The Third Cannabis Receptor Site – GPR55

We talk all the time about the two cannabis receptor sites in the body, CB1 and CB2. Scientists, however, have uncovered what appears to be a third cannabis receptor site, GPR55. What is this site? And how does it impact things like inflammation, cancer, and anxiety?

CB1 and CB2 might be the main cannabis receptors, but a third cannabis receptor site exists called GPR55. Perhaps in the future, this receptor site will play a bigger role in the research and development of cannabis products. For now, there are plenty up for grabs, including a growing array of cannabis cannabinoids including delta-8 THC, THCV, and even hemp-derived delta-9. No matter what your favorite delivery method, we’ve got a product for you. Check out our deals, and start your holiday shopping today!


CB1 and CB2

To start with, humans (and other animals) have an endocannabinoid system which is a neuromodulation network throughout the body. This system is highly important to central nervous system functioning, as well as being involved in synaptic plasticity, and the response to different stimuli, whether from inside or outside the body. The system involves cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids (or endogenous cannabinoids made in the body), and the enzymes that are required for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids.

There is currently plenty of research going on involving the endocannabinoid system, and how it functions. Research findings have pointed at the endocannabinoid system being related to the regulation of cognitive as well as physiological processes, like fertility, pregnancy, and natal and early development.

It is also thought to play into immune activities; mood, emotion, and motivation; memory and learning; appetite; pain sensitivity and modulation; behaviors involving addiction; and neural functions like motor coordination and control. And of course we can’t forget its also responsible for producing the psychoactive effects of cannabinoids like delta-9 THC.

GPR55

When it comes to the receptors, there are several, however the two of main interest, and which have been studied the most, are the CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 was first cloned in 1990, and those receptors are found mainly in the brain and nervous system throughout the body, including in other organs and tissue.

CB2 receptors are found in the brain (though far less than CB1 receptors), and in the immune system and gastrointestinal system. CB1 receptors therefore are regulators of neural transmissions and many peripheral purposes, and CB2 receptors are more geared toward regulating immune and inflammation pathways.

In terms of THC, “THC acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). A very high binding affinity of THC with the CB1 receptor appears to mediate its psychoactive properties (changes in mood or consciousness), memory processing, motor control, etc. It has been reported that a number of side effects of THC, including anxiety, impaired memory and immunosuppression, can be reversed by other constituents of the cannabis plant (cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids).”

Third cannabis receptor site – GPR55

CB1 and CB2 receptors are only two types of receptors found in the endocannabinoid system, but others exist. One atypical type of receptor, often thought of as the third cannabis receptor site, is GPR55. This receptor, first found in 1999, is still being studied, and not a whole lot is known about it for sure. However, it’s expected that it’s responsible for many of the effects of different cannabinoids, leading some to refer to it as cannabinoid receptor site 3. In actuality, it has not yet been given an official CB3 designation, but that could be coming.

GPR55 (or, G protein-coupled receptor 55) is thought of as a ‘type 3’ receptor, which is activated by cannabinoids like delta-9, as well as non-cannabinoid ligands. A ligand is a grouping of like molecules that can attach to receptor sites, and in this case refers to either endocannabinoids (made within the body), phytocannabinoids (produced by the plant), synthetic cannabinoids (made in a lab), and non-cannabinoids. So this means the receptor is activated by cannabis related compounds, and non-cannabis compounds as well.

GPR55 receptor actions have been seen in the nervous system; parts of the brain like the frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hypothalamus, and brain stem; and in dorsal root ganglia neurons; the spleen; tonsils; adrenals; bones; endothelial cells; large intestine; lungs; kidneys; and adipose tissue (or body fat).

CB1 CB2

In the brain, these receptors seem to be related to the perception of pain, neuroprotection, anxiety issues, motor coordination, and substance abuse issues. Apart from these attributes, GPR55 is also thought to be involved in the formation of bone, the experience of neuropathic pain, inflammation, and fetoplacental development.

What third cannabis receptor site GPR55 shows in research

So, what is this third cannabis receptor site GPR55 known for? Well, its still being researched, but there are several different attributes it’s being studied for. One of them has to do with how these receptors effect cancer. These receptors are associated with many different kinds of cancer, and can be found within cancer cells.

One of the things about GPR55, is that it seems (at least at times) to promote the proliferation of cancer cells. In general, something that helps cancer spread is not thought of as good. In one study it was found that the knocking down of the GPR55 expression in glioma cells (essentially using glioma cells where GPR55 expression has been muted) was related to decreased tumor growth. As in, when the receptors weren’t functioning, tumors didn’t function as well either. Another study showed the expression of GPR55 in different prostate and ovarian cancer cell lines.

Learning how GPR55 effects cancer cells, is useful for understanding how cancers grow, and how to treat them. For example, recently developed antibodies that work against GPR55, can detect it’s expression at protein levels in tumor tissue and normal tissue. At CB1 and CB2 receptors, cannabinoids act as agonists, and have been shown to be useful for fighting cancer because of antiproliferative, antimetastatic, antiangiogenic, and pro-apoptotic effects. Agonists of GPR55 are known for their pro-cancer effects.

THC has been shown to be an agonist sometimes with GPR55, but not always, leading to reasonable confusion as to how the receptors are effected by delta-9, and whether the effect created is positive or negative.

One of the big avenues of research for this third cannabis receptor GPR55, is regarding its anti-inflammatory properties. For example, in one study, the increased expression of GPR55 suggested a relationship with intestinal inflammation. In fact, GPR55 seems to play a pro-inflammatory role according to some research. Other research shows the opposite, like it having an anti-inflammatory expression on mast cells, by way of inhibiting mast cell-mediated releases of nerve growth factor. Investigating different agonists and antagonists of GPR55 can help us better understand how it’s used for inflammatory and anti-inflammatory purposes. Both are necessary for bodily function.

The takeaway? “The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been reported to modulate inflammation and is expressed in immune cells such as monocytes and microglia.” Of course, specifics to all this are still quite unknown.

cannabis receptors

Yet another attribute has to do with its use with anxiety, which is also still not well understood. In one study on mice with the GPR55 receptors silenced in the medial orbital cortex (knockout mice), it was found that use of O-1602 (synthetic compound somewhat related to abnormal CBD), which had previously shown to work as an anxiolytic in acutely stressed mice, no longer had this effect without use of the receptor. This indicates that the receptor might play an important role in experiencing anxiety, with its suppression effecting how anxiolytic compounds will behave.

