MDMA – The New Way to Treat PTSD

For sufferers of PTSD, the world can be a scary place. Modern medicine has attempted many ways to treat the disorder ranging from medications to therapy tactics, but they don’t always work. Building evidence shows that alternative remedies like the psychedelic drug MDMA might be a better long-term answer to treat PTSD.

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What is PTSD?

Post traumatic stress disorder is a psychiatric disorder, which means it is diagnosed subjectively. It effects people who have gone through a traumatic experience, whether they were actually a part of it, or just witness to it. This can include things like being physically attacked, witnessing atrocities of war, living through natural disasters, or being the target of bullying or psychological abuse. PTSD is diagnosed separately from other anxiety-based mental illnesses based on the experiencing of a traumatic event.

PTSD was known as ‘shell shock’ during World War I, and was referred to as ‘Battle Fatigue’ after world war II. It is associated with disturbing, and often very intense thoughts concerning past traumas. This can include reliving the event in flashbacks or nightmares, fear, sadness, anger, and feelings of detachment and estrangement from other people. Sufferers of PTSD often display strong negative reactions to situations that others would find non-triggering, and may avoid situations or people entirely that remind them of their past trauma.

Subjective diagnoses make for a difficult time adding up statistics, however, according to, approximately 3.5% of adults in the US suffer from PTSD per year, and its estimated that about one out of every eleven people will experience PTSD in their lifetime. Women are the predominant sufferers, outnumbering men 2:1, and the three ethnic groups where PTSD symptoms show up the most in the US, are Latinos, African Americans, and Native Americans – all minorities that have experienced a lot of overall violence, intolerance, and general contempt aimed at them throughout history.

medical psychedelics

What is MDMA?

3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, known colloquially as ecstasy, or molly (which is slang for ‘molecular’), is a man made psychoactive drug which is derived from the safrole oil, found primarily in sassafras plants. MDMA has properties of both hallucinogens and stimulants, acting primarily through its interaction with serotonin receptors. It forces the brain to released large amounts of the neurotransmitter, while blocking its reuptake to aid in extra absorption. MDMA comes as either pressed pills, or as a powder that can range from brown to white.

MDMA is known for promoting a feeling of connectedness between people, of reducing fear and anxiety, and increasing feelings of empathy. It was created by Merck Pharmaceutical back in 1912, however its effects were not well understood until the 1970’s when chemist Alexander Shulgin created a new method to synthesize the drug, and tested it out along with a few of his psychotherapist friends. This is around when it started being used in psychotherapy practices, as a treatment method coupled with therapy sessions, known as psychedelic-assisted therapy.

Despite showing usefulness in dealing with mental disorders, MDMA was illegalized in 1985. In 1984, President Ronald Reagan’s administration enacted the Comprehensive Crime Control Act which allowed for emergency banning of drugs by the government. When the subject of MDMA came up in 1985, after other psychedelic drugs had already been illegalized, this act was used to immediately illegalize the compound by placing it in Schedule I of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty, ending therapeutic uses of it.

The illegalization of psychedelics started with smear campaigns during the Vietnam war which culminated in the passage of the Staggers-Dodd bill in 1968 illegalizing LSD and psilocybin specifically. This was followed up with the creation of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty in 1971 which outlawed most of the rest, with the exception of MDMA, which was outlawed later.

While the topic is obviously a controversial one, statements made by John Ehrlichman – former Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Nixon in 1994, made evident that the war on drugs wasn’t necessarily about drugs at all. Creating further concerns about why drugs like MDMA were illegalized. In his statement he claimed:

“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people… We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.”


MDMA to treat PTSD

So, what do we really know about the ability of MDMA to treat PTSD symptoms? In 2020, a systematic review was released that investigated articles published up until the end of March 2019, that used key terms like ‘treatments for PTSD’ and ‘MDMA pathway’. All articles came through PubMed and ScienceDirect.

It was found in the identification and review of these articles (and their sources) that many small scale investigations had been done that show MDMA aids in reducing psychological trauma. The review authors made a very important point, though. They emphasized that none of the research showed MDMA as a cure for PTSD, as that specifically had not been researched.  What the review was identifying, and what had been studied, was the usefulness of MDMA assisted psychotherapy, and its ability to help people who have been unable to resolve their trauma issues through other avenues.

The big story today with MDMA revolves around currently in-progress trials. As of last summer, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) had begun Phase 3 of clinical trials into MDMA. MAPS is conducting double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials at multiple sites, testing the safety and efficacy of MDMA-assisted therapy for PTSD. The participants are 200-300 PTSD sufferers who are all 18+ in age, but with varied histories to produce their traumatic experiences.

These trials follow the Phase II trials which had promising outcomes, and are the last hurdle required by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) in order to be assessed for legalization in the treatment of PTSD. Should it get the pass, MDMA would be able to be prescribed along with therapy, in outpatient settings with residential stays – to allow users to have their experience in a safe and controlled environment.

How likely is the FDA to approve MDMA to treat PTSD? It is, after all, a psychedelic drug in Schedule I, which defines it as highly dangerous with no therapeutic value. Apparently, back in 2017, the FDA identified MDMA as a ‘breakthrough therapy’ for PTSD.

