibition Unconstitutional? appeared first on CBD Testers.

New Study: Does Cannabis Increase Risk of Heart Attacks, Or Is This Bad Research?

*** Please note: This is an opinion piece, that mainly reflects the author’s opinion about this subject ***
If you don’t investigate for yourself what goes on in life, it’s easy to get swayed by a headline, without understanding why its there. In the case of cannabis, which is consistently linked with positive health benefits – including for heart heath, and a general lack of negative ones (especially of the deadly variety), there is a constant push by governments to have people think its unhealthy, even as these governments push pharmaceutical versions of the very same thing. The latest example? A study linking cannabis use with an increase risk of heart attacks, but is it true? Or just an example of bad press meant to push consumers toward pharmaceutical products?

There’s a lot of news that comes out about cannabis, and often it only comes out to force a belief on readers, like this recent study linking cannabis use with heart attacks. Luckily, there is plenty of good research out there to compare with, and a lot of great products available. From standard cannabis, to extracts like delta-8 THC, the benefits of cannabis can be accessed in different ways. We’ve got a great selection of delta-8 THC deals, along with many other compounds, such as thcv, thco, thcp, delta 10 and even hhc and hemp-derived delta 9 THC. So, make sure to do your own research when bad press comes out, and remember, your opinion is your own, and not for sale.

The study

The study was published on September 7th, 2021 in the publication, and is called: Open Access Recent cannabis use and myocardial infarction in young adults: a cross-sectional study. The goal of the study was to investigate recent cannabis use and history of myocardial infarction (heart attacks), in adults aged 18-44. This was not an in-person study, and all results were tabulated from existing information collected for other purposes.

It was done as a cross-sectional study off of collected data from 2017-2018 American Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data. The study investigators analyzed any recent cannabis use, along with personal heart attack information, which was adjusted for socioeconomic issues, demographics, some substance abuse issues, behaviors related to general health, and other comorbid factors.

18.5 million respondent data was weighted, and 33,173 adult data was used. Of the 33,173, 4,610 (out of 3.2 million weighted), reported some amount of cannabis use in the form of smoking. It was found these participants had a higher frequency of myocardial infarction in comparison to those who had no use. The correlation was between those who use cannabis at least four times a month – only with smoking, not with other ingestion methods, and the incidence of heart attacks. I want to stress that again, it looked only at users who lit the plant on fire, and inhaled it, meaning we’re dealing with the issue of general smoking.

myocardial infarction

According to the study investigators, this study shows a relationship between recent cannabis use, and heart attacks, with the implication made that cannabis use for at-risk populations could pose a higher threat of heart attacks. The study authors did admit, in their ‘limitations’ section, that they weren’t able to collect data on the temporal relationship between when cannabis use started, and when heart issues started. Which means they couldn’t account for if cannabis use started before or after heart issues started. They also stated there are issues of missing data, but didn’t say what the missing data points were.

The study only measured some confounding factors (unrelated factors that could have caused the result), but not others, and left out some mighty important ones like cocaine, and other illicit drugs, some of which (like cocaine) are actually associated with causing heart problems. The study did not account for what the respondents were using in terms of cannabinoids, or if there were unregulated compounds with the cannabis. The authors used this last point to say that illegally obtained cannabis can be dangerous, but really, anything so much as sprayed with pesticides could pose a threat, so legally or illegally obtained makes no difference when it comes to unregulated and/or dangerous compounds with the cannabis.

The study did nothing to include data on cardiovascular confounding issues, meaning the investigators didn’t account for related cardiovascular issues in the person’s history, or family history. And nor did the study collect data about the specifics of the  myocardial infarction issues being experienced, meaning a light heart attack and a cardiac arrest, would be looked at the same. They also gave not one mention to diet and exercise, and how these factors might effect heart attack risk, which we already know they do. Maybe most importantly, the study investigators completely left out the general issue of smoking (lighting something on fire and inhaling), which is one of the most well-known exacerbators of cardiovascular issues, regardless of what is being smoked.

Best Deals On Delta-9 THC Products – Christmas 2021

It should also be noted, more than one study investigator has accepted money from multiple pharmaceutical companies, some of which put out cannabis products.

So, does cannabis increase the risk of heart attacks in young adults, or is this study bogus?

If cannabis really does cause an increase in risk for heart attacks among young adults, it certainly wasn’t identified by this study. I find it almost funny that this was peer-reviewed, because either the peer-reviewing system is fundamentally flawed, or that never actually happened here. I am truly dumbfounded by how incredibly off-the-mark this study is, although given that there is indirect pharmaceutical sponsorship, it does make sense, and this is seen quite often.

This is what’s called a smear campaign, or something put out to diminish the reputation of something, generally in order to push a competing factor. In this case, it seems the study is not only trying to create a connection that doesn’t exist to deter people from using non-pharmaceutical versions of cannabis, but actually attempts to make the argument that medical cannabis shouldn’t be used in at-risk patients, who have in actuality, benefited the most from it historically, whether pharmaceutical or illicit. Here’s why I say all this:

smoking cannabis

First and foremost, the study left out the biggest confounding issue: smoking. In fact, not only did the authors leave this out, but the study results actually suggests that smoking is the actual cause of the increase in heart attacks, as the only cannabis users in the study, were ones that smoked it. Considering they were looking at as little as four times of monthly use, the idea that it would be related to cannabis – which has no found history of myocardial relevance, and not smoking, which has been associated with up to 800,000 deaths a year from cardiovascular issues in the US alone, is sad at best, and horribly lacking in critical thought at worst. In fact, looking at the data, the only thing this study shows, is that there could be a connection between lighting something on fire and breathing it in, and having heart issues. But don’t we already know that??