GPR55’s existence in the central and peripheral nociceptive systems (the systems whereby we sense and experience pain), implies a possible ability to modulate these pathways. It has even been proposed that GPR55 (as well as receptor GPR18) could play a part in the experience of both acute and chronic pain. Research already suggests that GPR55 is related to the modulation of nociceptor excitability, meaning it can play a role in how we respond to painful stimuli. In terms of nerve damage, GPR55 was found to show mRNA expression in both the spinal cord and DRG (dorsal root ganglion) of nerve-damaged test rats, suggesting a link between GPR55 and neuropathic pain. Studies are across the board at the moment, with much further research needed.

Conclusion

Even though we talk about CB1 and CB2 receptors a lot, it doesn’t mean they’re the only ones at all, and in fact, other receptor sites have been found. Third cannabis receptor site GPR55 might not technically be called CB3 at the moment, but it might soon, and for good reason. It seems to play a big role in how cannabis is capable of effecting the body, though the jury is still out on exactly what this means in different contexts.

What is for sure is that cannabis is a plant with many and varied compounds capable of having many and varied effects. Perhaps GPR55 represents an avenue of cannabis we are still not as familiar with, and points us in an important direction for future cannabis study.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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A Guide to Rare Cannabinoids

You’re probably familiar with the two best known cannabinoids produced by the cannabis plant: THC and CBD. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is the active ingredient in marijuana, the one that gets you high. CBD (cannabidiol) is THC’s non-intoxicating cousin, legal across the United States and typically sought out for its stress-relieving or sedating properties. But did you know cannabis contains hundreds of other minor cannabinoids, many of which we’ve only just begun to study? Here’s a handy guide to a few of the best known rare and minor cannabinoids—and how one edibles company is harnessing them to enhance their customers’ lives.

What is a Cannabinoid Anyway?

All mammals have what’s called an endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is a complex network of transmitters and receptors that help regulate things like sleep, stress and pain management to keep your body in a state of balance.

Cannabinoids are molecules that activate the ECS’s receptors. Your body produces plenty of cannabinoids on its own (these are called endocannabinoids). Meanwhile, Cannabinoids like THC and CBD are produced by the cannabis plant and are known as phytocannabinoids. It’s also possible to synthesize cannabinoids in a lab, but for the purpose of this article, we’ll stick to those found in nature.

Just like your body’s naturally occurring endocannabinoids, plant-derived phytocannabinoids help send signals throughout your body—signals like, “Hey, we’re safe right now, you don’t have to feel so stressed,” or, “We should probably have a snack,” or, “Don’t you think it’s time to go to sleep?” In other words, they’re messengers that enhance your body’s natural regulatory processes.

What Kind of Rare Cannabinoids Are There?

The cannabis plant produces well over 100 known phytocannabinoids, and science has barely scratched the surface of what they can do. Let’s take a look at three of the best-known rare and minor cannabinoids, and the ones you’re most likely to encounter in commercial cannabis products.

  • CBN (Cannabinol): CBN is probably the third most famous cannabinoid after THC and CBD. That’s because it’s developed a reputation as an effective sleep aid. In point of fact, there’s really only one study that suggests CBN can make you drowsy–and it was conducted in 1975 with just five participants–so the jury is out on whether CBN truly deserves to be known as “the Sleepy Cannabinoid.” That said, some studies do suggest that CBN may have some anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects. So, if stiffness or soreness is keeping you up at night, CBN may indeed help you get to sleep – just not in the way most people think it does.
  • CBG (Cannabigerol): In its acidic form (CBGA), CBG is sometimes called “the Mother Cannabinoid” because it’s the first cannabinoid the plant creates, which is eventually converted to THC or CBD. For this reason, CBG is actually pretty rare, but its potential benefits make it worth keeping an eye out for. For one thing, CBG may have some anti-bacterial properties. Some scientists are even hopeful it could aid in cancer treatment! And in terms of everyday usefulness, there’s also evidence that CBG can help make consumers feel less anxious–another important quality in a stress reliever or sleep aid.
  • THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin): Even though it’s only one letter off from THC, this fascinating cannabinoid is, in many ways, the total opposite of its more famous counterpart. THCV does not get you high. Rather, it’s believed to sharpen focus. THCV doesn’t stimulate appetite in the way that THC is known to either. In fact, early studies suggest that THCV may actually curb appetite by disrupting the reward patterns in your brain, making you less likely to crave junk food and more able to make thoughtful, controlled choices about what you eat.

Where You Can Find These Cannabinoids

The more we understand about rare and minor cannabinoids, the more we can use them to improve our wellness and quality of life. Wana Brands, North America’s #1 manufacturer of THC and CBD-infused edibles, understands this and is an industry leader when it comes to harnessing cutting-edge cannabis technology.

Wana has recently launched a new first-of-its kind line of daily wellness solutions known as Wana Optimals. These vegan, organically sweetened gummies are infused with both rare and major cannabinoids, terpenes and other plant derived ingredients in order to target problem areas that keep people from living their best lives. In other words, they’re meant to achieve specific results like better sleep and an enhanced fitness routine.

So far, there are two Optimals products currently available in Wana’s home state of Colorado. The first, Fast Asleep Gummies, are powered by a custom sleep blend including CBD, CBN, CBG, a small amount of THC and melatonin, and more than 30 specialized terpenes. This carefully calculated formula doesn’t just induce drowsiness, knocking you out and leaving you groggy the next day. It targets the root causes of sleeplessness, like stress and physical discomfort. Fast Asleep Gummies are also powered by a fast-acting nano-technology that delivers effects in just 5 to 15 minutes.

The second Optimals product, daily Fit Gummies, are infused with THCV to help disrupt unhelpful eating habits and empower consumers to make healthier dietary choices. They’re not diet pills made with jitter-inducing chemicals, and they won’t get you high. They’re simply a plant-based tool to help you feel like the healthiest version of yourself.

Looking to the Future

More Wana Brands Optimals products are on the horizon, and you can sign up on their website to be notified when they launch. Are you ready to start exploring the brave new world of rare cannabinoids?

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11-Hydroxy-THC: The Substance Behind Cannabis Edible Potency

Most cannabis lovers share a story — the one about that brownie. But they don’t always know that the culprit (or hero) of the edibles story was a little substance known as 11-hydroxy-THC.

When it comes to telling the brownie story, the details change from person to person, but the crux of the plot is always the same: You ate that thing, whatever it was, and got much higher than you planned for. Inhaling cannabis by smoking, vaping or dabbing is definitely the fastest way to feel the effects of cannabis, but when it comes to powerful impacts that last — particularly for those seeking physical therapeutic benefits — ingesting cannabis orally is an ideal approach.