The FDA defines a ‘breakthrough therapy’ as a “drug that treats a serious or life-threatening condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement on a clinically significant endpoint(s) over available therapies.” This definition is meant to help speed up research progress in order to get products to market. In 2019, the same designation was made by the FDA for psilocybin in magic mushrooms.

medical MDMA

More about MAPS Phase 3 trials

Phase 3 trials were designed according to an agreed upon Special Protocol Assessment between MAPS and the FDA to make sure trials and outcomes would be in line with regulation. The trials take place at 15 different sites between three countries: the US, Canada, and Israel. Participants receive three therapy sessions with either MDMA or placebo over a 12-week therapy period, along with three preparatory sessions and three integration sessions, without any drugs. The MDMA/placebo sessions are spaced every 3-5 weeks.

The (CAPS-5) – Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale – is the primary measurement tool for success in the study. This is a loosely structured interview used in most PTSD trials, and requires assessment by raters who are ‘blinded’, or do not know where the study participant falls in terms of actual drug or placebo. The study investigators will use other measurement tools as well including, but not limited to: Beck Depression Inventory and Inventory of Psychosocial Functioning.

‘Phase 3’, of course, implies that this is not the beginning of the study. Phase 2 findings of the study indicate the following about MDMA and its ability to treat PTSD: it can cause a reduction in fear and defensiveness; increase introspection and communication, as well as empathy and compassion; and generally improves the therapeutic experience of those suffering from PTSD. Phase 2 consisted of 107 patients.

Two months following the MDMA-assisted treatment in Phase 2, 61% of patients were no longer identified as having PTSD. One year following treatment, 68% no longer qualified as PTSD. All participants had chronic PTSD that was treatment resistant, and had been suffered from for an average of almost 18 years.


It’s getting heated in the race to see which psychedelic drug gets the first US medical legalization (as the US so often sets the standard for other parts of the world). Psilocybin from magic mushrooms is certainly making waves, but it looks like MDMA might take the win. With the FDA already drooling at the mouth to approve, and the pharmaceutical world getting its ducks in a row, it looks like very shortly MDMA will officially be approved to treat PTSD, with a change in global legalization measures likely to follow.

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Can You Treat COVID-19 With CBD and Reduce Mortality Rates? A New Israeli Research Believes You Can!

Can you treat COVID-19 with CBD?
Can you reduce mortality rates of COVID-19 in patients with sever cases by using cannabinoids? A new Israeli clinical trial, approved recently, believes that a possible treatment for COVID-19 could be a blend of CBD and steroids.

Exciting news coming from Israel suggests that you can treat COVID-19 with CBD! According to this research, the possible treatment for COVID-19 patients might be coming from a special blend of CBD and Steroids. Unlike other cannabinoids-based medicine, aimed to treat but not to cure, the current clinical trial, held in the Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson) is using CBD and steroids to reduce mortality rates among the among COVID-19 patients in the worst states of health. If this clinical trial produces positive results, we might see a new wave of global attention toward CBD, cannabis and cannabinoid-based medicine.

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Can You Treat COVID-19 With CBD?

A new clinical trial, by the Rabin Medical Center, (RMC), is testing a promising CBD (Cannabidiol) based treatment for patients with severe and critical COVID-19 pulmonary infection. The study, which runs in cooperation of Stero Biotechs, an Israel-based company focused on Cannabidiol (CBD) formulation research and Mor Research applications, the TTO arm of Clalit, the largest state-mandated health service organizations in Israel, is trying to establish whether a new formula, based on CBD (infused in pharma grade olive oil) and steroids can reduce COVID-19’s mortality rates.

The clinical trial already received Helsinki Committee approval and is planned for 20 patient treatment as a Proof of Concept (‘POC’), using Stero’s CBD-based treatment, conducted by Dr. Ilya Kagan from the intensive care department with the support of Dr. Moshe Yeshurun, Director of the Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, at Rabin Medical Center, Israel.

Treat COVID-19 with CBD
Treat COVID-19 with CBD: A New Israeli Research In Rabin Medical Center

The study aims to benefit and help COVID-19 patients in severe states with respiratory failure from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The treatment cycle will be for 14-28 days with a subsequent follow-up period of the same length. Pending the success of this POC, Stero plans to expand and scale phase 2a multi-center study, with an additional 40 patients, under FDA clinical trial guidelines and regulations.

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According to David Bassa, Founder & CEO of Stero Biotechs after six years of researching CBD they already gathered alot of data about CBD’s safety, its effectiveness in treating inflammation and its ability to moderate the ammune system when it is becoming over-active.

In addition, the company has already researched the efficacy of CBD for the treatment of acute (Grade 3-4) Graft versus Host Disease (“GvHD”), when combined with steroids. That’s why, after learning from Oxford that steroids are effective in treating COVID-19 they have decided to use their own experience research a blend that uses both CBD and steroids. They believe that a formula that uses both CBD and steroids will be more effective in treating patients in severe states and that by adding CBD they will be enhancing the therapeutic effect of a steroid treatment.

About Stero Biotechs, Ltd.

