Cannabeginners: CBN Explained

While often referred to as the “most potent cannabinoid for sleep,” the reality of cannabinol (CBN) is much more complex. This brief explainer will give you information you need to know to separate the facts from marketing fiction about the first cannabinoid to ever be identified and isolated.

How Is CBN Made?

Let’s go into a brief cannabis chemistry lesson to better understand how CBN is made. In the living plant, CBN is a very rare cannabinoid, present only in trace amounts. Once the plant is harvested and begins to dry and cure, a conversion clock is started, turning all the THCa into THC, and further turning THC into CBN. This conversion is caused by a chemical process known as decarboxylation, a process all edible makers know well. Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction where a carbon atom is removed from the carbon chain attached to the THCa molecule releasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and causing that THCa to become THC; the released CO2 is why the steam coming off a batch of cannabutter smells so strongly. 

You can further decarboxylate THC into CBN through the same/a similar process of applying heat. Beyond using heat, decarboxylation can be caused by exposure to UV light (the sun), exposure to oxygen, or just the passage of time. 

How Does CBN Interact With Your Body?

Research has shown that the cannabinoid is a weak psychoactive compound, presumably more psychoactive than CBD but less than THC, and there are anecdotal reports of people feeling “high” from using CBN. The cannabinoid has “been consistently reported to be a weak CB1 agonist,” meaning it could result in feelings of “highness,” just like THC (but to a lesser degree). Results have been mixed in regards to how strong of an effect CBN has at the CB2 receptor. Beyond the endocannabinoid system, like CBD, CBN interacts with different TRP channels, and is a “potent agonist of TRPA1 and antagonist of TPRM8 channels.”

CBN and Sleep: A Mixed Bag

Many articles, going back nearly a decade, including former articles by this author, note the sedating effects of CBN, but they all cite the same source, Steephill Labs. Unfortunately, Steephill “is in the process of restructuring its business” and their website is down, but after digging into the Internet Archive, it is clear that sourcing them was questionable in the first place, as their website did not cite a study to back up their claims. I cited them in my 2014 article as research on CBN was very limited at the time, and since then, more research has been done, and it casts some doubt on CBN as a sleep aid.

According to a 2021 literature review “research investigating the effects of CBN is dated and limited,” furthermore, “Studies specifically assessing subjective effects associated with sleep, such as sedation or fatigue, are rare.” The study authors concluded that, “There is insufficient published evidence to support sleep-related claims.” This study came on the heels of a 2020 study looking at CBN’s impacts on Zebrafish larvae, which “showed that CBN acts both as a stimulant and a sedative.”

Let’s briefly look at some of that “dated and limited” research, most of which came out in the 1970s and 1980s, before modern testing and surveying methods were developed. In one 1975 study, a very small handful of volunteers were given placebos or doses of cannabinoids, then given a survey to measure their reaction to drugs. They found that “volunteers reported feeling drugged, drunk, dizzy, and drowsy under the delta9-THC condition, but not under the CBN condition,” meaning CBN did not produce feelings of drowsiness on its own. When used with THC, they found that CBN made the drowsing effects of THC more intense. Another 1975 study, appears to contradict those findings, noting “The combination of THC with CBN produced no detectable changes in the quality, intensity, or duration of the effects of THC alone.” Clearly, even that dated research didn’t uniformly say the cannabinoid was beneficial for sleep. 

What This Cannabinoid Can Be Used For

Now that we have addressed the elephant in the room — that CBN may not be as beneficial for sleep as many of us have heard — let’s discuss the research that is less conflicted. It is important to note that much of the research on CBN, like many studies on cannabinoids, was done on animals not people, and it goes without saying, that people are not the same as animals (though there are *some* similarities).

Research has shown that the cannabinoid: can delay the onset of ALS by “more than two weeks,” shows potent activity against a variety of MRSA strains, has analgesic (pain relieving) properties similar to THC, can stimulate appetite to a lesser degree than THC, can help combat the growth of cancer cells, and can be beneficial to sufferers of psoriasis

CBN is a poorly studied and relatively rare cannabinoid that is seeing more interest and research in recent years, much of it showing some medical benefits for a wide range of conditions. The benefits of CBN seem to have a lot of overlap with THC, which makes some sense considering CBN is derived from THC, but without the same level of psychoactivity. That means the cannabinoid could be useful for people who want to use THC but with less of a high. 

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From Rise to Rest: The Best THC & CBD Gummies for Every Part of Your Day

Are you tired of mediocre products that just don’t cut it? Look no further than Hemp Hop – a premium CBD company in Charlotte, NC with a mission to help people. Founded with a personal story of overcoming medical challenges with the help of CBD, Hemp Hop knows firsthand the power of high-quality hemp products.