The fact that the study authors didn’t look at substances used like cocaine, that they didn’t look at specifics of the heart issues being experienced, that they didn’t account for what came first, heart issues or cannabis use, that they didn’t look at whether the cannabis was tainted with pesticides (and examine how anything on the cannabis might effect heart issues), that they didn’t examine personal histories or family histories for heart issues, that they didn’t account for what kind of cannabis the person was smoking, that they didn’t take into account diet and exercise, that they didn’t account for other forms of cannabis ingestion, and that they didn’t account for smoking, all make this a shabby study at best, and disgustingly misleading at worst.

As far as I’m concerned, the study authors should be ashamed of themselves for publishing such a ridiculous piece of anti-research. You’d think these people didn’t have degrees at all. I mean, not accounting for the smoking factor? Where were these ‘professionals’ licensed?  It seems quite likely this study was put out for the title value, since most people will not do what I did, and actually read through it. But go for it. It’s not too long, give it a read-thru, see how much sense it makes to you.

And then go down and look at the writers and who they have accepted money from in the past. Just Subodh Verma alone has accepted money from Boehringer Ingelheim (holds some of the strongest CBD patents), Eli Lilly (created cannabis treatment Nabilone), AstraZeneca (in agreements to develop CBD medications), Janssen (owns Canabo Medical Inc – cannabis health and wellness), Merck (a leading cannabis patent holder), Novartis (partnered with Tilray), Novo Nordisk (does consulting work with cannabis companies), Amgen, Sanofi (medical cannabis patent holder), Servier, Sun Pharmaceuticals, HLS Therapeutics, Amarin, Valeant (bought out Eli Lilly), Bayer (works with GW to market cannabis extracts), PhaseBio and Pfizer (one of the biggest holders of cannabis patents).

Another author, David Mazer, accepted money from Amgen, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim and Octapharma. The latter did consulting work for these companies, the former has accepted research grants and speaking honoraria from the companies listed. I likely missed many connections, these were the obviously found ones, though many required some digging.

Just in case it needs to be said, none of these companies with cannabis products are looking to avoid use with at-risk populations. These medications are specifically made for them. However, it’s also common knowledge that pharmaceutical companies (and any company in the regulated market) lose money when people buy from the black market instead of their products, and is a probable reason a study like this was born. The impression I get is that companies which sell comparable products want you to only buy their products and be afraid of the natural plant. And if they don’t sell them, they want you to think cannabis will hurt you, and that you should buy their non-cannabis product instead. Either way, the natural plant is demonized, and the only answer given, is that if you’re not buying from a pharmaceutical company, you’re likely to die.

government smear campaign

Can you see this in other places?

Yes, these smear campaigns are all the rage, but can usually be identified when looking at funding. When a government puts out direct medical information, it should be questioned because of conflicts of interest (the government takes money from large corporations after all, and this is not arguable). When a pharmaceutical company funds a study for which it sells the product in question, or a competing product, it should be questioned. Here are a few other recent smear campaigns against cannabis that have come up recently. Funny how these make an appearance as the medical information really solidifies around cannabis as a better overall answer to many of these company’s competing products.

  • July 2021 study: Development Over Time of the Population-Attributable Risk Fraction for Cannabis Use Disorder in Schizophrenia in Denmark. This study tried to tie problematic marijuana use to schizophrenia. The problem with such an assertion is that global numbers for schizophrenia have stayed consistent, and as a disorder with no medical definition, every diagnosis and study is based off of subjective information, making for no hard info. Plus, this was taken from data used in other places, did not account for much confounding information, comes from a country that has very anti-cannabis laws, and had so many holes in it, you could drive a truck through. And then there’s the fact it was 100% funded by Lundbeckfonden, a pharmaceutical company, making for the biggest conflict of interest of all.
  • Then there’s this study from June, 2021, Impaired awareness: Why people with multiple sclerosis continue using cannabis despite evidence to the contrary. The study tried to show how MS sufferers use cannabis despite it showing cognitive impairment in the short term. The only thing the study did back up, was that cannabis only does cause impairment in the short term, and that impairment not only goes away quickly with cessation of use, but that its still preferable to MS patients so long as their symptoms can be dealt with, which is hardly a detraction of cannabis at all. Of course, lead author Anthony Feinstein, has accepted funds from multiple pharmaceutical companies, which is probably why it seems the results were molded to look negative for cannabis, when further investigation shows otherwise.
  • And what about this study linking cannabis to suicide: Associations of Suicidality Trends With Cannabis Use as a Function of Sex and Depression Status? The study used information from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health collected between 2008 and 2019, in which the respondents had answered questions (out of context) about cannabis use, depression, major depressive episodes, suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts. This information was adjusted for sociodemographic issues, nicotine use, alcohol use disorder, and cocaine use, but nothing else. The investigators didn’t even factor in prescription medications and illicit drug use other than cocaine, even though prescription drug misuse is significantly higher than cocaine abuse. The investigators made a connection between even small amounts of cannabis use and suicide, which just isn’t backed up by life in general. It’s easy to forget that cannabis has been used for millennia, and somehow, suicide never came up. Of course, at least one study author accepted pharma money, and this is a 100% government-funded study. Big pharma gives an average of $233 million a year to politicians in the US government, meaning government-funded can be considered pharmaceutically-funded!


Does cannabis cause an increase in the risk of heart attacks for young adults? Well, if it does, this probably would have come up in the thousands of years that cannabis has been used medicinally, and surprise!, it didn’t until the pharmaceutical industry became threatened by the illicit cannabis industry. The study shows that smoking itself may increase risks of heart attack, but that’s old news already. If cannabis has any effect on heart attack risk, this study certainly didn’t find it. And those who both worked on it, and peer-reviewed it, should be embarrassed and ashamed of what they put out.