STERO  Biotechs Ltd., founded in 2017 and headquartered in Israel,  is a clinical-stage company committed to the research and development of novel Cannabidiol (CBD) based treatment solutions that will potentially benefit millions by:
1) Enhancing the therapeutic effect of steroid treatments.
2) Lowering the dosage needed in steroid treatments, thus lowering the treatment’s horrific side effects. 
3) Allowing refractory patients to begin responding to the steroid treatments needed. 

All by using Stero’s CBD-based treatment.

Stero has 2 ongoing phase 2a clinical trials in Crohn’s Disease & in Urticaria (Hives) in Israeli hospitals and is planning to commence more clinical trials in 2020-2021 on various indications.

Stero has established a strong partnership with one of its shareholders- MOR Research Applications, the TTO of CLALIT HEALTH SERVICES. The partnership with MOR allows deep support to Stero’s clinical trials.

About Clalit

CLALIT is the largest HMO in ISRAEL, with:

  • Over 4.5M members
  • 14  full-scale hospitals
  • Over 2000 community clinics
  • Over 9000 physicians.

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Is Cannabis Good for Young Brains?

As more places legalize cannabis for recreational use, the issue of a minimum use age becomes relevant. When trying to establish a minimum use age for a drug that was considered a narcotic very recently, even by the places legalizing it now, it becomes about the actual risk factors associated with it. While a few studies come out with weak links to neural issues, the real question not being asked is, can cannabis be good for young brains?

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Perhaps it’s taboo to even suggest it, but it was also taboo to consider legalizing cannabis just a few years ago. It was perfectly fine for doctors to encourage cigarette smoking all the way up until the 1960’s, even though by that point it was already well understood by the medical community the very strong, and undeniable connection between cigarettes and cancer. That connection was denied by tobacco companies until 1998. It only became ‘taboo’ to mix smoking, and things like children, when it was decided on a grander scale to encourage a minimized use of cigarettes. The idea of taboo is often linked simply to how well something is understood, and the information being put out there. Information that is often paid for, and used to serve a purpose. Before we get into the question of whether cannabis is good for young brains, let’s go over what we do know about it already.

Cannabis and plant medicine?

Cannabis is a flowering plant in the Cannabaceae family. So right there we know one important thing about it: it’s a plant. And that means that we are not dealing with pharmaceutical medicine, we’re dealing with natural plant-based medicine. Now, if you’re thinking cannabis is the one standout plant in the plant world to offer medicinal benefits, you’d surely be mistaken. For anything (and I mean *anything*) that cannabis is said to be capable of doing, you will, indeed, find other plants that do the same. Want help with neurological issues and cutting down on amyloid plaque in the brain? Take some turmeric. Want a natural anti-depressant? Give St. John’s Wort a try. Need help sleeping? Try hops, or California poppy, or valerian. Need some help paying attention? Swallow down some gingko biloba, and if you really want to get rid of that cold faster or protect yourself against microbial diseases, take your oregano oil everyday (also about the best way to get rid of food poisoning, which I can personally attest to).

Even when it comes to THC’s ability to make a person feel good, well, so do poppy, and coca, and plenty of other plants. In most ways, when looking at plant medicine, there is actually absolutely nothing special about cannabis. But, also when looking at plant medicine, there is very little reason to believe that a plant already associated with helping with neurological disorders, would be the same plant to cause them. Yes, some plants are deadly, but we already know that no one dies from cannabis. At the very worst, literally, the very worst possible, it *could cause minor deficits, but once again, way more points in the direction that it is helpful to the brain, not harmful.


Things to consider

Having thoughts is great, but being able to back up information is what we rely on. This can come from medical research, or looking at history, and the most reliable results tend to be when the two agree. While history can often tell us how things have been used over thousands of years of time, it can’t necessarily tell us what the situation is today. One thing that can be looked at though is the simple question of ‘was cannabis used on children in ancient medical traditions?’ No search turned up a negative response to this, indicating that children were included for cannabis treatments.

Long standing medical traditions like Ayurvedic medicine, and Traditional Chinese Medicine tend to be good at not causing more harm, and even in the case of more dangerous plants, give plenty of warnings of literally everything that can be expected. So, while there is no ancient medical study to show if it is actually detrimental, or if cannabis is good for young brains, what we can know is that it was used on young people for thousands of years, and within that time, the medical practitioners who managed to write thousands of pages on the effects of plants, never noted it causing any kind of brain damage in in adults who used it as children. This is not to say that there weren’t warnings attached to it, as there absolutely were.

These days, people are way less caring of what went on thousands of years ago if there isn’t a medical study to say the same thing today. This is mostly good, except for where it gets to the part about medical studies being funded, and often having massive conflicts of interest that didn’t exist back when natural medicine practitioners were doing their thing a thousand years ago. So really, it’s not just about having a study done, it’s about having multiple studies done, and limiting (and publicly admitting to) any conflicts of interest.

Unfortunately, the latter part is rarely done, making simply reading a random study often less useful than looking at behaviors of ancient people. When the drug in question is cannabis, it should be remembered that pharmaceutical and biotech interest runs heavy, making it all the more difficult to get unfettered information. In this case, the very specific information we’re looking into, are the effects of cannabis on a young person’s brain, and whether its actually possible that cannabis is good for young brains, or at the very least, without detriment.