One reason so many of us have experienced being overwhelmed by an “overproof” edible is the imprecise potency of most homemade edibles, particularly back in the days before everyone started casually kicking around chemistry 101 jargon when talking about weed. The truth is you never really knew how strong the brownie was until you ate it — that was half of the fun. But now the culture of cannabis has expanded to include people unwilling or unable to cancel their plans at a moment’s notice and dedicate a few hours to navigating the inner workings of their mind, but that’s just the price of progress.

11-Hydroxy-THC Is A ‘Metabolite’: The Many Forms of THC

Given that we’re always hearing stories about how devastatingly strong orally consumed cannabis can be, here’s a question: Why?

It’s all about the journey that tetrahydrocannabinol or “THC” takes from existing on a cannabis plant to reacting in your endocannabinoid system, because there isn’t just one THC. When you look at the resin glands or trichomes of a cannabis plant, most of the THC inside those glands is actually THCA. THCA  is the acidic precursor of what most people think of as psychoactive THC, which is called delta-9-THC. Through a process called decarboxylation, which refers to the transfer of carbon atoms triggered by heat, THCA turns into THC. This takes place when you smoke or vaporize your bud, but also occurs naturally as a plant reaches maturity.

But when that delta-9-THC hits your body, another transformation takes place: Your body’s metabolism takes delta-9-THC and creates a new compound, 11-hydroxy-THC.

You’re probably thinking: yet another cannabinoid to keep track of? Well, kind of. Generally speaking, there are two types of cannabinoids: endocannabinoids, which are produced naturally by the human body, and phytocannabinoids, which present in the resin glands of the cannabis plant. 11-hydroxy-THC is technically neither of those: It’s the primary metabolite of THC, meaning the body transforms delta-9 into 11-hydroxy-THC.

In fact, the process continues, with the creation of a secondary metabolite, 11-Nor-9-carboxy-THC or THC-COOH. It’s a metabolite of hydroxy that’s fundamentally inert, but which can linger in fat deposits for several weeks. For that reason, it’s the compound targeted by most urinalysis drug tests for cannabis.

Why 11-Hydroxy-THC Is More Potent From Edibles than Flower

The reason 11-hydroxy-THC is so powerful is that it crosses the blood-brain barrier more effectively than delta-9.

But if delta-9 turns into 11-hydroxy-THC anyway, why does it matter how you get the cannabis into your bloodstream? The answer is all about metabolization.

Ultimately your body will create 11-hydroxy-THC from inhaled delta-9, but over 10 times as much of the THC metabolite can be created when cannabis is ingested. This is because when you ingest cannabis it’s metabolized, first by stomach enzymes and then by the liver, creating two opportunities for the creation of 11-hydroxy-THC.

Alternately, when you inhale cannabis, it goes directly to your lungs, where it enters your bloodstream directly, circumventing the liver completely at first. The THC still present in the blood that eventually makes it to the liver will be metabolized into the hydroxy metabolite, but relatively little will be produced.

As our understanding of the cannabis plant and its wondrous compounds expands, we’re not just learning more about the plant, we’re learning more about ourselves. The human body is uniquely adapted to benefit from the introduction of phytocannabinoids, and as our knowledge about them expands, so does our ability to isolate the benefits of specific cannabis compounds.

Some people choose one or the other, but many cannabis users seeking therapeutic benefits find the “best medicine” is a multi-pronged approach that includes inhalation, ingestion and possibly topical or transdermal applications of a broad spectrum of cannabinoids, including acidic precursors like THCA and CBDA.

Ultimately, THC is a much more complicated compound than most people realize. There’s even another chemical form it can take — delta-8-THC — which only occurs in minute quantities naturally, but which extractors are just beginning to harness, but we’ll explore that form next time.

TELL US, do you have a story about an edible that was too strong?

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What Is THC: Inside the Most Controversial Cannabinoid

At a time when cannabis cultivators and consumers are so heavily focused on terpene profiles, it’s easy to forget that not so long ago the overwhelmingly preoccupation of cannabis enthusiasts could be encapsulated in three letters: THC.

Tetrahydrocannabinol is just one of the more than 110 cannabinoids found in cannabis, but for decades it was assumed to be the primary psychoactive component of the plant. It was synthesized in 1964 by Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, which ultimately led to the creation of dronabinol, a synthetic version of THC best known by the trade name Marinol. Patients who were already using cannabis medicine said the synthetic, THC-only option was less effective and had side effects not associated with natural cannabis.

Raw THC vs. Activated THC

“THC” is a common colloquial catchall, but there are several states of the cannabinoid relevant to the use of cannabis. What many people don’t realize is that cannabis plants don’t produce THC, they produce tetrahydrocannabolic acid, or THCA. This is the non-psychoactive precursor to THC∆9, which is created when THCA is decarboxylated through heat.

This is why consuming raw cannabis, while potentially beneficial in other ways, will not provide psychoactive effects. Many people decarboxylate their cannabis before using it to make edibles precisely to transform THCA into THC∆9, thereby ensuring the edibles will make consumers feel “high.”

THC∆9 is further transformed into THC metabolites, which are produced by the human body when it processes THC, notably 11-nor-9-carboxy THC, which is basically inert but remains in the body for up to three months; it is the primary THC metabolite tested for by most drug tests.

THC & The Endocannabinoid System

Even though the cannabis community’s new obsession is with “the terps,” the legacy of our previous love affair with high THC levels is found in the elevated concentration still found in most strains. But with the widespread popularity of concentrates, high potency is typically given, hence the elevated focus on terpenes.

We now know that the cannabis plant produces phytocannabinoids, which supplement and interact with endocannabinoids that are produced naturally by the human body. The complex neurological network responsible for producing, processing and utilizing these cannabinoids is known as the endogenous cannabinoid system, and it was discovered by the same person who first synthesized THC — Dr. Mecholuam.

There are many distinct physiological processes regulated or affected by the ECS. For example, the endocannabinoid system responds to a physical trauma by suppressing sensitizer and activator release, reducing nerve cell firing and limiting inflammatory response by immune cells near the site of the trauma. These are distinct processes, but they all further the ultimate goal of reducing pain. This is just one expression of the way the ECS is constantly working to maintain balance within your body.

The Entourage Effect

Dr. Mechoulam is also credited with introducing the concept of the “entourage effect,” which first posited that cannabis works in tandem with CBD and other cannabinoids to produce the desirable effects of cannabis. But what is often lost in the new buzz around CBD medicine and CBD-only medicine particularly, is that THC is an absolutely crucial component of that entourage. While it isn’t necessary to consume THC in large quantities, or even necessarily to consume the decarboxylated THC∆9 (though its benefits are numerous), your “cannabinoid diet” should contain some of the foundational cannabinoid THC, even if it’s THCA in the form of a tincture.