But that’s not all – Hemp Hop offers a variety of products to meet all your needs, from CBD flower and CBD concentrates to balms and self-care products. And let’s not forget about their delicious and effective edibles! If you’re like us, you’re always on the hunt for the best CBD gummies for every occasion. That’s where Hemp Hop’s gummy collections come in. Say hello to comfortable consumption, potential energy and focus, midday pick-me-ups, and evening relaxation with just a few delicious gummies.

Intrigued? Keep reading to learn about Hemp Hop’s gummy collections for every part of your day. P.S. Use the code HIGHTIMES to save 10% at checkout!

Rise and Shine: Morning

Looking to start your day off on the right foot? Look no further than Hemp Hop’s gummy collections for your morning routine. With options like Delta-8 THC, CBG, and CBD gummies, you’re sure to find the perfect match for your needs. 

Start your day on the right foot with Hemp Hop’s Delta-8 THC gummies, which offer a comfortable and easy way to potentially experience benefits for energy, focus, and pain relief. With 20mg of Delta-8 THC per gummy, you’ll be able to get the dose you need to start your day feeling refreshed and ready to go. 

And the best part? These gummies come in three delicious flavors – Orange, Watermelon, and Strawberry – making it easy to look forward to taking them each morning.

CBG Gummies By HempHop

For a refreshing and fruity option, check out Hemp Hop’s CBG gummies in Mango and Pineapple flavors. These gluten-free, allergen-free, vegan, and kosher gummies are not only delicious but they’re also packed with 30mg of CBG to help you start your day off right.

hemp hop

Let’s not forget about CBD gummies – the convenient and versatile option for daily use. With potential benefits for anxiety and pain relief, these gummies are the perfect addition to your morning routine. Plus, with all-natural ingredients and a variety of fruity flavors to choose from, taking care of yourself has never been so delicious.

Get Through the Afternoon Slump

Afternoon slump got you down? Hemp Hop has you covered with two gummy options to help you power through.

hemp hop
Live Resin Gummies By HempHop

First up are the Live Resin Gummies, made from premium hemp-derived Live Resin for a balanced mix of Delta-9 THC and CBDa/CBD. With 20mg of Live Resin per gummy (5mg D9-THC: 10mg CBDa/CBD), these gummies provide an uplifting and potent effect to help you tackle the rest of your day. And with fun and fruity flavors like Peach and Mango, these gummies are a delicious way to power through the afternoon.

Next, check out Hemp Hop’s CBG gummies in Mango and Pineapple flavors. With 30mg of CBG per gummy, these gummies are perfect for boosting energy and focus during a mid-day slump. And with all-natural ingredients and no dyes, you can feel good about taking care of yourself in more ways than one.

Why settle for an afternoon slump when you can power through with Hemp Hop’s Live Resin Gummies? Grab a bottle and experience the difference that quality and care can make in your daily routine.

Unwind and Relax: Evening

Delta 9 THC Gummies By HempHop

After a long day, it’s time to unwind and let go of the stress. Luckily, Hemp Hop has got you covered with their Delta-9 THC Gummies, which offer a comfortable and easy way to potentially experience relaxation and calmness. Each gummy contains 8mg of Delta-9 THC, giving you complete control over your dosage, and with two delicious flavors to choose from, Blue Raspberry and Grape, these gummies are a tasty way to end your day.

CBN Gummies By HempHop

For those looking for a calming and sleep-promoting option, Hemp Hop offers CBN gummies in a refreshing Watermelon flavor. With 10mg of CBN per gummy, these gummies may help promote relaxation and improve your sleep quality. And with all-natural ingredients and no dyes, you can feel good about taking care of your body and mind before bedtime.

So, whether you’re looking to unwind after a long day or improve your sleep quality, Hemp Hop’s Delta-9 THC and CBN gummies are the perfect options for evening use. Relax, take a deep breath, and enjoy the potential benefits of these high-quality gummies.


Whether you’re looking to start your day off right, power through the afternoon slump, or unwind and relax before bed, Hemp Hop has got you covered with their range of gummies. From Delta-8 THC for a refreshing morning boost to CBN for a calming bedtime ritual, there’s a gummy for every part of your day. Plus, with delicious flavors and all-natural ingredients, taking your daily dose of CBD has never been more enjoyable.

So why not add some fun and flavor to your daily routine with Hemp Hop’s gummies? Your taste buds – and your body – will thank you.