The medical research

There have now been plenty of studies that look at the effects cannabis has on young brains, although most are not clear or direct, giving confusing, and often conflicting answers.

In 2020, a systematic review was done regarding studies investigating if an adolescent brain is more vulnerable to cannabis. The review indicates that there is the possibility of neurological changes (notice the word ‘changes’ and not ‘damage’). This systematic review, much like the others I’ve seen, does not stipulate per study mention, how much cannabis was used. It is quite possible that some of these studies were done using a ridiculous amount of cannabis, rather than anything that would be realistic. It could be the difference between investigating the effects one joint a week might have, and 100 joints a day.

Regardless of the amount used for individual studies, the overall general finding was that changes can be noticeable, but “Future studies are required to better investigate adolescent cannabis use with more accuracy using better defined groups or longitudinal studies and examine the permanency of these changes following caseation of use.” This line indicates that even the changes mentioned cannot be called permanent, which undermines the idea that permanent damage was caused.

In a systematic review from 2019 – Age-Related Differences in the Impact of Cannabis Use on the Brain and Cognition, it states “The aim of this systematic review is to provide a critical examination of the moderating role of age on the relationship between cannabis use and cognition.” The review authors state: “While the results of this review do not offer a conclusive answer on the role of age…[it] has allowed for the formation of new hypotheses to be addressed in future work.” The following are the assumptions the review authors saw fit to test next in research, based on their findings:

brain damage

“First, general executive functioning seems to be more impaired in adolescent frequent cannabis users compared to adult frequent cannabis users. Second, age-effects may be most prominent among very heavy and dependent users. Third, craving and inhibitory control may not decrease as much post-intoxication in adolescents compared to adults. Lastly, adolescents’ vulnerability to reduced learning following cannabis use may not persist after sustained abstinence.”

These authors point out the importance of how much cannabis is being used, while not pointing to huge deficits, and admitting, like every study out there, that there isn’t anything published right now saying the effects are permanent.

In yet another systematic review from 2014 on the effects of cannabis on adolescent brains, the review authors state: “teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning.” This is followed by this admission:

“It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories.”

Basically, they’re admitting that they have no idea if those who show more disadvantages, are actually showing the result of cannabis use or genetics, as well as making it clear that dose is important (possibly ruling out study findings where insane amounts of cannabis, or THC, are used), and the implication of other substances. Let’s remember that apart from alcohol and a multitude of other illicit drugs, teens are perfectly allowed to take all kinds of heavy medication like diphenhydramine (Benadryl), are often prescribed benzodiazepines (do you think any medical professional really wants to argue which is worse?), and are subject to all kinds of things like chemical cleaners, and air pollution – the latter of which, depending on the location, is far more dangerous to a developing brain than a little cannabis. If you really want to get into how dangerous the things in the air that we’re exposed to are, you can start by reading this.

Other medical research

Maybe most damning to the assertion that cannabis causes irreversible brain damage, is this study – one of the only of its kind – put out in 2019 that actually followed a group of approximately 1000 subjects, starting in the 1980’s, and going for about 15 years. Brain scans and testing were done throughout. The study found that “Adolescent cannabis use is not associated with lasting structural brain differences.” This is one of the only studies published where actual testing was done at different time junctures, covering an expansive amount of time.

Lastly, let’s remember that cannabis is being looked at more and more for help specifically with neurodegenerative diseases. While this study from 2020 investigates CBD for neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, this study from 2012 talks about how “CBD combined with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol is already under clinical evaluation in patients with Huntington’s disease.” In fact, more and more studies are popping up showing cannabis as a whole, and different cannabinoids independently, as having the ability to help the brain.

These studies just don’t exist for crack and alcohol. And perhaps it should be considered that if we’re using cannabis to help brains in one domain, it’s probably unlikely to cause massive damage in another. That’s not a rule, but it is a basic logic point to consider. This isn’t to say that cannabis is good for young brains either, but it does add to skepticism that cannabis is causing major and irreversible brain damage for adults who start smoking young.

kids drinking alcohol

And now to make it a bit more personal: I didn’t start smoking until I was around 21, but I went to high school with lots of people who were smoking in their teenage years. I come from a very rich, upscale area, and nearly everyone of those pot-smoking kids, is now not only a functional adult, but with a medical degree, law degree, engineering degree, or something like that. If cannabis is so detrimental to young brains, there should be an abundance of messed up people from where I’m from, and there aren’t. Quite the opposite indeed. Perhaps things like socioeconomics, access to quality food and education, and decent medical care, play more into future brain issues than a plant no one seems to be able to make a real connection to actual brain damage with.

Let’s put it in perspective

When it comes to the actual studies that are referenced throughout the internet, with all different spins put on them, there is not one that can make the definitive statement that cannabis causes detrimental and permanent brain damage. And that one statement that I just made is scary considering how downright sure of themselves most of these publications sound. To give an idea of how ridiculous it all is, consider all the same studies, but involving alcohol. Do you think the end result would be ‘we just can’t say for sure if children drinking every day will be more likely to develop brain issues in the future’? Can you even imagine a statement so silly?