Hello all! Welcome to CBDtesters.co, the #1 internet location for the most thought-provoking and current cannabis and psychedelics-related news from around the world. Drop by for a visit regularly to stay on top of the quickly-moving universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up to be a part of our newsletter list, to ensure you always know what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post New Study: Does Cannabis Increase Risk of Heart Attacks, Or Is This Bad Research? appeared first on CBD Testers.

Best Cannabis Stocks To Invest In This Fall 2021

The cannabis industry is expected to double in total value over the next 3 years, with legal products sales estimated to top $43 billion. That said, right now is prime time to invest and venture capitalists are taking note. Naturally, being an incipient market, there are numerous investment risks to take into consideration so it is important to have a good understanding of industry operations and patterns beforehand.

It can take some time to get educated in all the innerworkings of the complicated and everchanging cannabis industry, so until then, you can check out some of the current top stocks from our list and see if any are a right fit for you.

The cannabis industry is still relatively new, but growing at exponential rates. That’s why now is the perfect time to consider investing. If you’d like to learn more about the industry, make sure to subscribe to The Medical Cannabis Weekly Newsletter, your top-source for all things cannabis-related including more articles like this one and exclusive deals on various legal products.

1. Innovative Industrial Properties

Innovative Industrial Properties (NYSE:IIPR) is probably a name you’re already familiar with, as it’s well known, well performing, and somewhat unique in the industry. This company doesn’t deal directly with cannabis products nor is it really an ancillary company. Rather, it’s a real estate investment trust that specializes in the management of cannabis cultivation facilities, which it leases to growers across the US.

As of now, they only offer property contracts to growers that are licensed to cultivate for medical purposes. The medical market is stable, more widely accepted, and according to recent data collected by Global Market Insights, expected to surpass $15 billion in valuation over the next few years. IIP has a large portfolio in this sector that includes properties in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, and Illinois.

Now let’s take a quick look at the numbers. In 2020, the company reported a 162% increase in revenue, as well as a net income boost of 191 percent. In the first half of 2021, they company continued to see growth by 101% in the first quarter and 119% in the second.

In 2020 alone, the company reported that its revenue increased 162% and net income rose by 191% from the prior year. In the first half of 2021, the company’s revenue and net income surged by 101% and 119%, respectively, from the same period in 2020. The company raises its payout on a regular basis and recently announced a 28% year-over-year increase. Additionally, IIR is yielding 2.6% percent, compared to the average of 1.3% noted by S&P 500.

2. Jushi Holdings

When it comes to the type of cannabis stocks most investors think of when considering the marijuana industry, Jushi Holdings (OTC:JUSHF) is one of the first that comes to mind. Jushi is a multi-state cannabis operator has a large portfolio of dispensaries across the US in states such as California, Illinois, Virginia, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, its largest market where it current has 15 stores.

Jushi Holdings (OTC:JUSHF) is the kind of stock that most investors think of when looking at the marijuana industry. The multi-state cannabis operator has a fast-growing portfolio of dispensaries and retail locations that run from coast to coast.

Jushi Holdings has locations in Pennsylvania, Illinois, California, Virginia, and Massachusetts. The company’s most substantial presence is in Pennsylvania, where it has 15 stores. Additionally, they recently acquired an 8,000-square-foot medical cannabis production facility in Ohio, where they already sell a large percentage of their products.

Jushi Holdings reported a 220% year-over-year revenue increase in the most recent quarter, as well as 194% raise in gross profits from 12 months prior. Shares are up 80% since last year but they are still affordable enough for even novice investors to consider.

3. Cresco Labs

Cresco Labs (CRLBF), is another multistate operator with business in 10 different states. Their portfolio includes 44 ancillary retail businesses, 18 production facilities, and 32 dispensaries. National brands they represent include Cresco, Reserve, Remedi, and Mindy’s Edibles.

In April of this year, Cresco Labs announced the launch of a new line of low-dose cannabis-based edibles: Wonder Wellness. For now, this brand is only available in Illinois, but they will so be on store shelves in the all the states in which Cresco currently operates.

Cresco reported a 123% increase in sales during Q2, as well as an adjusted EBITDA of $45.5 million, which was 98% higher than the same time last year. In total, they reported a net profit of $2.7 billion, a 106% increase from 12 months ago – making it one of the safest and most reliable stocks in the industry.

4. GrowGeneration

GrowGeneration (GRWG) is the largest operator of hydroponic garden centers in the United States. Although they have been on a bit of a roller coaster ride this year as far as stock prices rising and falling, overall, they have been on a steady rise with shares doubling annually over the last 3 years.

In July 2021, GrowGeneration announced the acquisition of Michigan-based company HGS Hydro. In total, HGS operates seven stores and they are the third largest retailer of hydroponic products in the US.

In total, GrowGeneration operates 65 stores in 12 different states, and they are currently looking to expand into many of the newer markets such as Missouri, Illinois, Arizona, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. By 2023, they plan to operate over 100 stores across the country.  

Current numbers for GrowGeneration boast a year-over-year revenue increase of 190%, and a net income rise of 161% compared to last year. They also experienced 60% same-store sales growth and raised their full-year sales guidance. Despite some minor setbacks and occasional drop in prices, GrowGeneration is moving up again and stock prices are quite reasonable heading into fall.