THC may not be the primary consideration of most cannabis consumers anymore, but it still serves a vital function in providing the diverse suite of medicinal benefits associated with cannabis consumption.

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How does depression affect the endocannabinoid system

Doctors are far too liberal with anti-depressants that target serotonin when so few of them understand cannabis and especially the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Serotonin and the ECS are tied tightly together. In fact, serotonin deficient depression can cause a host of effects on the mind and immune system by disengaging the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Connected […]

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Understanding the Endocannabinoid System of Animals

Although it was once believed that only humans had an endocannabinoid system (ECS), we have recently learned of its existence in nearly all animals, including vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish) and many invertebrates (sea urchins, leeches, mussels, nematodes, and others).

Yes, you read that right. Almost every animal you could possibly think of has an endocannabinoid system. As far as we know, the only animal group found to be lacking this system are insects. So, what exactly are the implications here? Aside from the numerous veterinary possibilities, what this really means is that we’ve been looking at cannabis all wrong. It’s not just a drug that get’s us high, it’s a plant full of compounds that are much more interconnected to the natural, living world than we previously believed.

The endocannabinoid system is an incredible discovery. So many of our physiological functions are dependent on the proper functioning of these neurotransmitters and receptors. To learn more about the endocannabinoid system, in both human and animals, subscribe to The Medical Cannabis Weekly Newsletter, your source for all the leading cannabis industry information


What is the Endocannabinoid System (ECS)?

The only reason cannabinoids even work and have an effect on so many different living organisms is because of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS), a system that was only recently discovered in March of 1992. Simply put, the ECS is a network of neurotransmitters and receptors that exists in the bodies of all animals. Cannabinoid 1 and Cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB1 and CB2) are found in the brain and nervous system, as well as in peripheral organs and tissues.

As a whole, the ECS regulates numerous different functions and processes in our bodies and maintains internal balance and homeostasis. The ECS modulates the nervous and immune systems and other organ systems to relieve pain and inflammation, regulate metabolism and neurologic function, promote healthy digestive processes, and support reproductive function and embryologic development.

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Researchers have discovered two different endocannabinoids so far, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA). 2-AG is made from omega-6 fatty acids and is present in fairly high levels in the central nervous system, but it has also been detected in human (and bovine) milk. 2-AG is a full agonist of both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, but it has a stronger influence over the CB2 receptor. Because of this, 2-AG is thought to have a substantial impact on the immune system. Anandamide (AEA), also commonly referred to as the “bliss molecule”, is known to play a major role in the in all our basic daily physiological functions including sleep/wake cycles, appetite, mood, and even fertility.

In addition to the naturally produced cannabinoids, there is also a large web of receptors that allow AEA and 2-AG to function the way they do. Again, the two receptors that have been studied most extensively are CB1 and CB2. These cannabinoid receptors sit on the surface of cells and monitor conditions on the outside. Once they sense changing conditions and the body falling out of a state of homeostasis, they signal the appropriate cellular response to restore balance.

Anandamide: The Bliss Molecule

Although there are two known endocannabinoids, one is by far more prominent in research and literature: Anandamide (AEA). The name comes from the Sanskrit word “ananda,” translating to “internal bliss, joy, or delight.” Anandamide is a fatty acid neurotransmitter that activates the same receptors as THC. The reason AEA is known as the Bliss Molecule is because of the role in plays in balancing our body functions and elevating our moods. Multiple studies have been conducted on the benefits of being exposed to varying levels of anandamide.

In 2015, a study examining both humans and rodents found that high levels of anandamide contributed to mood elevation and fear reduction. When the enzymes that break down anandamide were inhibited, the subjects felt less fear and anxiety where threats were perceived. A 2009 study linked anandamide to fertility by showing that high levels of this endocannabinoid were not only beneficial, but essential for regular ovulation and proper fetal development. The study also concluded that higher levels of anandamide during times of ovulation contributed to a healthy and successful pregnancy.

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A slightly older study published in 2004 found that increased levels of anandamide the bloodstream created a “euphoric high” in people who had just performed rigorous exercise or physical activity. This is frequently described as a “runner’s high” or “adrenaline high”, and it’s likely the reason why people who use cannabis often feel that it contributes to their workout.

Normally, anandamide is broken down by the fatty acid amino hydrolase enzyme (FAAH), at which point it is no longer in the body and thus, no more blissful effects are felt from this compound. Some people and animals produce less FAAH enzymes, and these people report feeling overall happier, experiencing less fear and anxiety than those who produce more FAAH. The same can be assumed for animals that produce less of this fatty acid.  

Veterinary Applications

We already face major limitations when it comes to the available studies and information we have regarding the endocannabinoid system in human animals, but when it comes other species, we know even less. One conclusion that researchers seem to agree on, however, is that regardless of species, the ECS seems to offer the same physiological and psychological benefits.

Research into the exact potential of the endocannabinoid system of animals is still ongoing. So far, the only species we do have minimal information on (aside from lab rats of course) is canines. This makes sense, considering that roughly 63 percent of American households own a dog, which is according to the Insurance Information Institute’s study on pet insurance policies. There is a bit of research indicating that felines absorb and eliminate cannabinoids differently than dogs, but that needs to be investigated further.

Although the basic functions of the endocannabinoid system are generally the same, there are some notable differences. Mainly, in the protein sequence and distribution of the CB receptors. Binding affinities for the canine CB2 receptors have been measured to be about 30 times less than the ones in both humans and rats. Simplified, that means dogs have not only a larger number of CB1 receptors, but they are much more active than human CB1 receptors.

This is significant because different cannabinoids bind to different receptors in the brain, so a dog’s experiences with cannabis could be much different than what a human would feel. For example, THC binds to both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, whereas CBD only binds to the CB2 receptors. This is why THC produces psychoactive effects, and the reason why dogs are more likely to experience adverse reactions from this cannabinoid. 

Regardless, other cannabinoids, like CBD, CBG, and CBC could be wildly beneficial for our animal friends. Humans can experience a condition known as Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency, in which the body does not produce enough endocannabinoids. As a result, we fall out of a state of homeostasis, leading to the onset of numerous different diseases and disorders. It’s very possible that a lack of endocannabinoid production could be the root cause of health problems in other species as well.