Part of the reason its silly is because we don’t need studies to tell us. It’s such a massive part of life, and something that so many people have so much experience with, that we just know. Just like how information was known in those ancient medical traditions. In fact, if studies came out saying otherwise, we’d be confused. Mainly because we’ve all seen it in some way, whether it came from a mother drinking too much while pregnant, kids starting at a young age, the way a person (literally any of us) acts while inebriated, or the outcome of accidents involving alcohol.

You also won’t see that kind of “we don’t know” hogwash when talking about crack, or methamphetamine. Because we already know what they do too. It’s so obvious we can see it. Yet no one seems to be able to ‘just see it’ with cannabis, and the best that the very best studies can do is say there ‘might’ be a connection, possibly with an ‘ungodly’ amount of cannabis used, which ‘doesn’t’ seem to be permanent. Let’s be glad that the authorities are more sure about crack, and perhaps we should sigh a bit at how sure we all are of the issues involving alcohol, and the measly, incompetent job that’s done to keep the damage contained.


If ever you get into the dangers of drugs and appropriate societal responses, I think the one place where there will always be more to say, and more to do, is with alcohol. It’s almost funny to point the finger at cannabis in light of the hulking, massive, destructive issue of alcohol, and yet, that’s what’s happening. Of course, they both can pose their own dangers, as it is not one against the other, but when it comes to the scope of that danger, there is no comparison. In the same way I wouldn’t encourage anyone to light-up over vaping, I also wouldn’t encourage a child to consume large amounts of…well…anything. Because maybe that’s the biggest takeaway when it comes to cannabis and young brains. Maybe, unless a ridiculous amount is being consumed, cannabis is good for young brains. And if it isn’t actually helping them, at the very least, it’s not hurting them either, at least not in any super well-definable way. And that’s according to both research and history.

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Succesful feasibility study for the development of topical medical cannabis products

Cannassure Therapeutics Ltd (TASE: CSURE) (“Cannassure”), an Israel based developer and producer of innovative medical cannabis products, announces today the successful completion of a feasibility study for the development of IP protected, homogeneous, topical medical Cannabis products for the treatment of skin inflammation, including psoriatic lesions. (PRESS RELEASE)

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Product development of such topical medical Cannabis products based on AKVANO® is being conducted under a collaboration between Cannassure and Lipidor AB (“Lipidor”), a Swedish topical drug development company, owner of the proprietary drug delivery platform technology AKVANO, which was signed in December 2019. The development project budget is partially funded by the Israeli Innovation Authority, by a non-dilutive grant.

The product under development is an incorporation of cannabinoids with AKVANO®, a topical drug delivery platform. Successful development of the product will allow localized administration of a precise dosage of cannabinoids using a spray, in a technology that allows for prolonged contact and optimal penetration of the active ingredient into the skin.

As part of the feasibility study, AKVANO® technology and cannabinoids were tested for compatibility, and it was found that the cannabinoids can be successfully combined in the AKVANO® system for a homogeneous, uniform and stable formulation. Cannassure tested the degree of product penetration into the skin by using known and acceptable models and found significant penetration of active ingredients into the skin tissue. This enhanced penetration may increase the therapeutic potential of the product. Based on these results, Cannassure will proceed to accelerated development stages and more advanced testings.

According to the agreement, Cannassure has informed Lipidor on its intention to start negotiating an exclusive global license for the use of Lipidor’s technology for the development of cannabinoids based topical therapeutics products for the treatment of indications to be chosen by Cannassure.  

The main guidelines for the licencing agreement, including royalties to be paid to Lipidor on product sales, were defined in the collaboration agreement.

According to estimates, the global market for products for the treatment of psoriasis is expected to reach 21.1 billion dollars by 2022. The current global market for topical products for the treatment of psoriasis is valued at 7 billion dollars, and the global market for topical pain treatment products is projected to reach 13 billion dollars.

The product development of topical treatments based on cannabinoids is in line with Cannassure’s strategy focused on the development and commercialisation of innovative medical cannabis products based on established drug delivery systems and formulations for enhanced therapeutic value. The product development is performed under the Israeli Medical Cannabis regulation, which allows a short development process.

About Cannassure Therapeutics Ltd.

Cannassure Therapeutics Ltd. (TASE:CSURE) is a leading, world class, trusted developer and provider of top-quality-grade medical cannabis products and pharmaceutical cannabinoid medicines, addressing a broad range of unmet medical needs.

About Lipidor AB

Lipidor AB ( is a Swedish, Stockholm-based research and development company with a pipeline of pharmaceutical development projects in preclinical and clinical phases. The Company develops topical medical products for the treatment of diseases such as psoriasis, bacterial skin infections and atopic dermatitis by reformulation of proven pharmaceutical substances.

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Treating addictions with psychedelic psychotherapy

Imagine having a treatment-resistant addition. You’ve tried going to therapy, taking medications, receiving treatment at rehabilitation centres–everything. But none of it worked. Where do you even go from there? What else is there to do? Getting an addiction can not only hinder one’s mental and physical health, but also their relationships, career, and life in […]

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Newest Cannabinoid Powerhouse – CBC – What Can It Do for You?

