Terpenes are Aroma Therapy

Excerpted from Weed: A Connoisseur’s Guide to Cannabis

Fog rolls over the hillsides on an early morning hike. As sunbeams break through the mist, they activate the aromas of the chaparral: the nuanced and layered sweetness of a bay laurel, with its touches of eucalyptus, pine and bergamot; the small bright yellow florets of fennel that form a bouquet bearing a burst of licorice and sweet anise.

The aromatic elements of the natural world, the same ones that are steam-distilled to create essential oils found in food and fragrances, play a vital role in mental and physical well-being. The essences pulled from plants are called both terpenes and terpenoids. The terms are used interchangeably, but they are different in chemical structure. Terpenes are simple hydrocarbons, an organic chemical compound composed exclusively of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Terpenoids are also essentially terpenes, but with additional chemical constituents, most often oxygen, as a result of enzyme-driven reactions within the plant.

“Think of it like terpenoids equal terpenes plus chemically modified terpenes,” cannabis researcher Ryan Lee explains. “Like if someone did a renovation to a house and added a different back porch.”

Terpenoids and terpenes are the aromatic elements that give cannabis its deep depth of incredible fragrances and tastes. As the science behind how cannabis works continues to advance, studies show that not only do they make cannabis smell amazing, but they also play an essential role in understanding exactly how this plant shapes our moods.

Courtesy of The Quarto Group

“Terpenoids modify the cannabis experience in a variety of ways, and can make it more or less sedating, extend therapeutic benefits, and potentially make cannabis safer and better overall,” explains Ethan Russo, one of the world’s most prominent and well-respected cannabis researchers.

Terpenes are found along with cannabinoids in the resin glands of cannabis and many other plants. There are more than 20,000 terpenes identified in nature; about 200 are in cannabis. The genetic diversity of cannabis is vast, each kind contains several different terpenes. That means understanding the scent of cannabis is more akin to a symphony rather than a single note. Layers and nuances of smell ensure that it’s complicated to say a bud smells like only one particular thing.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary cannabinoid that gives cannabis its psychoactive effects, has been the main focus of cannabis research since Raphael Mechoulam synthesized and isolated it in 1964. But cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are now gaining increasing attention. Many still may have the misconception that the medicinal effects of cannabis are only about the pharmacology of cannabinoids; they are neglecting about 500 other properties that make up the plant, Russo says. As he explains in his cornerstone cannabis study, Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects, the harmony created by how cannabinoids and other properties of the plant such as terpenes work together (something understood in academic cannabis circles as the entourage effect) has significant ramifications in cannabis therapeutics. The idea is that the magic of how cannabis works is in the sum of its parts, rather than by elements in isolation.

“One molecule is unlikely to match the therapeutic and even industrial potential of cannabis itself as a phytochemical factory,” Russo writes in an academic paper making a case for the entourage effect.  

Russo is a board-certified neurologist, pharmacology researcher and former senior advisor to GW Pharmaceuticals. This U.K.-based company made history in 2018 when the FDA approved a drug that contained cannabinoids, Epidiolex. His current company, CReDO Science, is working to patent products generated from his investigations of the cannabis plant. It’s also capitalizing on his understanding of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), the signaling network responsible for regulating many processes in the body that interacts with terpenes as well as cannabinoids produced internally, endocannabinoids, and cannabinoids derived from plants, phytocannabinoids. Understanding the complexities of cannabis can be approached in the same way as traditional Chinese medicine, he says. 

“Traditional Chinese medicine usually combines a variety of ingredients simultaneously. Some may add to the therapeutic effect, while others are included to mitigate adverse events from the primary agents. Both of these activities are synergistic and produce a better clinical response.”

Russo explains that cannabis, with its various cannabinoids and terpenes, is akin to traditional Chinese medicine in that it’s a single preparation that combines a variety of ingredients.

Courtesy of The Quarto Group

Developing Terpenes

The same chemical components that have protective functioning and beneficial elements in plants can positively contribute to the defense and regulation of systems within our bodies, just like they do for the plant itself. This concept that what benefits the plant that also benefits us also occurs with antioxidants, which plants create to prevent disease; they have a similar function in humans, explaining why a diet high in plants is beneficial for our health. In the same way as antioxidants, terpenes develop in plants to prevent disease for the plant, but they also can help our bodies avoid illness.

As cannabis horticulture expert Ed Rosenthal explains, plants produce terpenes for one of three reasons: to attract pollinators, to repel or kill herbivores, or to attract the predators of herbivores. The odor molecules are costly for the plant to produce and increase when the plant is in flower because it’s invested in its reproduction. Cannabis is wind-pollinated, which means it doesn’t need to attract pollinators. Hence, the benefits of terpenes in cannabis are to keep pests away and attract beneficial insects, which attack the other insects that can damage a crop. 

All About the Aromas

Terpenes unleash concentrated odors that can affect our moods. One of the easiest ways to understand this phenomenon is through citrus, which is a popular aromatic in cleaning products because it acts as both a disinfectant and a deodorizer. Physiologically the smell of citrus denotes cleanliness and has a mood-elevating and immune-stimulating effect. The terpene present in citrus fruits is limonene; it’s also in cannabis cultivars like Do-Si-Dos and MAC (Miracle Alien Cookies). While cultivars named after citrus fruits such as Super Lemon Haze and Lemon G contain some limonene, it’s not the dominant terpene. Super Lemon Haze contains more terpinolene than limonene and Lemon G contains more caryophyllene than limonene. This shows how minor and major terpenes work together to give cannabis its varied effects of scents and tastes. Limes, grapefruits, lemons and oranges are all citrus, but also have other components that give them their distinct individual aromas and flavors.

Courtesy of The Quarto Group

Russo further explains the concept of terpenes through the Japanese therapeutic practice of shinrin-yoku, or forest bathing. In this form of ecotherapy, participants are invited to take in nature’s sensory elements, savoring the sights, smells, and sounds to unplug and release stress. Pinene is in pine needles, tea tree and rosemary, and cannabis cultivars like Dutch Treat and Jack Herer. It’s the terpene that is most prevalent in nature in both coniferous trees and other plants, and studies have shown it can enhance memory and cognition. Within his academic research paper examining the synergistic components of cannabis, Russo addresses how pinene’s ability to aid memory “could counteract short-term memory deficits induced by THC intoxication.”