Safety Profile

It’s hard to say exactly how safe cannabis is for animals because we have very little definitive information on this subject to go by. In one particular study, it was discovered that dogs Compounds with psychoactive side effects in are typically not the way to go with veterinary species can suffer “Static Ataxia”, a neurological condition characterized by a change in gait and tremors.  

But what is too high for a dog varies considerably from what is too high for a human, or even a rat, which shows that size of a species isn’t the only factor to look at when gauging toxicity. For a dog, exposure to doses over 0.5 mg/kg of body weight was too much was enough to trigger Static Ataxia. In states where cannabis products are more prevalent, there is a slightly higher rate of Animal ER admissions for THC toxicosis.

Cannabidiol (CBD), on the other hand, is a completely different story. According to a 2018 study conducted at Colorado State University, CBD is relatively safe when given at doses of 20mg/kg for six weeks straight to a subject group consisting of 30 healthy adult beagles. Like other medications, there can be side effects. Mild elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase was noted in about 30% of the subjects, as well as occasional diarrhea.

Additional research from Cornell University found that ”once the right dosage is determined for a pet, cannabidiol can improve pain stemming from arthritis. In addition, some consumers have had success in using CBD oil for dogs to help relieve a variety of ailments.” In fact, this study found that more than 80% of participating dogs experienced a significant decrease in pain and noticeably improved mobility.

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Final Thoughts on The Endocannabinoid System of Animals

The future looks bright as cannabinoid research, in the post-cannabis prohibition era, is finally able to provide additional discoveries regarding the role the endocannabinoid system plays in the pathogenesis of disease, and the maintenance of health – for us as well as many non-human animal species.

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The post Understanding the Endocannabinoid System of Animals appeared first on CBD Testers.

Cannabichromene – How CBC Interacts With Our Brain’s “Bliss” Molecule to Target Depression

An average of 9.5% of American adults ages 18 and over will suffer from an ongoing depressive illness every year – that’s roughly 17 million people. For many, finding relief is a daily struggle between managing symptoms, avoiding triggers, and trying to find a treatment plan that actually works – the latter often proving to be more difficult than most would expect. The reason for that is simple: pharmaceutical antidepressants just aren’t that effective. Natural compounds that interact with existing receptors in our bodies… that is what really works, and that is what certain cannabinoids like Cannabichromene (CBC) have to offer.

Are you a cannabis aficionado who would like to learn more about cannabichromene, as will as other cannabinoids and all aspects of this incredible plant? If so, make sure to subscribe to The CBD Flowers Weekly Newsletter for the best of the best that this industry has to offer, as well as access to exclusive deals on flowers and other products. Or you can check out the Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for the best deals on Delta 8 THC.

Wholesales: Click HERE for Delta 8 & Delta 10 THC wholesale opportunities


What is Cannabichromene (CBC)?

Although much of the global discourse regarding cannabis is focused on THC and CBD, cannabichromene (CBC) is next in line as the third most prominent compound in the plant, and of equal importance therapeutically. In most strains (both marijuana and hemp), CBC ranges from 0.3% to 0.9% of the total plant constituents. Just like other cannabinoids, CBC starts out as a plant acid – cannabichromenic acid to be specific – and eventually drops the carboxyl acid group becoming just cannabichromene.

CBC is non-psychoactive and interacts with the endocannabinoid system differently than both THC and CBD. THC binds directly with both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, and CBD interacts indirectly to these receptors via secondary pathways. CBC, however, is an agonist of only the CB2 receptors, which play a vital role in immune function, pain management, inflammation, and overall homeostasis.

Researchers have been looking at CBC for a few decades now, with studies dating back to 1981. In one of the earlier studies, the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal properties of CBC were put to the test. It was discovered that CBC was more powerful than phenylbutazone (an NSAID anti-inflammatory/pain medication) at controlling inflammation. It was also found to be a potent antibacterial and a moderately effective antifungal treatment as well.


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Limitless Delta 8 CBC Vape Cartridge Bundle

Limitless Delta 8 CBC Vape Cartridge Bundle

Fast forward to a 2006 study, in which numerous cannabinoids were examined to see if they could be used to shrink tumors. Among the cannabinoids tested was cannabichromene, and it scored equally well as THC and CBD at suppressing tumor growth in the animal subjects. 

And finally, in this 2010 scientific study, the anti-depressant activity of CBC and other cannabinoids was tested on mice. In one part of the study – a forced swim – CBC, CBD and Delta 9 THC all showed significant anti-depressant effects. In the second part of the study – a tail suspension test – CBC and Delta-9-THC were said to have the most significant mood-elevating properties compared to other cannabinoids as well as the pharmaceutical antidepressants they were tested against.

Additional studies over the years echoed these findings, and also found that CBC produced an antinociceptive response that helped control pain, minimize digestive issues, and offered neuroprotective qualities. As with other cannabis compounds, research on the full potential of cannabichromene is still ongoing, but it has shown potential as both a standalone treatment and working synergistically with other cannabinoids.

Anandamide and Homeostasis – The Bliss Molecule

When it comes to happiness, the majority of it is situational; but according to newer global studies, the levels of happiness one feels on a regular basis can have some genetic components as well. If you know any people that seem just naturally happier than others, it might be because they have higher levels of anandamide in their brains.

Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine) is first endocannabinoid, discovered and isolated by Lumír Hanuš (Israel) and William Devane (United States) in 1992. The name comes from the Sanskrit word “ananda,” translating to “internal bliss, joy, or delight.” Anandamide is a fatty acid neurotransmitter that activates the same receptors as THC.

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Normally, anandamide is broken down by the fatty acid amino hydrolase enzyme (FAAH), at which point it is no longer in the body and thus, no more blissful effects are felt from this compound. Some people and animals produce less FAAH enzymes, and these people report feeling overall happier, experiencing less fear and anxiety than those who produce more FAAH. In addition to mental health, anandamide has been found to positively impact fertility and inhibit the growth of breast cancer tumors.

People whose bodies break down anandamide faster, can benefit greatly from supplementing with phytocannabinoids (cannabinoids created by plants); but the key is knowing which ones most closely mimic the bliss molecule’s effects. CBC, CBD, and THC all offer positive effects, but due to CBC’s affinity for the CB2 receptor, it seems to work best for elevating mood without producing any unwanted psychoactive side effects.

CBC’s Effect on Anandamide

The only reason cannabis actually works and has an effect on us at all is because of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS), which is responsible for numerous different psychological and physiological functions. Researchers have discovered two different endocannabinoids so far, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA).