5. ETFMG Alternative Harvest ETF

As far as industry stocks go, ETFMG Alternative Harvest ETF (MJ) is a well-known name in the world of cannabis investing and the first ETF to target the industry. Since launching in December 2015, MJ has accumulated an estimated $1.4 billion in total assets, and the company is expected to grow to $66.3 billion in annual revenue within the next 3 years. MJ has an impressive portfolio of Canadian holdings including Canopy Growth and Cronos Group.

According to Kiplinger’s Investment Outlook, “The Prime Alternative Harvest Index looks to embrace a broad strategy that not only invests in companies that grow or manufacture cannabis-related products, as well as CBD stocks; it also invests in those businesses that are likely to benefit from increased cannabis use worldwide. For example, a company such as Scotts Miracle-Gro (SMG) will benefit from the sale of lawn care, gardening and hydroponics equipment to cannabis enthusiasts. It represents 2.9% of MJ’s total portfolio, putting it outside the top 10 holdings.”

That being said, one slight setback to buying MJ stock is that their expense ratio is a bit high at 0.75%. But despite that, it’s an affordable, solid stock with tremendous growth potential.

Final Thoughts on Fall Cannabis Stocks

Right now is the perfect time to invest in cannabis. The market has solidified it’s place in our culture, so we know it’s here to stay, but the industry is still in its infancy so stock prices are affordable and seeing a lot of forward momentum.

Thank you for stopping by CBD Testers, your hub for all things cannabis-related. Remember to subscribe to The Medical Cannabis Weekly Newsletter for more articles like this one and exclusive deals on various legal cannabis products.

For more articles like this one, and for exclusive deals on delta-8 THCdelta-9 THCTHCVTHCPdelta 10HHCTHC-O and other legal THC products, make sure to subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter, your top-source for all things cannabis-related.

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Could A New Constitution Mean Recreational Cannabis in Chile?

When it comes to legalized recreational cannabis, the Americas are the place to be, from Canada down to Uruguay. And there might be a new addition. With a new constitution being written, it’s quite possible that we’ll soon see legalized recreational cannabis in Chile.

If a new constitution means recreational cannabis will be legalized in Chile, the total will be up to five countries! More legalized locations means more markets, more innovation, and better products for you. The new cannabis boom has opened the door to tons of other cannabis compounds like CBN, THCA, and delta-8 THC, a half-brother to delta-9 with similar benefits, but which causes less anxiety and couch locking. Check out our diverse array of deals for delta-8 THC, delta 10thcothcpthcv & even hhc and take advantage of these changing times.

Chile and cannabis

Right now cannabis is illegal for production and public use in Chile, but is a widely consumed drug for both medical and recreational purposes. Chile has the highest per capita cannabis usage in all of South America according to 2019 statistics on Latin American cannabis consumption.

Drug regulation in Chile is governed by Ley de Drogas from 2005. In 2008, the laws were made more harsh because of illicit cannabis flowing into the country. Punishments for possession and use increased to that of drugs like cocaine and heroin. For a country that’s pretty cool with the plant, this caused a lot of tension, and this tension led to change starting around 2014. That year, the government loosened its grip, and began allowing the cultivation of cannabis for medical research purposes. It took until the end of 2015 for president Michelle Bachelet to officially sign into law a medical cannabis policy, which allows prescribed use.

The medical legislation opened the sale of medical cannabis from pharmacies, and reclassified cannabis as a soft drug. It went a step further than a standard medical legalization, stating adult Chileans are able to grow up to six plants for “medical, recreational or spiritual reasons”, which means the medical legalization, also worked as a decriminalization measure for personal use. It is legal to grow, sell, and import cannabis for medical purposes. One stipulation is that doctors who prescribe cannabis without a good reason can face from 5-15 years in prison, and fines up to USD 28,000. This is the same for establishments that provide medications.

constitution recreational cannabis Chile

Cannabis goes pretty far back in Chile, considering cannabis did not originate in the general region. Hemp farming may have started as early as 1545 AD in the Quillota Valley. At that time, the hemp fiber was used for the army and for ships mainly. In terms of today, according to a study by the University of London in conjunction with the Universidad Andrés Bello, 48.2% of Chileans support legalization, and 40% have tried cannabis at some point. Whereas the global average for starting cannabis is about 14-15 years of age, in Chile, it’s actually 12. Only approximately 6.2% of the population think that cannabis can be dangerous. Compared to other Latin American countries in the study, Chile had a higher per capita use rate, and a lower rate of negative attitude toward it.

What’s the deal with a new constitution?

It’s not every day that a country throws out its constitution in favor of making a new one, but that’s exactly what’s happening in Chile right now. Growing social inequalities led to major protests in 2019-2020, called ‘Estallido Social’. Protests and demonstrations were held all over the country, and particularly in metropolitan areas. Reasons for the demonstrations included: a raise in metro fares in Santiago, higher costs of living, general corruption, inequality, and privatization. Protests resulted in a lot of damage to the public infrastructure of the country, with this time period considered the worst civil unrest since the military dictatorship of Pinochet ended in 1990.

All of this resulted in an agreement between political parties to establish a new set of laws to govern the country. On May 15-16, 2021, the people of Chile got to vote for the people who would write their new constitution, an ability the population did not have in the past. It was decided that 17 seats would be reserved for indigenous parties, something that also never happened in Chile before.

Chile’s old constitution, which is on its way out, isn’t actually all that old, going back to 1980 when Chile was being ruled by the Pinochet dictatorship. A dictatorship which ended 10 years later in 1990. Though it has been amended over the years, it clearly is still too authoritarian for Chilean comfort.

In this last constitutional convention election, Chile showed its desire to move left, electing 104 out of 155 delegates  from liberal parties, whether left-wing, independent, or indigenous. This according to Daya Fundación (a pro-cannabis organization) director Ana María Gazmuri, who also went on to say that “neither the word cannabis nor marijuana will appear anywhere in the new Constitution.”