Myrcene is the most common terpene in cannabis and has a synergistic effect with THC that enhances its sedative properties. Cultivars that are heavy in myrcene (OG Kush, Granddaddy Purple) are helpful for sleep and are known to produce “couch lock,” which is an effect precisely as it sounds, of being locked to the couch unable to move. Myrcene is also in lemongrass, thyme and mangoes. 

Russo argues that thinking about cannabis beyond THC-heavy strains high in myrcene uncovers more of the plant’s subtle beneficial properties.

“Beyond the common form of cannabis that pervades the markets with its high THC and high myrcene, productive of a soporific ‘couch-lock’ experience, other terpenoids, when present in appropriate concentrations, may alter the experience positively to increase the therapeutic index of cannabis by reducing its side effect profile,” Russo says. “Thus, pinene can reduce or eliminate short-term memory impairment engendered by THC, limonene can elevate mood with an antidepressant effect, linalool will allay anxiety, and caryophyllene boosts analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits while simultaneously reducing craving that is associated with withdrawal symptoms from opioids and other drugs producing dependency.”

Common Terpenes 

Myrcene
Also found in mangoes, hops and lemongrass, myrcene contributes musky, clove-like earthy notes. This terpene works in synergy with THC in amplifying its psychoactive effects. Myrcene is a powerful anti-inflammatory and has shown the ability to improve conditions such as osteoarthritis. 

Limonene
Also within citrus rinds and juniper, limonene contributes sweet fruit scents. Studies show that limonene has antimicrobial and antifungal effects. It is being studied for its ability to inhibit tumor growth and may play a role in treating cancer. 

Caryophyllene
An element of black pepper, caryophyllene has a spicy scent and activates cannabinoid receptors within peripheral tissues, the parts of the body that act as a response to a change in the environment such as skin. It shows promise in treating inflammation, pain, the buildup of cholesterol on artery walls (atherosclerosis), osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

Pinene
The most common terpene in nature, pinene, is associated with the scent of pine trees and is also found in tea trees and rosemary. It has shown to be useful for retaining and restoring memory. Researchers are looking at pinene in regards to treating conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer’s.

Linalool
Also found in lavender, linalool can produce sedative calming effects and reduce agitation. That means this terpene could have applications in treating conditions such as PTSD. It is also showing promise for its ability to counteract epileptic seizures.

Humulene
In hops, basil, coriander, cloves, ginseng and ginger, humulene has woodsy, earthy flavors and possesses formidable anti-inflammatory properties. It’s best known as the quintessential hoppy flavor in beer.  

Terpinolene
Terpinolene is a terpene in apples and lilacs. Its smells pull from all over the spectrum with a bit of woodsy earth combined with citrusy pine notes. Interest in treatments with this cannabinoid includes coronary heart disease as well as its antifungal properties.

Ocimene
Ocimine is in plants and fruits that have woodsy, sweet undertones. In cannabis ocimene-dominant cultivars are rare. This terpene has flavors of guavas, mangoes, papayas and pine. It’s also in herbs like mint, parsley and basil.

The post Terpenes are Aroma Therapy appeared first on High Times.

Yaadcore on New Video, Cannabis in Jamaica, and Psychedelic Inspiration

Today Yaadcore, along with Jah9 and Subatomic Sound System, announced the music video for “Police in Helicopter,” a re-imagining of John Holt’s defiantly political 1982 ganja-themed jam.

The track is on Yaadcore’s recently-released debut album, Reggaeland (12 Yaad/Delicious Vinyl Island), and was originally released in April 2021 as a one-off single on Houston, Texas-based Yard Birdz Records. The video was co-directed by Miguel Hernandez, who helped animate Rihanna’s “Rude Boy” music video as well as a recent animation for Ozzy Osbourne, and Emch of Subatomic Sound System.

Yaadcore’s musical journey began as a selector—Jamaican word for a disc jockey—but is now stepping into new shoes as a vocalist, including on his new album Reggaeland. Born Rory Cha, he quickly developed as an artist. He now hosts Jamaica’s first weed strain review series, “Spliff A Light Spliff,” for Kingston, Jamaica-based dispensary Itopia Life. For Spliff A Light Spliff, Yaadcore examines phenos with magnification to see the trichomes and nugstructure.

Dub has a much bigger emphasis on echo and reverb compared to reggae, and that genre formed alongside reggae—and led to sampling and remixing techniques that permeate most other forms of music nowadays, Yaadcore reminds us. Walking in the footsteps of dub masters like Lee “Scratch” Perry, King Tubby, and Mad Professor—Yaadcore, Subatomic Sound System, Jah9, and others carry the torch.

John Holt wrote “Police in Helicopter” because Jamaicans were tired of U.S.-funded efforts to aggressively burn down crops of cannabis. American officials launched Operation Buccaneer—secretly coordinating with Jamaican police—beginning in 1974, when the song was written.

“The chorus of this song has been a battle cry in my heart since I first heard it,” Jah9 said of the track. “As someone intimately involved with the use of this herb as a symbol of defiance but more importantly as a powerful tool for healing, I’m honored to add my voice to bringing it forward to a new generation.” Jah9 now lives in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and was tapped for the track with “the perfect” voice for it. 

Thanks to WikiLeaks, the tactics behind Operation Buccaneer in Jamaica, and the pressure from the U.S., have been made public. The goal of Operation Buccaneer was to eradicate all ganja. Operation Buccaneer continued in waves through the 1980s, and was profiled by the Washington Post in 1987. In the 1987 wave alone, 350 acres of small farms were destroyed over several months, and homes were destroyed by the helicopters as well.

The re-imagining of “Police in Helicopter” is dub-heavy and created for a new chapter in the world of ganja. Yaadcore hit up Diamond Supply Co. in Los Angeles recently on April 23 to promote Reggaeland and the new song. High Times also watched Yaadcore perform last February at Cali Vibes festival, with several Marley siblings, Shaggy, Sean Paul, and many others.

High Times caught up with Yaadcore on the phone, and we could hear the flick of a lighter as the conversation kicked off.