In addition to the naturally produced cannabinoids, there is also a large web of receptors that allow AEA and 2-AG to function the way they do. The two receptors that have been studied most extensively are CB1 and CB2. Cannabinoid receptors sit on the surface of cells and monitor conditions on the outside. Once they sense changes and the body begins falling out of a state of homeostasis, they signal the appropriate cellular response to restore balance.

When we don’t produce enough endocannabinoids to complete this cycle, our bodies become unstable and no longer perform optimally, leading to the onset of numerous different diseases and disorders. This is where supplementing with the phytocannabinoids found in cannabis becomes extremely beneficial.

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All of the cannabinoids studied have their place, but cannabichromene was shown to have the strongest antidepressant effects when compared to THC, CBD, and CBG. Because CBC has such strong effects on a group of ion channels located on the plasma membrane, known as the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, it also has strong effects on anandamide and dopamine. When CBC turns on these receptors, increased levels of the body’s all-natural endocannabinoids like anandamide are released.

One of the greatest medicinal qualities of CBC is that, since it does not interact with the CB1 receptors like THC, it works efficiently at elevating the mood without any intoxicating, psychoactive effects.  

Dangers of Pharmaceutical Antidepressants

Depressive disorders are on the rise, they have been for years, but we’ve seen an even sharper uptick of cases since the COVID-19 pandemic began. By the age of 19, roughly 25% of adolescents have experienced a depressive or major anxious episode, and that number jumps sharply to 53% by 30 years of age. Recent studies show that a growing number of young adults are using antidepressants, which can be beneficial for the mental state but, like all medications, come with a slew of unwanted side effects.

When it comes to the exact figures of how many Americans are taking antidepressant medication on a regular basis, here are the estimates: 4% of children 6-12 years of age, 7% of adolescents 12-18 years of age, and 10-22% of adults (a number that, as explained above, increased with age).  

CBC Distillate 99%

CBC Distillate 99%
CBC Distillate 99%

Common antidepressant side effects:

  • headaches
  • dry mouth
  • blurred vision
  • digestive issues, such as stomach upset, nausea, and constipation
  • dizziness
  • drowsiness
  • trouble sleeping
  • memory problems
  • fatigue
  • weight gain
  • sexual problems such as low sex drive, erectile dysfunction, or ejaculation problems
  • trouble urinating
  • fast heart rate
  • sweating
  • increased risk of suicidal thoughts and actions (especially in users under the age of 25)

To add to the dilemma, newer research and scientific reviews have found that, on average, antidepressants in children and young adults only led to very miniscule psychological improvements when compared to placebo treatments. This was especially true for children and adolescents, who face the greatest risks from taking these medications.

Also keep in mind that physical health is often the catalyst that sets mental health conditions in motion, so it would be a bit of a catch 22 to take antidepressants for depression, and end up with some type of physical ailment that leaves you feeling anxious and depressed all over again.

Final Thoughts

Depression affects millions of people, here in the U.S. and globally. Throughout the world, one in four people suffer from mental and/or neurological disorders at some point in their lives. Wouldn’t it be amazing to have a therapeutic solution that was safe, natural, and actually worked? Cannabis science is still in its infancy but the research we do have shows that it certainly is promising, and in some studies, cannabinoids like cannabichromene performed better than prescription medication (thanks to the presence of anandamide in our endocannabinoid systems). It says a lot and really emphasizes the need for more research and better regulations, especially in the field of mental health.

Hello.. Welcome to CBDtesters.co, the #1 spot for the most relevant cannabis-related news from around the world. Give us a read-thru every day to stay abreast of the quickly-changing world of legal marijuana, and sign up to receive our newsletter, so you always know what’s going on.

The post Cannabichromene – How CBC Interacts With Our Brain’s “Bliss” Molecule to Target Depression appeared first on CBD Testers.

How a Rare Cannabinoid Interacts With Our Brain’s “Bliss” Molecule to Target Depression

An average of 9.5% of American adults ages 18 and over will suffer from an ongoing depressive illness every year – that’s roughly 17 million people. For many, finding relief is a daily struggle between managing symptoms, avoiding triggers, and trying to find a treatment plan that actually works – the latter often proving to be more difficult than most would expect. The reason for that is simple: pharmaceutical antidepressants just aren’t that effective. Natural compounds that interact with existing receptors in our bodies… that is what really works, and that is what certain cannabinoids like Cannabichromene (CBC) have to offer.

Are you a cannabis aficionado who would like to learn more about cannabichromene, as will as other cannabinoids and all aspects of this incredible plant? If so, make sure to subscribe to The CBD Flowers Weekly Newsletter for the best of the best that this industry has to offer, as well as access to exclusive deals on flowers and other products. Or you can check out the Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for the best deals on Delta 8 THC.


What is Cannabichromene (CBC)?

Although much of the global discourse regarding cannabis is focused on THC and CBD, cannabichromene (CBC) is next in line as the third most prominent compound in the plant, and of equal importance therapeutically. In most strains (both marijuana and hemp), CBC ranges from 0.3% to 0.9% of the total plant constituents. Just like other cannabinoids, CBC starts out as a plant acid – cannabichromenic acid to be specific – and eventually drops the carboxyl acid group becoming just cannabichromene.

CBC is non-psychoactive and interacts with the endocannabinoid system differently than both THC and CBD. THC binds directly with both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, and CBD interacts indirectly to these receptors via secondary pathways. CBC, however, is an agonist of only the CB2 receptors, which play a vital role in immune function, pain management, inflammation, and overall homeostasis.

Researchers have been looking at CBC for a few decades now, with studies dating back to 1981. In one of the earlier studies, the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal properties of CBC were put to the test. It was discovered that CBC was more powerful than phenylbutazone (an NSAID anti-inflammatory/pain medication) at controlling inflammation. It was also found to be a potent antibacterial and a moderately effective antifungal treatment as well.


NEW: Delta 8 + CBC Vape Carts

The most incredible entourage effect you can imagine!


Limitless Delta 8 CBC Vape Cartridge Bundle

Limitless Delta 8 CBC Vape Cartridge Bundle

Fast forward to a 2006 study, in which numerous cannabinoids were examined to see if they could be used to shrink tumors. Among the cannabinoids tested was cannabichromene, and it scored equally well as THC and CBD at suppressing tumor growth in the animal subjects. 

And finally, in this 2010 scientific study, the anti-depressant activity of CBC and other cannabinoids was tested on mice. In one part of the study – a forced swim – CBC, CBD and Delta 9 THC all showed significant anti-depressant effects. In the second part of the study – a tail suspension test – CBC and Delta-9-THC were said to have the most significant mood-elevating properties compared to other cannabinoids as well as the pharmaceutical antidepressants they were tested against.