If cannabis isn’t mentioned, how will new constitution mean recreational cannabis in Chile?

Though cannabis is not likely to be mentioned directly in the constitution, how it’s treated will be directly related to what’s in the constitution, and the wording it uses. Chile’s new constitution will be drafted by this new convention. If the constitution works to ensure guarantees to health as a right, providing all alternatives including natural traditions, this could legalize cannabis.

personal sovereignty

Another option is if Chile’s new constitution includes provisions related to personal sovereignty, which could also trigger a change in drug laws. So long as the constitution is written such that the government cannot impinge on personal sovereignty, and so long as stipulations are made that third parties aren’t being hurt by acts of personal sovereignty, then this would be in line with a recreational cannabis legalization.

This new convention is not a stable government, however, and the new government will be voted in during the November 21, 2021 presidential elections. This election will be to put in place a president, part of the Senate (27 of the 50 members), all 155 Chamber of Deputies, and all 302 regional board members. Of the presidential candidates, several already endorse legalizing cannabis, including the presidential candidates of the socialist and communist parties. Who gets elected could also impact how quickly a legalization might occur.

Why personal sovereignty matters

Personal Sovereignty refers to the idea that a person is the owner of themselves. It’s the right a person has to be the only ruler over their own body and life, and to essentially be self-owned. This can be attached to both moral and natural rights, which means, pertaining to legal rights given by governments, and natural rights which are universal and unalienable. In the US constitution, for example, unalienable rights are for “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

The idea of personal sovereignty is a mainstay of many constitutions in the world. It is this idea which led to South Africa’s incredibly lax, near-legal stance on cannabis, as decided by the country’s Constitutional Court in a 2018 ruling that upheld a 2017 ruling. In the 2017 ruling, it was stipulated that South Africans are guaranteed privacy under section 14 of the Bill of Rights. As such, the following statement was made by the court:

“A very high level of protection is given to the individual’s intimate personal sphere of life and the maintenance of its basic preconditions and there is a final untouchable sphere of human freedom that is beyond interference from any public authority. So much so that, in regard to this most intimate core of privacy, no justifiable limitation thereof can take place… This inviolable core is left behind once an individual enters into relationships with persons outside this closest intimate sphere; the individual’s activities then acquire a social dimension and the right of privacy in this context becomes subject to limitation.”

When the Constitutional Court of the country upheld this ruling in 2018, it ended South Africa’s prohibition on cannabis, allowing for personal use, possession and cultivation. It did not, however, legalize public use, or set up a regulated market. Many questions were not answered by the ruling, and since that time, South Africa has been drafting an official bill to go in line with the court mandate.

South Africa cannabis laws

Mexico is similar in that the legal change came through the court system. At the end of 2018, the Supreme Court made a 5th consecutive ruling which triggered jurisprudencia, when a Supreme Court ruling becomes binding for all lower courts, setting law that overrides stated legislation. All five cases had to do with the cultivation or personal use of cannabis, and the court ruled that in all cases the defendants must be allowed to use cannabis personally without interruption by the government. People are considered personally developed human beings, with personal development (which is the same as personal sovereignty) a tenant of the Mexican constitution. As such, the government cannot get in the way of people choosing their own recreational activities, including the use of cannabis.

Much like with South Africa, the court ruling only set the law in place, while the still-being-worked-on legislation will make clear the regulations around it. In the case of Mexico, the Congress has repeatedly avoided writing a bill, even forgoing asking for an extension at its last missed deadline, and leaving it to the Supreme Court to officially drop the laws of prohibition. Which it did on June 28th, 2021.


There isn’t a huge amount of commentary about this yet, probably because there isn’t a constitution to comment on yet. Perhaps the new constitution will contain no laws to help push through a recreational cannabis legalization in Chile. And perhaps given the strong liberal showing from the constitutional convention, there will be some specification for personal sovereignty, or health as a right. If the recipe so far has been that liberalization in government leads to more liberal drug policies, then perhaps this convention really will write the constitution to open the door for an adult-use market.

If a new constitution does pave the way for recreational cannabis in Chile, it would join Mexico, Canada, Uruguay, Georgia, 18 US states, and Australia’s Capital state Canberra as the fifth recreational country, and seventh recreational location (if the 18 states are counted as one). Currently, Chile is already among the more forward thinking Latin American countries, offering medical policies along with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, ParaguayArgentina, Uruguay, Mexico, and as of late last month, Panama.

Hello and welcome to CBDtesters.co! The best spot for the most up-to-date and thought-provoking cannabis and psychedelics-related news from around the globe. Drop by and check us out every day to stay abreast of the quickly-moving world of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up to receive our newsletter, so you never miss a thing.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Could A New Constitution Mean Recreational Cannabis in Chile? appeared first on CBD Testers.

Reverse Trafficking? US Weed Is Flowing into Mexico

In a strange twist of fate, the country that is known as the biggest supplier of drugs to America, also seems to be receiving its fair share, from America. With legalized cannabis already a set up industry in many states, and with the US producing generally higher grade than its compatriots below the border, legal US weed has started flowing into Mexico. Even as its own market waits for regulations to be set in order to begin, Mexico is already embracing what such a market can produce.

How crazy is it that after all these years, US weed is flowing into Mexico? That’s because some of the best cannabis products are produced in legalized states. In fact, the US has some of the best product options available, including compounds like delta-8 THC. Unlike delta-9, delta-8 won’t cause as much anxiety or cloudy head, and leaves the user with more energy and less couch locking, making it preferable for many people. Haven’t tried it? Take a look at our delta-8 THC deals, along with tons of other compounds, such as Delta 9 THCDelta 10THCPTHCVHHC and even THC-Oand see why the US is #1 for cannabis.