Courtesy of Jay Williams

How are you doing today?

Good, thank you.

You’ve been shifting from DJ to vocalist in the lab. How is being a vocalist different creatively compared to working as a selector?

Well, it’s different in that it’s more technical, it is more time consuming. It takes a lot more thought because, you know, you’re actually creating something from nothing. You know, whereas that DJ has some artillery already given to him and then, you know, he uses that to do his job. But as far as the [vocal] artist is concerned, you know, we have to take things out of thin air to make it you know, pleasing to the ear. So, I think that’s the difference with being a DJ artist, you know?

“Police in Helicopter” is an old-school political tune from way back in 1982. Tell us about what the song is about.

Right. So “Police in Helicopter,” as you mentioned, is a political song. In 1974, you know, the U.S. government funded Jamaica’s government in aiding and abetting to burn down marijuana fields. So that was the whole you know, idea. The inspiration came about from John Holt, who did the original “Police in Helicopter” in 1982 or 1981 I believe. And yeah, Emch [of Subatomic Sound] linked me up. He was the one who really wanted to remake this song for his bridging on the Yard Birdz record label and link me, and I knew I wasn’t the one to sing the chorus because that’s not really my style or anything. So you know, I suggested Jah9—perfect collaborator. And you know, I reached out to her and she agreed to do it after hearing me first and everything.

Does that reflect your own views about cannabis?

The song really you know, depicts my views of marijuana in that you know, the lyrical content states you know, watch out for the “chopper dem a chop,” which is reference to the helicopters that fly by our field and dem want to take our crops you know, so and then in the second verse, I’ll go on to say, you know, “Non-stop burn the fire pon the system, when you turn the marijuana farmer in a victim.” You know, so this song is really advocating for the farmers you know, and you know, their herb on a whole is coming far away but we still have a far more way to go, because marijuana is not legal in every country in the world. And you know, we all are equal and want the same rights to partake in this herb so you know, that’s why we still find it necessary to sing these kinds of lyrics.

Your debut album Reggaeland came out recently. There is a heavy dub element to it. Which track are you most proud of?

What was I most proud of? Honestly—there are a few tracks and I’m proud of it. Frank reasons being Lee “Scratch” Perry “Play God” that was one very mystical track, you know, seeing that he’s also being the legend that he is and how it really came about was really me … You know, after I wrote the song, I was listening to one of his interviews, and I realized he said the same thing that I was saying in the song, which was, you know, the devil is trying to play God because that’s really what “Play God” is all about, you know, like as bigger heads trying to be the gods of man, and you know, want to tell man, what they should do what they should not do. So, that’s a very special track.

And what else?

You know, “Nyquill (Remix),” is also especially with the legendary Richie Spice, you know, the highest one or the one that has, you know, some of the most marijuana on them. So it was definitely a pleasure to collaborate with him as well. And then you know, “Shrooms” also, so the whole album is very special.

Yaadcore
Courtesy of Jay Williams

It sounds pretty psychedelic.

I like shrooms now. And you know, we’re on High Times so [that’s] a nice topic to touch on, you know. It’s gonna be one of the first—alright the first-ever—reggae song that is singing in support of shrooms as a religious and natural mystical tool. It happened you know, on my first experience with the psychedelic; That was the manifestation.

What about the songs with Lee “Scratch” Perry?

All right, so I have two songs with Lee “Scratch” Perry. Oh, no, with Lee “Scratch” Perry: The one that I did before was not on the album. That was also set to release before his passing was even a ‘ting. You know, yeah, so unfortunately, he passed before that song actually came out. So no, I don’t really have any [more] of Lee Scratch Perry’s tracks that I, you know, worked with … that’s coming out. Though we have a Lee Scratch Perry [track] featuring and a bunch of younger artists also on that as well, but is not necessarily from these Lee “Scratch” Perry’s production, but more of him being an artist on that track.

The dub master?

And he’s the founder of dub—a type of music that almost every other genre uses now was originated by him. And you know he influenced Bob Marley. I agree. You know he has produced with Bob Marley as well. That very bizarre icon in music—not only in reggae music but you know, in music.

Do you find shrooms to be spiritual like cannabis is?

Of course, even on a higher level, I don’t even I don’t want to say high because everything serves this purpose, but how I like to describe it like marijuana is for like the earthly, spiritual realization and shrooms no can take you unlike a spiritual spiritual connection. Yeah, no. Yes. Is definitely way more intense. And you know, it has medicinal values … Also, you know, it’s not all about the psychedelic aspect and everything. Just like marijuana. […]

What kind of live performances do you have coming up?

Well, you know, actually, I have only one confirmed date right now in Sacramento. We’re actually working under a regular tour right now. So not any confirmed dates as yet. But I’m sure there will be some in a few weeks or so.

Do you have any other announcements?

I mean, you know, I definitely have singles going to be released before the end of the year, that are not going to be on the album, or that wasn’t on the album. And yeah, we just have this mixtape that we’re gonna do with WholesomeCo Cannabis. That’s a dispensary in Utah.

I did two for them before. So this is like the final final leg of this series. You can check that out as well. But yeah, that’s about it. I did a merge collab with Diamond Supply Co. for the song “Nyquill.” So there’s merch for the “Nyquill” remix on the Diamond Supply Co. website. So that’s a big deal. I think, you know, yeah. There’s no other artist that has ever done anything with our streetwear brand officially, you know?

Are you aware that High Times threw many events in the past near the cliffs in Jamaica?

They should let us do some content stuff in Jamaica. Yeah, we should look into that, man. I should, we should definitely look into that. Yeah, no problem, man. Thanks for your time as well.

yaadcoreradio.com

The post Yaadcore on New Video, Cannabis in Jamaica, and Psychedelic Inspiration appeared first on High Times.

Terpenes are Aroma Therapy

Excerpted from Weed: A Connoisseur’s Guide to Cannabis

Fog rolls over the hillsides on an early morning hike. As sunbeams break through the mist, they activate the aromas of the chaparral: the nuanced and layered sweetness of a bay laurel, with its touches of eucalyptus, pine and bergamot; the small bright yellow florets of fennel that form a bouquet bearing a burst of licorice and sweet anise.