The ever-increasing cannabinoid family has new members coming in every day, and there’s reason to be excited as new research comes out about CBC.

In the last couple of years, CBD (cannabidiol) – a cannabis cannabinoid, has risen to prominence as an effective treatment for many suffering from medical issues like insomnia, anxiety, pain, depression, seizures, high blood sugars, pathogenic diseases, ADHD etc., and a possible answer to many other issues that still require more research like: different forms of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and even prion diseases. It seems like every day a new breakthrough is coming out about the use of CBD as a treatment.

It’s easy to forget that CBD, along with THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) – the main cannabinoid of cannabis plants – are just two of the possibly hundreds of cannabinoids that are present in cannabis plants. In fact, by now, well over 100 cannabinoids have been identified, and each one – though sometimes only appearing in extremely small concentrations – has its own medicinal benefits. One of these lesser known cannabinoids that is starting to make it into the mainstream is CBC, or Cannabichromene.

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What is CBC?

Cannabichromene, which also goes by the names cannabichrome, pentylcannabichromene, cannabinochromene, and cannanbichromene is a phytocannabinoid that is structurally similar to other cannabinoids like THC, CBD and CBN, and the second most prevalent cannabinoid in cannabis.

Much like other cannabinoids, CBC does not actually start out as CBC, but rather as cannabichromenic acid, and is produced over time through decarboxylation. CBC is non-psychoactive, and interacts with the endocannabinoid system differently than both THC and CBD in that it only poorly binds to the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the brain.

In 2019, a study was done looking into the often misunderstood mechanisms of action of CBC, which found that CBC acts as a selective CB2 receptor agonist. As of yet it has not undergone scheduling by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances meaning it is legal to use as of now.

What does the research say about CBC?

The isolation of new cannabinoids means all new
avenues of medical research to go down. The studies on CBC, in fact, go back as
far as a 1981 study that tested the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and
antifungal properties of CBC in rats. According to the research, CBC showed anti-inflammatory
effects superior to phenylbutazone,
an NSAID anti-inflammatory/pain medication. It also showed to be a strong antibacterial
agent and a mild to moderate antifungal.

Then, in a 2006, study into the anti-tumor effects of cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabidiol acid and THC acid, it was found that while CBD had a more expected effect on the inhibition of certain tumor growth in rats, the other cannabinoids tested, including CBC, did as well, leading investigators to point in the direction of further testing of cannabinoids for cancer treatment.

$2 Million Going To Cannabis Cancer Research Led By Professor Mechoulam

In 2010 there was a study investigating how CBD and CBC effect activity of the descending pathway of antinociception in anesthetized rats. It was found that both cannabinoids produce an antinociceptive response by interacting with various targets involved in pain control. A less complicated way of saying this is that both CBD and CBC were found to help alleviate pain caused by nerve damage by the ability to block the detection of pain by sensory neuron cells.

It was looked at again in 2012 as an inhibitor of
inflammation induced hyper motility in rats. The investigators were looking at
CBC as a way to control, or inhibit, the overactive digestive tracts in rats
that was caused as a result of inflammation. The results showed a positive correlation between CBC and the normalization of
intestinal motility.

In the 2013 study, The effect of cannabichromene on adult neural stem/progenitor cells, three different phytocannabinoids were looked at in reference to adult neural stem progenitor cells in rats. These cells are similar to stem cells, but more specified, and play a large role in brain function and overall pathology, making them very important. CBC was found to have a positive effect when looking at the viability of adult neural stem progenitor cells in vitro, indicating neural protective qualities.

An interesting systematic review from 2017 investigated the use of cannabinoids including CBC for the treatment of several different pathogenic diseases. The conclusion was important in that though it showed the use of cannabinoids and the elicitation of the endocannabinoid system to be useful in treating many issues, it also pointed to the idea that simply making the assumption that cannabinoids can help with all issues related to a problem, is quite insufficient.

‘This review was able to point to incidences in research where the application of cannabinoids and the elicitation of the endocannabinoid system was not beneficial, and possibly harmful. While this does not in any way undo, or take away from, the possible positive benefits, it does act as a reminder that it’s important to do thorough investigations that do, indeed, look at everything, and to remember that medications – whether plant-based or pharmaceutical – are often specific to a particular problem, and often times cannot be generalized past that.

shows similar properties to other cannabinoids in its anti-inflammatory, pain
management, neuroprotectant, pathogenic disease fighting, anti-tumor, and
stomach settling properties. Much like CBD and THC, the research into this
compound is ongoing, with new applications coming out all the time. CBC has
been shown in studies to both work alone as a standalone treatment, and in
conjunction with other cannabinoids.

Cannabichromene and the Entourage Effect

Cannabinoids effect us therapeutically by interacting with the CB receptors in our bodies.

While CBD, and cannabis in general, have risen to mainstream medicine, they are different than standard pharmaceuticals because they fall into the category of plant-based medicine. When dealing with plant-based medicine it is often preferable to take just one part of a plant – for example, a cannabinoid like CBC – isolate it, and magnify it for its specific medicinal properties.