Additional studies over the years echoed these findings, and also found that CBC produced an antinociceptive response that helped control pain, minimize digestive issues, and offered neuroprotective qualities. As with other cannabis compounds, research on the full potential of cannabichromene is still ongoing, but it has shown potential as both a standalone treatment and working synergistically with other cannabinoids.

Anandamide and Homeostasis – The Bliss Molecule

When it comes to happiness, the majority of it is situational; but according to newer global studies, the levels of happiness one feels on a regular basis can have some genetic components as well. If you know any people that seem just naturally happier than others, it might be because they have higher levels of anandamide in their brains.

Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine) is first endocannabinoid, discovered and isolated by Lumír Hanuš (Israel) and William Devane (United States) in 1992. The name comes from the Sanskrit word “ananda,” translating to “internal bliss, joy, or delight.” Anandamide is a fatty acid neurotransmitter that activates the same receptors as THC.

NEW: DELTA 10 THC

NEW: Delta-10 THC Tincture
NEW: Delta-10 THC Tincture

Normally, anandamide is broken down by the fatty acid amino hydrolase enzyme (FAAH), at which point it is no longer in the body and thus, no more blissful effects are felt from this compound. Some people and animals produce less FAAH enzymes, and these people report feeling overall happier, experiencing less fear and anxiety than those who produce more FAAH. In addition to mental health, anandamide has been found to positively impact fertility and inhibit the growth of breast cancer tumors.

People whose bodies break down anandamide faster, can benefit greatly from supplementing with phytocannabinoids (cannabinoids created by plants); but the key is knowing which ones most closely mimic the bliss molecule’s effects. CBC, CBD, and THC all offer positive effects, but due to CBC’s affinity for the CB2 receptor, it seems to work best for elevating mood without producing any unwanted psychoactive side effects.

CBC’s Effect on Anandamide

The only reason cannabis actually works and has an effect on us at all is because of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS), which is responsible for numerous different psychological and physiological functions. Researchers have discovered two different endocannabinoids so far, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA).

In addition to the naturally produced cannabinoids, there is also a large web of receptors that allow AEA and 2-AG to function the way they do. The two receptors that have been studied most extensively are CB1 and CB2. Cannabinoid receptors sit on the surface of cells and monitor conditions on the outside. Once they sense changes and the body begins falling out of a state of homeostasis, they signal the appropriate cellular response to restore balance.

When we don’t produce enough endocannabinoids to complete this cycle, our bodies become unstable and no longer perform optimally, leading to the onset of numerous different diseases and disorders. This is where supplementing with the phytocannabinoids found in cannabis becomes extremely beneficial.

BEST CHOICE:

Delta 8 Vape Cartridges – Premium Bundle

Delta 8 Premium Vape Carts - Coupon: Delta25
Delta 8 Premium Vape Carts – Coupon: Delta25

All of the cannabinoids studied have their place, but cannabichromene was shown to have the strongest antidepressant effects when compared to THC, CBD, and CBG. Because CBC has such strong effects on a group of ion channels located on the plasma membrane, known as the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, it also has strong effects on anandamide and dopamine. When CBC turns on these receptors, increased levels of the body’s all-natural endocannabinoids like anandamide are released.

One of the greatest medicinal qualities of CBC is that, since it does not interact with the CB1 receptors like THC, it works efficiently at elevating the mood without any intoxicating, psychoactive effects.  

Dangers of Pharmaceutical Antidepressants

Depressive disorders are on the rise, they have been for years, but we’ve seen an even sharper uptick of cases since the COVID-19 pandemic began. By the age of 19, roughly 25% of adolescents have experienced a depressive or major anxious episode, and that number jumps sharply to 53% by 30 years of age. Recent studies show that a growing number of young adults are using antidepressants, which can be beneficial for the mental state but, like all medications, come with a slew of unwanted side effects.

When it comes to the exact figures of how many Americans are taking antidepressant medication on a regular basis, here are the estimates: 4% of children 6-12 years of age, 7% of adolescents 12-18 years of age, and 10-22% of adults (a number that, as explained above, increased with age).  

CBC Distillate 99%

CBC Distillate 99%
CBC Distillate 99%

Common antidepressant side effects:

  • headaches
  • dry mouth
  • blurred vision
  • digestive issues, such as stomach upset, nausea, and constipation
  • dizziness
  • drowsiness
  • trouble sleeping
  • memory problems
  • fatigue
  • weight gain
  • sexual problems such as low sex drive, erectile dysfunction, or ejaculation problems
  • trouble urinating
  • fast heart rate
  • sweating
  • increased risk of suicidal thoughts and actions (especially in users under the age of 25)

To add to the dilemma, newer research and scientific reviews have found that, on average, antidepressants in children and young adults only led to very miniscule psychological improvements when compared to placebo treatments. This was especially true for children and adolescents, who face the greatest risks from taking these medications.

Also keep in mind that physical health is often the catalyst that sets mental health conditions in motion, so it would be a bit of a catch 22 to take antidepressants for depression, and end up with some type of physical ailment that leaves you feeling anxious and depressed all over again.

Final Thoughts

Depression affects millions of people, here in the U.S. and globally. Throughout the world, one in four people suffer from mental and/or neurological disorders at some point in their lives. Wouldn’t it be amazing to have a therapeutic solution that was safe, natural, and actually worked? Cannabis science is still in its infancy but the research we do have shows that it certainly is promising, and in some studies, cannabinoids like cannabichromene performed better than prescription medication (thanks to the presence of anandamide in our endocannabinoid systems). It says a lot and really emphasizes the need for more research and better regulations, especially in the field of mental health.

Hello.. Welcome to CBDtesters.co, the #1 spot for the most relevant cannabis-related news from around the world. Give us a read-thru every day to stay abreast of the quickly-changing world of legal marijuana, and sign up to receive our newsletter, so you always know what’s going on.

The post How a Rare Cannabinoid Interacts With Our Brain’s “Bliss” Molecule to Target Depression appeared first on CBD Testers.

Are magic mushrooms synergistic with cannabis and your ECS?

Sometimes depression can hurt, literally. Interestingly, this has a lot to do with our Endocannabinoid Systems (ECS)—a network that consists of a few receptors and two neurotransmitters. Pain and emotions are tied together through these messengers. And, it is through the ECS that magic mushrooms and cannabis can often, although counterintuitively, have therapeutic effects. (1) […]

The post Are magic mushrooms synergistic with cannabis and your ECS? appeared first on Latest Cannabis News Today – Headlines, Videos & Stocks.