The aromatic elements of the natural world, the same ones that are steam-distilled to create essential oils found in food and fragrances, play a vital role in mental and physical well-being. The essences pulled from plants are called both terpenes and terpenoids. The terms are used interchangeably, but they are different in chemical structure. Terpenes are simple hydrocarbons, an organic chemical compound composed exclusively of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Terpenoids are also essentially terpenes, but with additional chemical constituents, most often oxygen, as a result of enzyme-driven reactions within the plant.

“Think of it like terpenoids equal terpenes plus chemically modified terpenes,” cannabis researcher Ryan Lee explains. “Like if someone did a renovation to a house and added a different back porch.”

Terpenoids and terpenes are the aromatic elements that give cannabis its deep depth of incredible fragrances and tastes. As the science behind how cannabis works continues to advance, studies show that not only do they make cannabis smell amazing, but they also play an essential role in understanding exactly how this plant shapes our moods.

Courtesy of The Quarto Group

“Terpenoids modify the cannabis experience in a variety of ways, and can make it more or less sedating, extend therapeutic benefits, and potentially make cannabis safer and better overall,” explains Ethan Russo, one of the world’s most prominent and well-respected cannabis researchers.

Terpenes are found along with cannabinoids in the resin glands of cannabis and many other plants. There are more than 20,000 terpenes identified in nature; about 200 are in cannabis. The genetic diversity of cannabis is vast, each kind contains several different terpenes. That means understanding the scent of cannabis is more akin to a symphony rather than a single note. Layers and nuances of smell ensure that it’s complicated to say a bud smells like only one particular thing.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary cannabinoid that gives cannabis its psychoactive effects, has been the main focus of cannabis research since Raphael Mechoulam synthesized and isolated it in 1964. But cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are now gaining increasing attention. Many still may have the misconception that the medicinal effects of cannabis are only about the pharmacology of cannabinoids; they are neglecting about 500 other properties that make up the plant, Russo says. As he explains in his cornerstone cannabis study, Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects, the harmony created by how cannabinoids and other properties of the plant such as terpenes work together (something understood in academic cannabis circles as the entourage effect) has significant ramifications in cannabis therapeutics. The idea is that the magic of how cannabis works is in the sum of its parts, rather than by elements in isolation.

“One molecule is unlikely to match the therapeutic and even industrial potential of cannabis itself as a phytochemical factory,” Russo writes in an academic paper making a case for the entourage effect.  

Russo is a board-certified neurologist, pharmacology researcher and former senior advisor to GW Pharmaceuticals. This U.K.-based company made history in 2018 when the FDA approved a drug that contained cannabinoids, Epidiolex. His current company, CReDO Science, is working to patent products generated from his investigations of the cannabis plant. It’s also capitalizing on his understanding of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), the signaling network responsible for regulating many processes in the body that interacts with terpenes as well as cannabinoids produced internally, endocannabinoids, and cannabinoids derived from plants, phytocannabinoids. Understanding the complexities of cannabis can be approached in the same way as traditional Chinese medicine, he says. 

“Traditional Chinese medicine usually combines a variety of ingredients simultaneously. Some may add to the therapeutic effect, while others are included to mitigate adverse events from the primary agents. Both of these activities are synergistic and produce a better clinical response.”

Russo explains that cannabis, with its various cannabinoids and terpenes, is akin to traditional Chinese medicine in that it’s a single preparation that combines a variety of ingredients.

Courtesy of The Quarto Group

Developing Terpenes

The same chemical components that have protective functioning and beneficial elements in plants can positively contribute to the defense and regulation of systems within our bodies, just like they do for the plant itself. This concept that what benefits the plant that also benefits us also occurs with antioxidants, which plants create to prevent disease; they have a similar function in humans, explaining why a diet high in plants is beneficial for our health. In the same way as antioxidants, terpenes develop in plants to prevent disease for the plant, but they also can help our bodies avoid illness.

As cannabis horticulture expert Ed Rosenthal explains, plants produce terpenes for one of three reasons: to attract pollinators, to repel or kill herbivores, or to attract the predators of herbivores. The odor molecules are costly for the plant to produce and increase when the plant is in flower because it’s invested in its reproduction. Cannabis is wind-pollinated, which means it doesn’t need to attract pollinators. Hence, the benefits of terpenes in cannabis are to keep pests away and attract beneficial insects, which attack the other insects that can damage a crop. 

All About the Aromas

Terpenes unleash concentrated odors that can affect our moods. One of the easiest ways to understand this phenomenon is through citrus, which is a popular aromatic in cleaning products because it acts as both a disinfectant and a deodorizer. Physiologically the smell of citrus denotes cleanliness and has a mood-elevating and immune-stimulating effect. The terpene present in citrus fruits is limonene; it’s also in cannabis cultivars like Do-Si-Dos and MAC (Miracle Alien Cookies). While cultivars named after citrus fruits such as Super Lemon Haze and Lemon G contain some limonene, it’s not the dominant terpene. Super Lemon Haze contains more terpinolene than limonene and Lemon G contains more caryophyllene than limonene. This shows how minor and major terpenes work together to give cannabis its varied effects of scents and tastes. Limes, grapefruits, lemons and oranges are all citrus, but also have other components that give them their distinct individual aromas and flavors.

Courtesy of The Quarto Group

Russo further explains the concept of terpenes through the Japanese therapeutic practice of shinrin-yoku, or forest bathing. In this form of ecotherapy, participants are invited to take in nature’s sensory elements, savoring the sights, smells, and sounds to unplug and release stress. Pinene is in pine needles, tea tree and rosemary, and cannabis cultivars like Dutch Treat and Jack Herer. It’s the terpene that is most prevalent in nature in both coniferous trees and other plants, and studies have shown it can enhance memory and cognition. Within his academic research paper examining the synergistic components of cannabis, Russo addresses how pinene’s ability to aid memory “could counteract short-term memory deficits induced by THC intoxication.”

Myrcene is the most common terpene in cannabis and has a synergistic effect with THC that enhances its sedative properties. Cultivars that are heavy in myrcene (OG Kush, Granddaddy Purple) are helpful for sleep and are known to produce “couch lock,” which is an effect precisely as it sounds, of being locked to the couch unable to move. Myrcene is also in lemongrass, thyme and mangoes. 