This can often be beneficial when a particular property of a plant has been found to treat a precise ailment. Sometimes that’s the best answer. Sometimes it’s not. When dealing with plant-based medicine, the entourage effect can be a powerful force. When looking up the entourage effect online these days, you’re likely to only see articles about cannabis, when in reality this idea is relevant to all plant medicine.

Plants are complicated structures made up of different substances. These substances can provide benefit on their own, or combine with other substances within to create an even more powerful response, we call this the entourage effect, but what it really is, is a full plant effect. Instead of focusing on one isolated part of the plant, it focuses on the combination of parts and the added benefit that these combinations can bring.

When dealing with cannabinoids like CBC, CBD, CBN, THC, etc., the idea of what they can do in concert is often more appealing than what they can accomplish in isolated form. In this 2019 systematic review, researchers took a look at years of research into cannabinoid isolation versus a cannabinoid entourage effect, and the many different applications of both.

They found when reviewing this research that often times the entourage effect far exceeds the effects of a single compound. In this review are examples of cannabis applications for microbial diseases, cancer treatments, anti-inflammatory treatments, anticonvulsant properties, and so on.

CBC Products

has yet to gain the overall popularity of THC or CBD. As medical research
continues to uncover useful benefits, more products and flowers are sure to
make it to the marketplace. As of right now, CBC can be found in hemp capsules
from different retailers, as an isolate, in oils, and in hemp flowers.

One of
the more well-known high-CBC flower strains is Three Kings: a sativa dominant
hybrid mixing Headband, OG Kush, and Sour Diesel. It has bright green flowers
with tons of trichomes, and an earthy taste of pine and citrus when smoked or

Be sure to search for the newest CBC products on the market. We’ll be sure to hook you up with the best new products as they emerge, while keeping you updated on all groundbreaking CBC news.

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U.S. CBD Industry Exposed In Damning Compliance Report

Regulatory issues plaguing the U.S. CBD industry have been brought into stark focus with new research from LegitScript showing almost all of 300 recently-reviewed products are non-compliant.

The study of the online CBD merchants by compliance firm LegitScript found that 98% failed to meet existing regulations, reports Bloomberg news. The report highlights how there are almost 13,000 sellers of CBD on the internet, with 45% of these said to be making non-permissible medical claims.

In tests on 30 products, secured from websites that appeared near the top of search engine results, two-thirds of those contained significantly more or less CBD than advertised, with nine containing less than half. One tested product had only 1% of what it claimed.

CBD Clarity Needed

One bottle of ingestible oil had 18.5 times the allowable amount of lead by California standards. As well as the non-permissible medical claims, incorrect labelling some are also selling into jurisdictions that don’t allow it, says the report.

LegitScript founder and Chief Executive Officer John Horton called on the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to issue more clarity on CBD rules for all retailers, as well as online marketplaces. As things stand, the FDA has said no medical claims can be made on CBD products – as Curaleaf recently discovered to its cost – and it is assessing the best way to allow regulated CBD sales as a food supplement.

In May this year the FDA conducted a public hearing into the CBD industry during which concerns were raised over potential health risks from an unregulated CBD market.

Lab Testing

The FDA says it is now ‘evaluating a regulatory framework for products marketed as foods and dietary supplements’, such as CBD and is ’steadfast in its efforts to ‘obtain research, data, and other safety and public health input to inform our approach to protect public health’.

Meanwhile one Illinois lawmaker has put forward a bill to introduce laboratory testing for all CBD products, reports Leafdesk. Bob Morgan, Democrat representative for Deerfield, has introduced legislation to force all CBD goods sold in the state to meet testing requirements developed by the Illinois Department of Agriculture.

This would allow the department to step in to ‘make sure products that are safe for people to use,’ he said. The surge in sales and manufacture of CBD products is the result of last December’s Farm Bill which legalised the cultivation of industrial hemp, from which CBD is derived.

Cannabis research firm Brightfield Group estimates t U.S. sales of CBD products are expected to reach $5 billion this year.

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20,000 Patients To Benefit From U.K. Medical Cannabis Trial

Britain’s former Drugs Czar Prof David Nutt – sacked 10 years ago this month – is to head Europe’s largest ever study into medical cannabis involving 20,000 patients

Known as Project 21, the two-year trial is aimed at providing the evidence needed to generate momentum into the U.K.’s faltering medical cannabis program. Prof Nutt, dismissed by the U.K Government for saying alcohol and tobacco are more dangerous to health than ecstasy, LSD and cannabis, went on to form Drugs Science – an independent, science-led drugs charity.

Project 21’s partners include the United Patients Alliance and The Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCP), with the aim of creating the largest European medical cannabis body of evidence, reports The Guardian newspaper.

Three Companies Support Trial

It is being backed by three medical cannabis businesses who will supply subsidized cannabis medicine, reports Health Europa. The trial will focus on a number of conditions including; chronic pain, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, Tourette’s syndrome, anxiety disorder or who have had a history of substance misuse.

Prof David Nutt said in a press release that medical cannabis had been used as in the U.K. for over a century, until 1971, before ‘it was banned for political reasons’.