Opening Your Third Eye – How Cannabis Affects the Pineal Gland

Known as the primordial third eye and anatomical center of our spirituality and consciousness – the pineal gland has been a source of human mystery and fascination for centuries. The pineal gland is known to be highly receptive to psychoactive drugs, so what happens to it when we use cannabis?

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The Pineal Gland

The pineal gland, also known as the conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland found in the brains of most vertebrates. Functionally, the pineal gland is known for its production of melatonin, a hormone that regulates both circadian and seasonal sleep cycles. Spiritually, it’s known as the seat of the soul, the third eye, and the place where our thoughts are formed and manifest into the universe around us… but more on that a little bit later.

The name, Pineal gland, comes from its shape that strongly resembles a pinecone. It’s a midline brain structure, found in the epithalamus near the center of the brain, and it has no pair. It’s tucked into a groove between the two thalamus halves. The pineal gland is one of the neuroendocrine secretory circumventricular organs in which capillaries are mostly permeable to solutes in the blood.

Another feature that makes the pineal gland anatomically unique is that the pineal gland is not separated from the rest of the body by the blood-brain barrier. Meaning, pineal gland gets abundant blood flower directly from the posterior cerebral artery, making it more receptive to certain substances, such as psychoactive drugs like cannabis.

The Third Eye, from a scientific standpoint

The idea of the pineal gland being our primordial “third eye” obviously has some otherworldly connotations, but there is also some scientific basis to this description. The pineal gland is made up of pinealocytes, or neuron-like cells that synthesize melatonin and respond directly to light. Researchers have compared this to the retina of our eyes.

In some cases, scientists have even found holes in the pineal glands of certain fossil species. These holes look just like eye sockets in the rear part of the skull, and allow light to enter to enter directly to the brain. Even now, some modern reptile and fish species still have a fully functional third eye. Take the tuatara, a type of New Zealand lizard belonging to the Sphenodontidae family. The tuatara’s third eye even has its own lens, retina, and cornea!

In mammals, there is no evidence of a third eye that receives direct light and is fully functional in the same way as a reptile’s does. That said, a mammal’s pinealocytes are known to be directly connected to the retina, which helps regulate our sleep cycles by sending signals throughout the brain when light levels and patterns in the environment change. So, our pineal gland can be considered more of a metaphorical third eye, if you’re looking at it from a scientific standpoint.

The Seat of the Soul

Seventeenth-century philosopher and scientist René Descartes had an interest in anatomy and physiology, particularly the structure and function of the pineal gland. He discussed it in both of his books, in which he referred to it as “the principal seat of the soul and the place in which all our thoughts are formed.”

In the Treatise of Man (written in 1637 but not published until 1664), Descartes described these conceptual designs of man that only consisted of two principal parts: body and soul. He believed the pineal gland was solely responsible for connecting the two. In his book, he mention “a certain very small gland situated in the middle of the brain’s substance and suspended above the passage through which the spirits in the brain’s anterior cavities communicate with those in its posterior cavities”.

Descartes discovered that the pineal gland was one the only portions of the brain to exist as a single part rather than one half of a pair and this is one of the reasons he believed it to be so significant. Much of his anatomical research has been discredited, but this statement still proves to be true.

Regardless, despite some errors in Descartes’ research, he was by far not alone in reaching these conclusions about the pineal gland. Many cultures throughout history are in tune with its spiritual importance, and activating it is the basis for many ancient religious ceremonies, some of which continue to this day.

For example, Hindus place a third eye (bindi) on their foreheads to channel chakra energy. In ancient Egypt, the pineal glad was so highly regarded that it was preserved separately during mummification. Even esoteric tradition proclaimed the third eye as “the space between humans and God”, pushing us to maximize our ethereal energy and connect us to a higher dimension of consciousness, awareness, unity, and love in a universe that’s much larger than most of us realize.

According to Dr. Joe Dispenza – D.C. and best-selling author of Evolve Your Brain: The Science of Changing Your Mind (2007) and Breaking the Habit of Being Yourself: How to Lose Your Mind and Create a New One (2012), both of which detail the neuroscience of change and epigenetics – if one activates the pineal gland during meditation, spiritual awakening is soon to follow.

“By squeezing the air we breathe through the centers in our body and visualizing the energy to remain at the top of the head, the spinal fluid is pushed up the spine all the way to the pineal gland. This activates the pineal gland and the body and mind transform from survival mode to that of creation. Mystical moments come as an aftermath.”

Where does cannabis come into play?

Again, because the pineal gland is not hampered by the blood-brain barrier, it’s incredibly sensitive to psychoactive chemicals. Although mild, cannabis is a psychedelic drug by definition, or rather, THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is a psychedelic substance within the cannabis plant.

Additionally, the reason cannabinoids even have such widespread effects on our bodies is because we come outfitted with an endocannabinoid system (ECS) – a series of cells and receptors that serve numerous different purposes for our overall health and wellness.

Research on rats has also shown that the pineal gland contains a functional endocannabinoid system of its own. This particular study found that the activity of the CB₁-receptors varied based on daily cycles, with lowest activity levels occurring at the end of the daylight period. It also showed that levels of NAPE-PLD, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing new endocannabinoid molecules, was reduced during the middle of the low activity period. And finally, the study discussed the presence of THC reduced the activity of another enzyme known as AANAT, and thus reduces the synthesis of melatonin itself.

This is not the first time that a link between AANAT and THC was discovered though. An earlier study on rats found that THC reduced the activity of AANAT via the following mechanism: “the neurotransmitter norepinephrine starts a cascade of reactions, the end result of which is the production of melatonin. THC disrupts this norepinephrine cascade and thereby reduces the production of melatonin.”

This would indicate that the pineal gland is very profoundly impacted by cannabis, but there is no available research that tells us the full extent of this yet.

Conclusion

Whether you believe in the spiritual functions of the pineal gland or not, we do know that this gland exists in most living creatures and it serves an incredibly important role in our physical and emotional wellbeing, the full extent of which is still not fully known.

We also know that the pineal gland is very responsive to psychoactive drugs, including cannabis, and more research is needed to uncover the therapeutic potential of these substances working with various parts of the brain and body, and the melatonin-producing pineal gland certainly seems to be an important part of the equation.

Thank you for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your hub for all things cannabis-related. Make sure to subscribe to the CBD Flower Weekly Newsletter for more articles and exclusive deals on flowers and other products!

The post Opening Your Third Eye – How Cannabis Affects the Pineal Gland appeared first on CBD Testers.