The post From Rise to Rest: The Best THC & CBD Gummies for Every Part of Your Day appeared first on High Times.

Counting Sheep: Cannabis Improves Insomnia in Recent Study

When looking at the population at large, certain specific issues shine through as growing problems that affect a large percentage of people. Like stress, diabetes, and insomnia. A new study now adds to the growing body of information on sleep disorders, and indicates that cannabis improves insomnia in a large number of sufferers.

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The insomnia problem

We’ve all got our issue in life, some of us more than one. For some its an inability to keep off that belly fat, for others it might be that bad back that never seems to get better. And still others aren’t capable of having just one drink without becoming the ultimate party animal every time. There are plenty of problems to have in life, and for some of us, it’s not a during-the-day issue, but a through-the-night issue.

According to the Sleep Doctor, approximately 70 million people have some sort of sleep disorder. Insomnia is just one of these issues, but the main one, with 30% of adults experiencing this problem at any given time. About 2/3 of the population total have the issue in their lives. It’s one of the most common medical issues that drives people to seek medical help.

What exactly does ‘sleep disorder’ indicate? “Sleep disorders are conditions that disrupt healthy sleep and also cause daytime symptoms. Sleep disorders can affect when you are able to fall asleep, how much sleep you get, and the quality of your sleep.”


In terms of how these disorders are classified, “The most widely used system for classifying sleep disorders is produced by the American Academy for Sleep Medicine (AASM). The third edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3) describes 60 sleep disorders, divided into seven categories. These main categories include:

  • Insomnia
  • Sleep-related breathing disorders
  • Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders
  • Central disorders of hypersomnolence
  • Parasomnias
  • Sleep-related movement disorders
  • Other sleep disorders”

So, this insomnia, what does it mean? “Insomnia occurs when people who have plenty of opportunities for rest find themselves unable to fall asleep, waking during the night, or waking up earlier than they’d like. Insomnia may be diagnosed as short-term or chronic.”

And how are those two differentiated? Short term indicates “fleeting symptoms of sleeplessness that last for less than three months. Often related to stress, short-term insomnia can sometimes develop into a chronic condition”. While chronic indicates “When the symptoms of insomnia are more persistent — happening at least three days a week for three months or more — a doctor may diagnose chronic insomnia.”

If you’re wondering what other sleep disorders exist, the list includes breathing issues, like sleep apnea; circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, like irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder; central disorders of hypersomnolence, like narcolepsy; parasomnias, like sleep terrors; and sleep-related movement disorders, like restless legs syndrome. All other issues fit under ‘other sleep disorders’.

Recent study shows cannabis improves insomnia

Cannabis is under investigation for tons of things at this point, and sleep disorders are just one subject of interest. By now, there is already plenty of evidence of cannabis as a tool to aid in healthier sleep. But it always is good to have more reports confirming something, than less. So a recent study which shows that cannabis improves insomnia symptoms in a large percentage of participants, is just more ammunition in the fight for legalization.

Treat insomnia with cannabis
Treat insomnia with cannabis

The study, entitled Medicinal cannabis improves sleep in adults with insomnia: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, “aimed to assess the tolerability and effectiveness of the Entoura-10:15 medicinal cannabis oil on sleep in adults with insomnia.” The study was a six week trial, which was a randomised, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation, with a total of 29 participants. This is a generally small number.

Participants received either a placebo or cannabis oil called Entoura-10:15, which is comprised of 10 mg/ml delta-9 THC and 15 mg/ml CBD. The amount was titrated over a two-week period from 0.2–1.5 ml/day. After that came a washout week, and then crossover (a term that indicates everyone is in an experimental group at some point). Participants kept daily diaries to keep track of tolerability. Investigators measured effectiveness in three ways: 1) Measuring saliva midnight melatonin levels; 2) Validated questionnaires, like the Insomnia Severity Index; and 3) Fitbit activity tracker on the wrist.

Results indicated that Entoura-10:15 was well tolerated overall. In terms of how effective, 60% of the study participants didn’t qualify any longer as insomniacs after a two-week period. This was seen through improvement in nighttime melatonin levels by 30% (the placebo group experienced a 20% decline).

Results also showed improvement in time asleep and quality of sleep. In the experimental group, light sleep went up by 21 minutes per night in comparison to the placebo group. And the quality of sleep in the experimental group improved by 80%, which led to higher levels of daily functionality. Overall, study investigators concluded that “Our trial suggests Entoura 10:15 medicinal cannabis oil to be effective in improving sleep in adults with insomnia within a 2-week intervention period.”