Russo argues that thinking about cannabis beyond THC-heavy strains high in myrcene uncovers more of the plant’s subtle beneficial properties.

“Beyond the common form of cannabis that pervades the markets with its high THC and high myrcene, productive of a soporific ‘couch-lock’ experience, other terpenoids, when present in appropriate concentrations, may alter the experience positively to increase the therapeutic index of cannabis by reducing its side effect profile,” Russo says. “Thus, pinene can reduce or eliminate short-term memory impairment engendered by THC, limonene can elevate mood with an antidepressant effect, linalool will allay anxiety, and caryophyllene boosts analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits while simultaneously reducing craving that is associated with withdrawal symptoms from opioids and other drugs producing dependency.”

Common Terpenes 

Myrcene
Also found in mangoes, hops and lemongrass, myrcene contributes musky, clove-like earthy notes. This terpene works in synergy with THC in amplifying its psychoactive effects. Myrcene is a powerful anti-inflammatory and has shown the ability to improve conditions such as osteoarthritis. 

Limonene
Also within citrus rinds and juniper, limonene contributes sweet fruit scents. Studies show that limonene has antimicrobial and antifungal effects. It is being studied for its ability to inhibit tumor growth and may play a role in treating cancer. 

Caryophyllene
An element of black pepper, caryophyllene has a spicy scent and activates cannabinoid receptors within peripheral tissues, the parts of the body that act as a response to a change in the environment such as skin. It shows promise in treating inflammation, pain, the buildup of cholesterol on artery walls (atherosclerosis), osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

Pinene
The most common terpene in nature, pinene, is associated with the scent of pine trees and is also found in tea trees and rosemary. It has shown to be useful for retaining and restoring memory. Researchers are looking at pinene in regards to treating conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer’s.

Linalool
Also found in lavender, linalool can produce sedative calming effects and reduce agitation. That means this terpene could have applications in treating conditions such as PTSD. It is also showing promise for its ability to counteract epileptic seizures.

Humulene
In hops, basil, coriander, cloves, ginseng and ginger, humulene has woodsy, earthy flavors and possesses formidable anti-inflammatory properties. It’s best known as the quintessential hoppy flavor in beer.  

Terpinolene
Terpinolene is a terpene in apples and lilacs. Its smells pull from all over the spectrum with a bit of woodsy earth combined with citrusy pine notes. Interest in treatments with this cannabinoid includes coronary heart disease as well as its antifungal properties.

Ocimene
Ocimine is in plants and fruits that have woodsy, sweet undertones. In cannabis ocimene-dominant cultivars are rare. This terpene has flavors of guavas, mangoes, papayas and pine. It’s also in herbs like mint, parsley and basil.

The post Terpenes are Aroma Therapy appeared first on High Times.

Yaadcore on New Video, Cannabis in Jamaica, and Psychedelic Inspiration

Today Yaadcore, along with Jah9 and Subatomic Sound System, announced the music video for “Police in Helicopter,” a re-imagining of John Holt’s defiantly political 1982 ganja-themed jam.

The track is on Yaadcore’s recently-released debut album, Reggaeland (12 Yaad/Delicious Vinyl Island), and was originally released in April 2021 as a one-off single on Houston, Texas-based Yard Birdz Records. The video was co-directed by Miguel Hernandez, who helped animate Rihanna’s “Rude Boy” music video as well as a recent animation for Ozzy Osbourne, and Emch of Subatomic Sound System.

Yaadcore’s musical journey began as a selector—Jamaican word for a disc jockey—but is now stepping into new shoes as a vocalist, including on his new album Reggaeland. Born Rory Cha, he quickly developed as an artist. He now hosts Jamaica’s first weed strain review series, “Spliff A Light Spliff,” for Kingston, Jamaica-based dispensary Itopia Life. For Spliff A Light Spliff, Yaadcore examines phenos with magnification to see the trichomes and nugstructure.

Dub has a much bigger emphasis on echo and reverb compared to reggae, and that genre formed alongside reggae—and led to sampling and remixing techniques that permeate most other forms of music nowadays, Yaadcore reminds us. Walking in the footsteps of dub masters like Lee “Scratch” Perry, King Tubby, and Mad Professor—Yaadcore, Subatomic Sound System, Jah9, and others carry the torch.

John Holt wrote “Police in Helicopter” because Jamaicans were tired of U.S.-funded efforts to aggressively burn down crops of cannabis. American officials launched Operation Buccaneer—secretly coordinating with Jamaican police—beginning in 1974, when the song was written.

“The chorus of this song has been a battle cry in my heart since I first heard it,” Jah9 said of the track. “As someone intimately involved with the use of this herb as a symbol of defiance but more importantly as a powerful tool for healing, I’m honored to add my voice to bringing it forward to a new generation.” Jah9 now lives in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and was tapped for the track with “the perfect” voice for it. 

Thanks to WikiLeaks, the tactics behind Operation Buccaneer in Jamaica, and the pressure from the U.S., have been made public. The goal of Operation Buccaneer was to eradicate all ganja. Operation Buccaneer continued in waves through the 1980s, and was profiled by the Washington Post in 1987. In the 1987 wave alone, 350 acres of small farms were destroyed over several months, and homes were destroyed by the helicopters as well.

The re-imagining of “Police in Helicopter” is dub-heavy and created for a new chapter in the world of ganja. Yaadcore hit up Diamond Supply Co. in Los Angeles recently on April 23 to promote Reggaeland and the new song. High Times also watched Yaadcore perform last February at Cali Vibes festival, with several Marley siblings, Shaggy, Sean Paul, and many others.

High Times caught up with Yaadcore on the phone, and we could hear the flick of a lighter as the conversation kicked off.

Courtesy of Jay Williams

How are you doing today?

Good, thank you.

You’ve been shifting from DJ to vocalist in the lab. How is being a vocalist different creatively compared to working as a selector?