Mexican drug trafficking

Let’s be honest, the majority of drug trafficking between Mexico and the US has gone in one direction, north. From cannabis, to cocaine, to meth, to fentanyl. In fact, during the strictest parts of prohibition, when cannabis was 100% illegal in most places, Mexico was key in making sure that prospective smokers could find a product.

These days, Mexican cartels are known for buying raw materials from China for the manufacture of methamphetamine and fentanyl, among others, which are processed in Mexico, before being shipped up to America. And Mexico has been a main passing point for getting cocaine into the States for quite some time.

Though shows like Narcos glamorize the whole thing, its hard to get a grasp on just how much money is made by drug cartels, or just how many people have died. Had the US not felt the need to wage such ridiculous wars, a lot more on both sides would still be alive today. The exact death toll numbers don’t exist, however when looking at Colombia, and a claim in Narcos that each kilo of cocaine cost approximately six lives, it was reported as incorrect by former DEA head of intelligence in Colombia, Elizabeth Zili, who stated:

“I really couldn’t give you a number, but it was extremely high. We never totally trusted the statistics we were getting from the [Colombian] government. One never does, no matter where you are.” This isn’t different when dealing with Mexico. In terms of the money that comes in from drug smuggling, this will vary, however its thought that cartels make somewhere between $19-29 billion each year just from US drug sales.

Mexico and drugs

US weed flowing into Mexico

Having said all that, it becomes an interesting turn of events now that the drugs are flowing in the opposite direction. The standard cannabis of Mexico is of a generally lesser quality, and as of right now there is no organized market apart from the black one. There are, of course, options for better quality weed, but its not easy to find, and not smoked by the standard Mexican, who won’t buy at that price point. Since most won’t smoke higher quality because of the price, there just hasn’t been as big a market for it.

California has the single largest cannabis market in the world, and as a result, the legal weed being sold in California, has been making its way across the border into Mexico. While this might not be geared toward the average Mexican resident, it does provide for a boutique market, enjoyed by the upper echelon of Mexican society, as well as the travelers and expats within the country who are used to a higher level of product quality. In fact, it’s become standard for dealers, and the upper- level menus, to flaunt their ‘importado’ merchandise.

If you’re wondering how US weed is flowing into Mexico so easily, consider that most eyes simply aren’t watching that direction. So, if an American packs a suitcase full of flowers or gummies and walks or drives across the border to Tijuana, there isn’t as much chance of being caught. Since Mexico doesn’t have a market to produce products like gummies, or vapes, such items can sell well in the country with the right crowd, and in fact, the products can double or even triple in value below the border. Not too long ago, a car was stopped, which had 5,600 jars of THC-infused gummies going from the US to Mexico, but this is nearly an isolated incident.

Some of this comes down to our culture of showing off and needing more. It’s seen as a status symbol to afford American products, and to have the better-quality product. Considering Mexico is the kind of country where a lot of drugs are cut, I imagine it’s also a way of letting clients know that the product is real (or supposed to be), and for buyers to know that they’re getting what they expect to get.

According to Josh Bubeck, owner of Urban Leaf, a dispensary in San Ysidro, California, which is right next to the Mexican border, when Mexicans buy American products, “You’re showing ‘This is what I’m about. I’m a bad ass. I got this from America.’” He says about 55% of his customer base are Mexicans who cross the border, since the cannabis is generally better on the northern side. To give an idea just how much the California industry earns, it took in $4.4 billion in 2020, and that number is substantially lower than what had been hoped for and expected.

In a way, by legal cannabis being bought and brought down, it actually bolsters the US legal weed market. I do expect, however, that just as California still has a massive black market that the state can’t seem to divert to its legal one, that a lot of what’s crossing the border is likely illicit, since it would cost less. What does this also mean, though? Logically, we know the cartels aren’t going to give up the business to American producers, so if weed is being trafficked south across the border, it means that cartels are a part of it.

cartel drug trafficking

Mexico and cannabis

Mexico is a weird country when it come to cannabis, because it sits in a strange, and ongoing, legal limbo. At the end of 2018, Mexico’s Supreme Court made a 5th consecutive ruling about the ability of adults to recreationally use cannabis. This 5th ruling triggered jurisprudencia, which is when a law is changed due to having five consecutive Supreme Court rulings on the matter. In this case, it was that the prohibition of cannabis is unconstitutional.

This ruling made it impossible for lower courts to go against the Supreme Court, which also means it made it impossible to convict anyone of a lesser cannabis crime (as the Supreme Court ruling in no way made trafficking, or illegal buying/selling okay). As a part of the ruling, the Supreme Court handed down the directive to Congress to get new legislation written so that the laws on the books were not in contrast to the Supreme Court ruling.

The Court gave the government an entire year to do this. But it didn’t. We could have a whole debate as to why, but more, and more, it’s seems like a direct refusal. And in a country practically run by cartels, where politicians are often targeted for making political decisions that go against them, it’s not hard to imagine that the government might literally be afraid to make any formal decisions.

Why do I say this? At the initial due date at the end of 2019, Congress asked for an extension for the legislation. The Supreme Court obliged, and gave the government until April 2020. When April came around, again, an extension was requested, this time with the blame on corona, and a new date in December was given. As the new due date in December 2020 loomed, yet another extension was asked for, and once again, the Supreme Court granted it. That brought us to April 2021, when the government not only didn’t provide the promised legislation, but it also didn’t ask for an extension from the Court.