The role of CBN

The cannabis oil used in the previous study was formulated of THC and CBD. So, all effects are related to these compounds specifically. However, there are other aspects of the cannabis plant that are looked into for their sleep-improving benefits. One such compound of interest is the cannabinoid CBN. This cannabinoid actually has the designation of being the first cannabinoid isolated from the cannabis plant, and it was thought for quite some time, that it was the psychoactive constituent.

CBN (cannabinol) is not a delta THC, as in, it doesn’t share the same chemical formula as delta-9, delta-8, or delta-10. Instead, its chemical formula is C21H26O2, and it doesn’t share this formula with any other compounds. However, much like the THCs, CBN does activate CB receptors in the brain. CBN comes with the positive of not being mentioned in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs or the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, which means there is no global mandate to regulate the compound.

CBN for insomnia
CBN for insomnia

This doesn’t make it legal necessarily in any given location, either. For example, in the US, as an analogue of THC, CBN activities can be prosecuted under the Federal Analogue Act. Like the rest of the cannabis plant, years of prohibition slowed study on this compound, and even what I’m mentioning next, still lacks the kind of repeated testing that can really draw effective conclusions. Some studies that show positive benefits, do so in conjunction with THC use, making it hard to know which compound is exerting the beneficial effect, or if the combination is required.

Back in 1975 (yup, that long ago), these two studies were done: Effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol in man, and Pharmacologic interaction between cannabinol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Both studies turned up the possible results that CBN acts a bit like delta-9, and that in conjunction, it might cause more extreme effects. They were not concerned specifically with sleep though, or done on CBN alone.

More research is now trickling in. Like this study, Use of a water-soluble form of cannabinol for the treatment of sleeplessness, led by Dr. Robert Kaufmann who is the Director of Research for Shaman Botanicals, LLC. The study allowed participants to access the product on their own, and choose their own dosage.

The study “surveyed individuals with sleeplessness who were taking a water-soluble product of cannabinol (CBN) treated using nano technology, which has recently become available.” It came to the conclusion that “This nano treated CBN product rapidly induced sleep initially and after awakening, increasing the time and quality of sleep in most individuals suffering from sleeplessness.” This was based on the results of 60 respondents who completed surveys.

Another study by the company Zelira Therapeutics used the drug ZTL-101, which is a combination of THC, CBN, and CBD in the ratio of 20:2:1. There were 23 participants, and researchers determined that “Two weeks of nightly sublingual administration of a cannabinoid extract (ZTL-101) is well tolerated and improves insomnia symptoms and sleep quality in individuals with chronic insomnia symptoms.” This is a study by a company into their own product, however, and should be taken with a grain of salt. This second one also uses a combination only, and does not speak to the individual benefits of CBN.


Whether looking at it from the perspective of THC and CBD, or other cannabinoids like CBN, recent research has done much to elucidate how cannabis improves insomnia in many people. Does this mean everyone will benefit? No, of course not. And it doesn’t mean that smoking the plant has the same benefits as specialized medications either. But what this research shows, is that cannabis can serve many purposes, and helping people count sheep, seems to be one.

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Vintage Cannabis: Explained

In today’s California cannabis market, most dispensaries have a three-month shelf-life limit for flowers. That is three months from packing date—not from harvest. The reason given is that customers don’t buy “out-of-date” weed. 

Maybe the retailers are not storing the flowers under the proper conditions, or maybe the flower was bucked and trimmed or packed in a hot room. So, after three months in the store, the product has deteriorated to a point that it is no longer sellable. Perhaps the real reason is improper handling along the route of the supply chain. Maybe the retailer just wanted to move it off the shelf. Some buyers won’t even buy flowers more than four months after harvest.

Whatever! To my mind cannabis flower isn’t really ready to smoke until four or five months post-harvest. And most of the OG growers I talk to in Nor Cal agree. Frenchy Cannoli would have agreed, too. We often talked excitedly about making hash from aged or vintage cannabis, how it had a different flavor and different effect. 

Swami smoking. PHOTO David Robert Elliott

Back in the Hippie days, we never got fresh green weed—even after it was dried and trimmed, it always took several months to get here from Mexico, Colombia or Thailand. By the time you bought your lid and smoked it, the pot had aged for many months. Granted, we had to separate the stems and seeds, but it was still great smoke to inspire or chill out, like the best Panama Red, Acapulco Gold, Santa Marta Gold or Thai sticks.

Fast forward to 2022 and we are drying our own cannabis flowers for two weeks to a month in our wooden timber frame barn. The barn is nestled under towering Doug fir trees which keep it in cool shadow all year long. The autumn air here in the Emerald Triangle tends to be dry, especially during drought years, and that helps maintain an ideal temperature and humidity inside the barn.