Well, it’s different in that it’s more technical, it is more time consuming. It takes a lot more thought because, you know, you’re actually creating something from nothing. You know, whereas that DJ has some artillery already given to him and then, you know, he uses that to do his job. But as far as the [vocal] artist is concerned, you know, we have to take things out of thin air to make it you know, pleasing to the ear. So, I think that’s the difference with being a DJ artist, you know?

“Police in Helicopter” is an old-school political tune from way back in 1982. Tell us about what the song is about.

Right. So “Police in Helicopter,” as you mentioned, is a political song. In 1974, you know, the U.S. government funded Jamaica’s government in aiding and abetting to burn down marijuana fields. So that was the whole you know, idea. The inspiration came about from John Holt, who did the original “Police in Helicopter” in 1982 or 1981 I believe. And yeah, Emch [of Subatomic Sound] linked me up. He was the one who really wanted to remake this song for his bridging on the Yard Birdz record label and link me, and I knew I wasn’t the one to sing the chorus because that’s not really my style or anything. So you know, I suggested Jah9—perfect collaborator. And you know, I reached out to her and she agreed to do it after hearing me first and everything.

Does that reflect your own views about cannabis?

The song really you know, depicts my views of marijuana in that you know, the lyrical content states you know, watch out for the “chopper dem a chop,” which is reference to the helicopters that fly by our field and dem want to take our crops you know, so and then in the second verse, I’ll go on to say, you know, “Non-stop burn the fire pon the system, when you turn the marijuana farmer in a victim.” You know, so this song is really advocating for the farmers you know, and you know, their herb on a whole is coming far away but we still have a far more way to go, because marijuana is not legal in every country in the world. And you know, we all are equal and want the same rights to partake in this herb so you know, that’s why we still find it necessary to sing these kinds of lyrics.

Your debut album Reggaeland came out recently. There is a heavy dub element to it. Which track are you most proud of?

What was I most proud of? Honestly—there are a few tracks and I’m proud of it. Frank reasons being Lee “Scratch” Perry “Play God” that was one very mystical track, you know, seeing that he’s also being the legend that he is and how it really came about was really me … You know, after I wrote the song, I was listening to one of his interviews, and I realized he said the same thing that I was saying in the song, which was, you know, the devil is trying to play God because that’s really what “Play God” is all about, you know, like as bigger heads trying to be the gods of man, and you know, want to tell man, what they should do what they should not do. So, that’s a very special track.

And what else?

You know, “Nyquill (Remix),” is also especially with the legendary Richie Spice, you know, the highest one or the one that has, you know, some of the most marijuana on them. So it was definitely a pleasure to collaborate with him as well. And then you know, “Shrooms” also, so the whole album is very special.

Yaadcore
Courtesy of Jay Williams

It sounds pretty psychedelic.

I like shrooms now. And you know, we’re on High Times so [that’s] a nice topic to touch on, you know. It’s gonna be one of the first—alright the first-ever—reggae song that is singing in support of shrooms as a religious and natural mystical tool. It happened you know, on my first experience with the psychedelic; That was the manifestation.

What about the songs with Lee “Scratch” Perry?

All right, so I have two songs with Lee “Scratch” Perry. Oh, no, with Lee “Scratch” Perry: The one that I did before was not on the album. That was also set to release before his passing was even a ‘ting. You know, yeah, so unfortunately, he passed before that song actually came out. So no, I don’t really have any [more] of Lee Scratch Perry’s tracks that I, you know, worked with … that’s coming out. Though we have a Lee Scratch Perry [track] featuring and a bunch of younger artists also on that as well, but is not necessarily from these Lee “Scratch” Perry’s production, but more of him being an artist on that track.

The dub master?

And he’s the founder of dub—a type of music that almost every other genre uses now was originated by him. And you know he influenced Bob Marley. I agree. You know he has produced with Bob Marley as well. That very bizarre icon in music—not only in reggae music but you know, in music.

Do you find shrooms to be spiritual like cannabis is?

Of course, even on a higher level, I don’t even I don’t want to say high because everything serves this purpose, but how I like to describe it like marijuana is for like the earthly, spiritual realization and shrooms no can take you unlike a spiritual spiritual connection. Yeah, no. Yes. Is definitely way more intense. And you know, it has medicinal values … Also, you know, it’s not all about the psychedelic aspect and everything. Just like marijuana. […]

What kind of live performances do you have coming up?

Well, you know, actually, I have only one confirmed date right now in Sacramento. We’re actually working under a regular tour right now. So not any confirmed dates as yet. But I’m sure there will be some in a few weeks or so.

Do you have any other announcements?

I mean, you know, I definitely have singles going to be released before the end of the year, that are not going to be on the album, or that wasn’t on the album. And yeah, we just have this mixtape that we’re gonna do with WholesomeCo Cannabis. That’s a dispensary in Utah.

I did two for them before. So this is like the final final leg of this series. You can check that out as well. But yeah, that’s about it. I did a merge collab with Diamond Supply Co. for the song “Nyquill.” So there’s merch for the “Nyquill” remix on the Diamond Supply Co. website. So that’s a big deal. I think, you know, yeah. There’s no other artist that has ever done anything with our streetwear brand officially, you know?

Are you aware that High Times threw many events in the past near the cliffs in Jamaica?

They should let us do some content stuff in Jamaica. Yeah, we should look into that, man. I should, we should definitely look into that. Yeah, no problem, man. Thanks for your time as well.

yaadcoreradio.com

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Cannabis Now America’s Fifth Most Profitable Crop

With recreational pot now legal in 18 states, cannabis is a bona fide profitable cash crop. In November, Leafly Holdings, Inc. released its first ever “Cannabis Harvest Report” that examined “farm licenses and production in the 11 states that have legal adult-use stores open and operating.” 

“Cannabis is medically legal in 37 states, but for purposes of this report we focused on operating adult-use states—the 11 states where any adult can walk into a licensed store and buy cannabis—for salience to the general public,” the report’s authors wrote. “In those 11 adult-use states, cannabis supports 13,042 licensed farms that harvested 2,278 metric tons of marijuana last year. That amount would fill 57 Olympic swimming pools, or over 11,000 dump trucks stretching for 36 miles—and it’s returning $6,175,000,000 to American farmers every year.”