By the government not fulfilling its duty, and by not requesting an extension, it put the onus back on the Supreme Court to do something. After all, how much power does a Supreme Court really have, if it can’t enforce its own rulings? And what would it mean for the principle of jurisprudencia, if the Court can’t get the other branches of government to follow through?

So, in order to move things along, the Supreme Court officially dropped prohibition laws on June 28th, 2021, making private use and cultivation of cannabis legal for adults (which went into effect July 15th 2021). In an example of why courts don’t usually set laws, the Supreme Court set some wonky requirements, like needing a license for personal cultivation, which likely won’t hold up when laws are finally written.

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To be clear, the Court didn’t go further than legalizing those two things. It didn’t set up requirements or regulations for a regulated market, nor did it work out all the kinks associated with what exactly is legal, what isn’t, and how it’ll all be overseen. It simply made Mexico the 4th legalized country, by dropping the prohibition laws. This in an effort to spur along the government to actually do its job, no doubt. As of this writing, at the end of August, 2021, no improvement has been made, nor date given of when something can be expected. Personally, I think lawmakers are waiting to see cartel moves, before making their own.


How will the US deal with legal US weed now flowing into Mexico via traffickers? Hopefully not with a new investment in a drug war, as that only caused more death, while depleting financial resources that could have helped feed and clothe the needy, sent tons of kids to college, and taken care of the medical issues of a large percentage of Americans.

All it really shows is that cartels still rule this roost, they’re not looking to give it up, and they’ll always be a step ahead. I expect that until Mexico gets its own industry running, this will be the new norm. And for those living in Mexico who want a better quality product, maybe this is a good thing.

Hello and welcome! You’ve made it to CBDtesters.co, the #1 internet spot for the most relevant cannabis and psychedelics-related news from around the world. Give the site a read-thru regularly to stay informed on the ever-exciting world of legal drugs, and sign up for our newsletter list, to ensure you don’t miss a thing.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Reverse Trafficking? US Weed Is Flowing into Mexico appeared first on CBD Testers.

How Criminal Organizations Are Dealing with Corona

One of the major issues with the reaction to the coronavirus pandemic is the effect it has on job security, general income, and the sheer ability to work. Many people are feeling the burn of lost income, and the frustration of not having options. So true is the case with criminal organizations dealing with corona. And just like everyone else, they have adjusted themselves, and their businesses, to adapt to this new corona world.

These are stressful times, and stressful times call for de-stressing methods. If taking a toke of cannabis isn’t your thing because the THC makes you anxious, you’re smoking the wrong thing. Delta-8 THC is less psychoactive, with less associated anxiety, which is perfect for people who don’t like delta-9. Check out these Delta-8 THC deals and pick yourself up some to try today.

What happens to criminal organizations in light of the corona pandemic is not of great importance to most people. At least they don’t think it is. In fact, most people wouldn’t bat an eye at the idea of a cartel leader or mafia boss losing some pocket change, or having obstructions in their way of business. At least they don’t think they would.

Truth is, for anyone into buying products like cannabis, either in a legal location or an illegal location, the functioning of criminal organizations during something like the corona pandemic, is actually rather important. And maybe more important than the ability of us black market buyers getting our supply, is the idea of just how these organizations are making it through the pandemic, and what that means to above board businesses.

The coronavirus

Covid-19 isn’t quite as novel as the word ‘novel’ would have you believe. Not unless you want to use that word for every new flu and cold strain out there. In fact, we know plenty about coronaviruses, and the diseases they cause in both mammals and birds. This is because evidence of the most recent ancestor to today’s version of the virus, goes back as much as 8,000 years. Some models say that this antecedent to today’s coronaviruses could be as old as 55 million years.

corona virus

It’s said that many coronavirus strains originate in bats, like strain NL63 which shared a common ancestor going back to between 1190 – 1449 CE. The illnesses themselves are a group of viruses, related through RNA. In humans and birds the viruses are known to cause respiratory issues, and cases can be anywhere from mild (or no symptoms at all) to death. Many common colds are coronaviruses, although rhinoviruses make up a larger percentage of this class. SARS is an example of a more extreme version of a coronavirus.

In short, Covid-19 is a contagious coronavirus. Many people will show no symptoms. Those currently at risk are the elderly and anyone with a compromised immune system. Like most wintertime viruses that come and go yearly, it causes basic flu symptoms, and follows all other basics of viral transmission rules for its specific class.

Mexican drug cartels and corona

Let’s remember that criminal organizations are synonymous with trafficking, whether it be cannabis, cocaine, fake Gucci products, or people. And this means, they too, need to get across borders. At a time when borders are closed, and air traffic is limited – and watched carefully – this is very difficult. And this accounts for illegal products going in all directions. Take Mexico City’s Tepito market at the start of the pandemic, for example. This market is a hotspot for counterfeit and illegal products. At the start of lockdowns last year, the pressure could be felt in such a marketplace, where the already rock-bottom prices were cut by as much as 50% more.

The Tepito market is run by criminal organization Union Tepito, which started to feel the burn when the flow of Chinese products slowed to a dribble as supply chains everywhere essentially stopped. Business being down doesn’t stop an organization running the show from expecting what they always expect, and in this case, vendors in the market are required to pay protection money to the organization in order to use the space to sell. This didn’t change because of business slowing, which led to abductions and killings since many vendors weren’t able to make payments.

The synthetic drug market was also badly hit in the beginning, much of which depends on chemicals from China and India, and the ability to ship containers and use ports. Fentanyl is one of the big trafficking drugs for which raw materials generally come from China. This stoppage in the supply chain meant a temporary increase in prices for synthetic drugs like fentanyl and methamphetamine. At one point, prices went from 2,500 pesos for just under a half kilogram of methamphetamine, to 15,000 pesos.