“Since then hundreds of thousands of patients have been forced to break the law to get a treatment that most find preferable to their previous prescription medicines,” he says.

However with only a handful of patients securing cannabis medicine since the change U.K. law last November item is to ‘open up a treatment network for up to 20,000 patients’.

‘Solid Clinical Database’

He said this will provide a ‘solid clinical database from which experience of and confidence in, medical cannabis prescribing will develop, providing a foundation for other medical prescribers to build on’.

Italian company Althea and U.K. firms Alta-Flora and Cannuba will take part, with Rob James, CEO of Cannuba saying it is ‘very excited to be part of this policy changing project’. Professor Wendy Burn, the RCP president  aid it hopes the trial will ‘address the paucity of evidence’ for the use of cannabis-based medicine.

She said it hoped the project, ‘along with other research such as more much-needed randomized control trials, will continue to build the evidence’. Dr Arun Bhaskar, president of the British Pain Society said some 28 million people in the UK will at some stage, suffer from chronic pain.

“Data from several countries reveal that medical cannabis have benefited several thousands of patients,”he added.

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French Medical Cannabis Trial Would Initially Support 3,000 Patients

France is moving closer to the launch of a medical cannabis trial which could benefit 3,000 patients.

The French National Assembly is expected to give approval to the two-year trial which is being backed by president Macron’s La République En Marche majority party, reports Marijuana Business Daily.

The trial was recommended by a special committee of the French Agency for the Safety of Medicines and Health Products (ANSM) last summer. If approved the trial is set to get underway later this year and the ANSM has suggests that only ‘pharmaceutical standard’ products for ‘certain medical conditions’, will be included.

Up To One Million Patients

If this recommendation remains unchanged then this initially will be of major benefit to GW Pharmaceuticals as its two drugs, Sativex and Epidyolex for treating multiple sclerosis and epilepsy, respectively, are the only two French approved cannabis drugs.

The France24 website reports that between 300,000 and one million patients could eventually benefit from its adoption.

Professor Nicolas Authier, the head of pharmacology at Clermont-Ferrand University Hospital Centre’s pain clinic, told France 24 that, as there is no medical cannabis grown in France, medicine would have to imported until a domestic cultivation program is established.

Despite there being no French medical cannabis program and recreational cannabis being illegal, it has for some time between the largest hemp producer in Europe.

France Grows 40% Of Europe’s Hemp

A report by New Frontier Data says France accounts for 40% of the European cultivation. In the mid-1800’s France had more than 100,000 hectares of hemp under cultivation which was used for the production of linen, fabric, twine, rope, cordage, and seed oil. 

But this declined to 700 hectares by 1960s as the era of sail boats ended and other natural and synthetic fibres became available.

The Sustainable Farming website reports that there are currently around 6,000 hectares under cultivation in the west/central region of France with the crop being used in the production of high-quality paper for currency and cigarettes.

Meanwhile, CBD retailers in France are still encountering problems with the authorities who say their products should contain absolutely no THC. This has seen many shops raided and some closed down, although many continue to trade unhindered and the CBD industry continues to attract investment from overseas.

In September this year Canadian cannabis accessory company Greenlane Holdings, announced plans to partner high-end Paris retailer NOUS, which has agreed to stack its premium smoking accessories.

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U.K. CBG Company – With U.S. Backing – Aims For Flotation

A U.K. company backed by former US Defence Secretary – which claims to be the first to offer cannabigerol (CBG) products – is aiming to raise $15 million for a market listing.

Equinox International says its offshoot medical cannabis firm Oxon will aim to be a ‘British champion of high-end products and brands’. In an interview with The Telegraph chief executive Xan Morgan, says it will be the first U.K. brand to offer CBG, in addition to its better-known offspring CBD.

He says the company is looking to raise the money for a public listing on the London or U.S. markets.

Backed By Madeleine Albright

Equinox is backed by Kingsley Capital Partners which itself is U.K. partner to Albright Capital Management; a Washington-based emerging markets firm chaired by former U.S. Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright. Oxon says its cannabis-infused products will include oils, gels and creams and have been developed in partnership with scientists at the University of Oxford and research lab Oxford Antibiotic Group.

The range is currently manufactured in Austria but the company’s goal is to move production to the U.K. CBG is reported to have health benefits but like CBD does not have psychoactive properties. Mr Morgan said: “There’s growing interest in the cannabis industry and a realization that there have been huge returns over the last two to three years.

Mr Nice Stores in Europe

The products will be sold via Oxon’s website but the firm is also in discussions to stock them in high street health food chains. Equinox’s other cannabis venture is a Mr Nice range of cannabis products, named after the high-profile, 1970’s drug advocate Howard Marks and licensed from his family. It has one High Street store in London and two in Austria.

Kingsley Capital Partners was founded by Neil Mahapatra, who is also Chairman of Oxford Cannabinoid Technologies; a firm which has attracted investment from Snoop Dog and has Star War’s actor Patrick Stewart on board.

Kingsley stumped up an initial investment of up to £10 million to launch OCT and it is undertaking a series of projects designed to identify new medical cannabis products by researching into the molecular systems and mechanisms of cannabinoids.

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