That figure of a little more than $6 billion “ranks (cannabis) as the fifth most valuable crop in the United States,” trailing corn ($61 billion), soybeans ($46 billion), hay ($17.3 billion), and wheat ($9.3 billion) but outpacing cotton ($4.7 billion), rice ($3.1 billion), and peanuts ($1.3 billion).

The report said that in five of the states where adult-use cannabis sales are legal—Alaska, Colorado, Massachusetts, Nevada, and Oregon—cannabis is actually the most valuable crop.

“In each of the 11 states with adult-use retail stores operating, cannabis ranks no lower than fifth in terms of agricultural crop value—often within two years of the first stores opening. In Alaska, the cannabis crop is worth more than twice as much as all other agricultural products combined,” the report’s authors wrote.

The goal of the harvest report, Leafly said, was to “quantify annual cannabis production in operational adult-use states, just like the USDA’s Economic Research Service does for all non-cannabis crops.”

“The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) tracks annual yields, prices, and estimated values for nearly every commercial crop grown in America. But the USDA does not track legal cannabis due to the plant’s status as a Schedule I drug,” the authors wrote. “That’s just weird because in legal adult-use states, cannabis is consistently one of the highest-value crops in the field.”

“We also believe it’s time to end the stigma attached to cannabis farming. Far too many state agricultural agencies and policymakers still treat cannabis growers with contempt,” they continued. “Some right-to-farm laws specifically exclude cannabis farming. Most cannabis farmers must—by law—hide their crops from public view, as if the mere sight of a fan leaf might induce intoxication. These unfair and unnecessary measures are taken against a legal crop that’s one of the top agricultural products in every adult-use state. Cannabis farmers are farmers, period.”

The report’s findings echo a study released last month. That research, which came via the Marijuana Policy Project, found that the 11 states with licensed adult-use cannabis retailers generated more than $3.7 billion in total revenue in 2021.

That figure amounted to a revenue increase of 34% from recreational cannabis in those states compared with 2020.

“The legalization and regulation of cannabis for adults has generated billions of dollars in tax revenue, funded important services and programs at the state level, and created thousands of jobs across the country. Meanwhile, the states that lag behind continue to waste government resources on enforcing archaic cannabis laws that harm far too many Americans,” said Toi Hutchinson, the president and CEO of the Marijuana Policy Project, who added that the findings serve as “further evidence that ending cannabis prohibition offers tremendous financial benefits for state governments.”

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Nepal, Former Hashish Haven, Could End Prohibition After 50 Years

Home to legendary Royal Nepalese temple hashish balls and other exotic delicacies, Nepal could soon return to its former glory, with new legislation to legalize cannabis and new intentions. Nepal’s pool of cannabis advocates now include people living with HIV and other conditions who not only want cannabis, but need it.

Nepal’s top officials signaled that legislation is underway to repeal Nepal’s ban on cannabis.

“It is not justifiable that a poor country like ours has to treat cannabis as a drug,” Nepal’s Health Minister Birodh Khatiwada told Agence France-Presse (AFP) on April 29. “Our people are being punished … and our corruption increases because of smuggling as we follow decisions of developed countries that are now doing as they please.”

That’s not the only reason for cannabis reform in Nepal. Just like any other country, a growing body of advocates are turning to cannabis for its healing properties above anything else.

“It is a medicine,” said cannabis activist Rajiv Kafle, who is living with HIV, and uses cannabis for medical reasons. HIV can lead to wasting syndrome, which is the loss of appetite. One of cannabis’s most prominent side effects is the munchies, being a powerful appetite-inducer.

“So many patients are using it, but they are forced to do it illegally,” Kafle said. “They can get caught anytime.” The Associated Press reported on October 11, 2021 that campaigners introduced a bill in Parliament, seeking to again legalize the farming, use, and export of cannabis as more countries allow its medicinal and recreational use.

Kafle was among the top advocates beating the drum of cannabis reform in Nepal. It’s a reminder of how HIV was a driving force for the first statewide medical cannabis laws in the U.S. as well.

Hashish Haven in Kathmandu

In the ‘60s and through today, many accounts detail how the most avid hippies made their way to Kathmandu, Nepal to buy the world’s most potent hash. Hash could be easily found from government-licensed stores on “Freak Street.” Most people who tried temple balls say they’ve “never forgotten” the experience. But due to increasing pressure from the U.S. and other countries, Nepal closed its hashish dealers in 1973.

Former High Times news editor Bill Weinberg reported on the city extensively, explaining that even after the 1973 ban, hashish trade continued to flourish for a time. In 2018 however, a crackdown on Nepalese temple hashish put a damper on hashish trade.

According to local press, backpackers from the West are still traveling to Nepal to buy hashish in back alleys—while the country isn’t getting a piece of it in the form of taxes, etc. To make things worse, smuggling and corruption are reportedly a big problem in the area.

In December 2020 Nepal backed a successful campaign when the United Nations reclassified cannabis out of its list of the world’s most harmful drugs.

Furthermore, there is hardly any way to separate cannabis from religion in the region. Cannabis use at Hindu temples is commonplace. For instance, Shiva, destroyer of evil, is often depicted holding a chillum to smoke. That’s why you’ll see temples such as Kathmandu’s Pashupatinath Temple offer ceremonies with holy men and worshippers who fill their own chillums with Shiva’s “gift”.

But it’s the same temple complex that was raided in 2018, when 280 people were arrested and 115 criminally charged. There’s a clear disconnect between religion and law.

Royal Nepalese temple hashish balls are said to yield indescribable taste and potency that cannot be matched by people in the West. Ed Rosenthal called it the Holy Grail of concentrates.

Thousands of pilgrims converge on Nepalese temples for the Hindu festival of Shivaratri each year, and cannabis is a holy sacrament.

With the new movement in legislation to end the ban on cannabis in Nepal, it’s a unique place in the world where religion meets cannabis.

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Study Shows Drivers in Legal States Less Likely to Drive While High

The study on drivers was conducted by researchers at the Center for Health, Analytics, Media and Policy, RTI International and Office of Research Protection in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, which was published online on April 23, but is slated to be published in Preventive Medicine Reports in June 2022.