Getting products across borders at all was difficult in the beginning. A Mexicali drug smuggler made this statement to publication Riodoce right after lockdown started: “Five days ago was the last time we brought something across the border. Just three kilos… We have arrangements with border police and our smugglers know which borders posts to use. But now, many crossing have surprisingly been shut. That makes our business much more risky.”

criminal organizations corona

In terms of using the air, though criminal organizations aren’t known for stocking commercial flights anymore, they are known for using the sky to get products from one country to another, and at a time when flights are greatly reduced, any criminal organization actions are that much more noticeable.

How are criminal organizations dealing with corona?

As should be expected, they’re evolving, or even going back to old standards. The initial kink in supply chains, and border and flying restrictions, made for a decrease in general action. But this changed, and led to secondary markets for raw materials, production, and the selling of new counterfeit and fake products like masks and antibacterial gel, which hadn’t garnered an income for these organizations before.

According to the DEA, in New York it was found that many small packages were being sent through the mail containing high-potency drugs like fentanyl. In fact, Mexican cartels took on more of the processing work as a result of supply issues, pressing fentanyl into pills for better transport. Older methods are still being employed as well, and perhaps increased. Like hiding drugs in regular products like baby wipes when using parcel delivery services, in hidden compartments of vehicles, and included in shipments of produce. Some cartels have even employed the use of backpackers to get drugs across borders.

In an effort to move products during lockdown mode, its expected by many officials that criminal organizations have turned to other avenues like submersible crafts, drones, tunnels, and ultralights, while the use of cryptocurrencies has also skyrocketed as a result of the corona situation.

The DEA added that, after the initial upset in supply, Mexican cartels have quickly found new providers of raw materials, possibly increased their production, and are actually sending more fentanyl and methamphetamine into the US than prior to the pandemic. It also appears that operations like cultivating poppies and producing heroine, have not been obstructed. This would include cannabis cultivation and production as well.

In Mexico, while business is still good, there have been some changes within the cartel landscape. Smaller cartels have taken on new business enterprises, some larger cartels have fractured a bit, and overall the competition has increased. While some crimes have decreased during Mexico’s lockdowns, homicides have remained high for this reason.

Criminal organizations are even using the corona situation to step in for the government. In Southern Italy, Brazil, and Mexico these organizations are supplying badly needed products, sometimes enforcing lockdown measures, and emphasizing that the government can’t handle the situation, while gaining new support in local communities.

Some criminal organizations are benefitting from the sheer lack of observers around because of corona lockdowns. This goes for the trafficking of endangered species, in which poachers have been able to do as they wish in places like Sub-Saharan Africa, with very little currently to stop them.

The Italian mafia

criminal organizations corona - trafficking

The Italian mafia has been particularly good at taking advantage of the situation by targeting failing businesses in Italy and the rest of Europe for money-lending. The goal isn’t to lend money, but to take over these businesses for their own uses like money laundering, and getting in on a new industry. Many believe that when things improve, the Italian mafia might be dominating many different industries in Europe, including industries and companies not infiltrated before.

Of course, business owners are not expected to pay back the money lent, but to eventually operate as front men for the illegal operations, which, because of their situations, and the threat of violence for not paying, they have no choice about. Failing businesses are not just an issue with Italy, and the Italian mafia has been worming its way all throughout Europe.

Italy, it should be remembered, has been one of the hardest hit countries, with more than 390,000 businesses being closed, approximately 200,000 independent workers going bankrupt, and such a dramatic increase in poverty that the government has had to give out €400 million in shopping vouchers, and charity organizations have given out 30% more in food aid.

By March of 2020, mafia organizations were already giving out much-needed food baskets to the hardest hit places and families. As banks began lending far less money, the mafia stepped in to take care of temporary monetary needs with dirty money, which they use the businesses to clean. In an effort to combat this, the Italian government issued 1,600 mafia bans in 2020 to attempt to keep operatives from making bids for public contracts, this is a 25% increase from the year before.

Expansion into new markets

Another aspect of making it harder for criminals to operate in their own field, is the expansion into other fields. One example is using the increase in online business, as most people are working from home. This has meant an increase in credit card fraud, phishing scams, cyberattacks, and fake donation requests via pirated sites. A lot of the time, the coronavirus is specifically used in the selling of high-demand products, like face masks and disinfectants, which have actually become highly trafficked products in the corona age.

It fact, whether it was warranted or not, Interpol has warned about mafia groups possibly trying to infiltrate and disrupt supply chains to get ahold of corona vaccines for their own distribution. This may, or may not, also apply to covid-19 tests. The group established that “of 3,000 websites associated with online pharmacies suspected of selling illicit medicines and medical devices, around 1,700 contained cyber threats, especially phishing and spamming malware.”

According to the Guardian, just a couple weeks into the lockdown last year, as many as 70,000 scam sites popped up selling products like hand gel and masks, as well as other remedies that were either nonexistent to begin with, stolen, or fake. The shift from the majority working in offices to the majority working from home so suddenly, has left IT security teams in a bind, and has opened up more vulnerabilities, which has increased issues with malware, and even ransomeware, a type of malware that can lock a computer’s files until a ransom is paid.

criminal organizations corona - malware and ransomeware


In the end, except for initial supply chain issues that led to a decrease in available products, and an increase in product prices, most criminal organizations seem to have rebounded just fine. Not only have they found ways around the trafficking obstacle courses set in front of them, but they’ve figured out ways to expand into new venues. So, for anyone worried that they won’t be able to get their standard marijuana fix, or the next line of cocaine, no worries, some people are still hard at work for you.

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