The study analyzed consumption behaviors of 1,249 individuals. Over one third of participants reported driving under the influence within three hours of getting high in the last 30 days, and another one third shared their use of cannabis within 20 or more days within a 30-day period.

“Current cannabis users in recreational and medical-only cannabis states were significantly less likely to report driving within three hours of getting high in the past 30 days, compared to current users living in states without legal cannabis,” researchers wrote. “The one exception was frequent cannabis users who lived in medical cannabis states. Their risk of DUIC [driving under the influence of cannabis] did not differ significantly from frequent users living in states without legal cannabis.”

Researchers suggested a solution to address driving under the influence of cannabis, which should be specifically targeted toward states without legal cannabis programs. “Our findings suggest that DUIC prevention is most needed in states without legalized cannabis. Because regulation of cannabis products in non-legal environments is not possible, mass media campaigns may be a good option for providing education about DUIC.” 

Overall, researchers concluded that education campaigns could help continue to prevent people from driving under the influence after consuming cannabis. “Although all states should educate its citizens about the potential dangers of using cannabis and driving, this analysis suggests that states without legal cannabis are particularly in need of DUIC prevention efforts,” they wrote. “States should consider mass media campaigns as a method of reaching all cannabis users, including more frequent users, with information about the dangers of DUIC. Medical states may consider targeting frequent users by disseminating information about DUIC through medical dispensaries.”

The study also shared that it found three other studies that mirrored this evidence. Two were shared in 2020, and one was published in 2021, with varying levels of approach regarding analyzing the effect of recreational and/or medical cannabis legalization.

NORML’s Deputy Director Paul Armentano commented on the results of this study with the hope that it will educate those who fear the negative effects of cannabis legalization. “These findings ought to reassure those who feared that legalization might inadvertently be associated with relaxed attitudes toward driving under the influence,” said Armentano. “These conclusions show that this has not been the case and that, in fact, consumers residing in legal marijuana states are less likely to engage in this behavior than are those residing in states where cannabis possession remains criminalized.”

States such as Massachusetts are gearing up to increase how they enforce influenced driving laws. Governor Charlie Baker announced legislation in November 2021 that would “provide law enforcement officers with more rigorous drug detection training and will strengthen the legal process by authorizing the courts to acknowledge that the active ingredient in marijuana can and does impair motorists.” However, Baker’s legislation does not address how to approach measuring impairment or properly identifying if a person has recently consumed cannabis and is impaired, or if they consumed days or weeks before an incident and are no longer impaired. 

A recent study published in Canada expresses the need for a better way to detect impairment accurately. “We would love to have that one measure that says, okay, this person is impaired, or they aren’t,” said lead author Sarah Windle. “But unfortunately, in the case of cannabis, it just isn’t that simple.”

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Four Years After Smoking Blunt, Elon Musk Buys Twitter

Billionaire and self-described free speech champion Elon Musk will acquire Twitter, Inc. according to an April 25 press release. The move will make Twitter private and set off a firestorm of speculation—ranging from whether or not Musk will allow Donald J. Trump to return, to the possibility of an edit button.

Twitter, Inc. entered into a definitive agreement to be acquired by an entity wholly owned by Musk, for $54.20 per share in cash in a transaction valued at approximately $44 billion.

Musk is the world’s richest person, according to Forbes and most other lists. Bloomberg estimates he has $3 billion in cash, give or take. Musk described $13 billion in bank financing secured by Twitter and the $12.5 billion backed by a pledge of Tesla stake, but it’s not clear how he’s going to come up with the remaining $21 billion to complete the transaction.

The billionaire is citing the move as a victory for free speech, while others disagree on the ethics of the deal and its implications for the future of social media.

“Free speech is the bedrock of a functioning democracy, and Twitter is the digital town square where matters vital to the future of humanity are debated,” said Musk. “I also want to make Twitter better than ever by enhancing the product with new features, making the algorithms open source to increase trust, defeating the spam bots, and authenticating all humans. Twitter has tremendous potential—I look forward to working with the company and the community of users to unlock it.”

With 85.2 million followers and counting, Musk ranks number 8 in the list of the Top 10 Most Followed Twitter Accounts, trailing people like Justin Bieber and former president Barack Obama. He’s gained millions of followers just in the past week or so. But his use of the micro-blogging social media app has been scrutinized and analyzed. The Guardian criticized Musk’s use of Twitter, calling the relationship “chaotic and crass.”

Per the agreement, Twitter stockholders will receive $54.20 in cash for each share of Twitter common stock that they own upon closing of the proposed transaction. The purchase price represents a 38% premium to Twitter’s latest closing stock price.

“The Twitter Board conducted a thoughtful and comprehensive process to assess Elon’s proposal with a deliberate focus on value, certainty, and financing,” Bret Taylor, Twitter’s Independent Board Chair said. The proposed transaction will deliver a substantial cash premium, and we believe it is the best path forward for Twitter’s stockholders.”

Parag Agrawal, Twitter’s CEO said, “Twitter has a purpose and relevance that impacts the entire world. Deeply proud of our teams and inspired by the work that has never been more important.”

Elon Musk and Cannabis

Does the 420 in the share value sound familiar? On August 7, 2018, Musk tweeted he was mulling over taking Tesla private, quoting a price of $420 per share for the buyout.

He told the New York Times that he’s aware of how popular weed is, but he’s not sure how it could help productivity, to be candid. “It seemed like better karma at $420 than at $419,” Musk said. “But I was not on weed, to be clear.” That all changed a month later on a podcast appearance on The Joe Rogan Experience.

On September 6, 2018, Musk smoked a blunt on episode #1169 of The Joe Rogan Experience. Rogan himself became embroiled in the topic of free speech due to his Spotify fiasco, over concerns the podcaster was sharing information that wasn’t medically sound.

Due to the fallout of Musk’s many investments because of the blunt stunt, Jimi Devine asked for High Times, “Did Elon Musk smoke the most expensive blunt of all time?” Even Musk’s NASA-associated security clearances came into question.

With the power of Twitter at his fingertips, a lot could change in the world of social media, and inevitably, politics and free speech will intersect.

The transaction, which was approved by the Twitter Board of Directors, is expected to close in 2022, pending the approval of Twitter stockholders.

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