The normal two-to-four-week drying period is just the beginning of the sequence which leads to vintage cannabis. This all is a rather complex process, not yet fully understood. 

The Benefits of Well-Aged Cannabis 

Fresh, dried flower will have definite spikes of pungent aromas, which can obscure the subtler layers underneath. The best small batch craft cannabis is carefully slow-dried, aged slightly and brought to a point of stabilization, under proper climate control. The slow aging process broadens out the aroma profile, rounding off the spikes and allowing other subtler fragrances to appear. Under the proper conditions, this biologic stabilization process takes about four to five months from harvest and in some cases even longer. 

For the next six months to a year, something mysterious and magical happens within the buds, such that the flower realizes the full breadth of its potential and reveals its true nature. The sacred herb has now become Vintage! Ready to bring its full benefits to those who consume her.

The flowers best suited to be aged for Vintage cannabis, are biologically—not chemically—grown in living soil, out under the sun, the way the Gods and our ancestors intended them to be. And they must have been harvested at their peak, then dried, manicured, aged and packaged, as well as shipped and stored in optimum, climate-controlled conditions. 

If packaged in a proper container and stored under ideal conditions, the flowers can maintain full vintage quality for at least a year, if the jar is not opened.

The Changing Compounds of Cannabis

Strawberry Cheesecake buds. PHOTO Brian Parks

How does this magic come about? and why does it take so long to create Vintage cannabis?

Mature cannabis flowers can produce as many as a thousand compounds. However, we focus on just a half dozen of the 150 cannabinoids possibly present in the flower, because those few are the most abundant, most potent and they are the only ones the testing labs report. 

In the living plant, the main cannabinoid is the so called precursor CBGA molecule, which transforms into the other cannabinoids, such as CBD, presenting in the mature female after harvest. Technically, the harvested plant is dead, but it’s biologically active for some time, as there’s still a great deal of moisture in the leaves, stems and flowers, which causes many compounds to undergo changes.

One of these changes is from CBGA to THCA in the harvested flower, but THCA can also change to THC through age and light, as well as heat. In addition, as time increases from harvest, the amount of CBN is said to increase, which is usually thought to come about through the degradation of THC. More probable, however, is the slow change of many different cannabinoid molecules degrading in the direction of CBN.

There are also numerous volatile or aromatic compounds. Some are only produced by the living plant and begin to evaporate or fade as soon as the plant is cut. Most prominent are a half dozen terpenes out of a possible 50, which produce the loudest smells and therefore are the only ones being tested. Nevertheless, scientists have found numerous other volatile compounds in cannabis, which together create the “nose” of the flower. 

In addition to terpenes, which account for perhaps 25% of the fragrance, there are other “aromatics” such as flavonoids, phenols, thiols, esters, ketones, benzaldehydes, alcohols and one of the more recent discoveries: volatile sulfur compounds. Sulfur compounds have been proposed as the volatiles that produce the gassy and skunk odors in cannabis.

As the moisture in the flower evaporates, many things happen. Some of the mono terpenes off gas, and others polymerize into longer chains and become bi-terpenes or sesqui-terpenes which do not volatilize as easily. The slow drying and aging aims to stabilize the changes in the terpenes. Many aromas can be preserved or sealed in by proper drying and stabilization of the harvested flower.

Another change taking place is the “oxidation” of the chlorophyll molecules, which break down through the opening of carbon links in the top of the ring allowing two molecules of oxygen to attach themselves. This a three-step process, taking some time, after which the chlorophyll no longer is said to “fluoresce,” meaning it no longer glows green. This is what happens to the fall leaves every year, and to cannabis after harvest.

The True Potential of Genetics

The point is, that if it is known that chlorophyll, terpenes and the main cannabinoids are slowly changing during and after drying, one must also assume that most of the other hundreds of compounds are also changing, especially the volatiles. As the residual moisture slowly decreases, this biological activity likewise decreases until the flower reaches a point of stabilization, three to five months after harvest.

Only at this stage have the flowers fully realized the potential of their genetics in response to their terroir. Only Vintage cannabis flower truly reveals and fulfills its destiny to serve, heal, entertain and inspire those who consume her.

So, choose some of your favorite most aromatic flowers, stash them away for a year in a dark glass container in a dark, cool place. Now your Vintage cannabis is finally ready to smoke.

The post Vintage Cannabis: Explained appeared first on Cannabis Now.

Common Cannabinoids & Effects

Excerpted from Weed: A Connoisseur’s Guide to Cannabis

Cannabis is a complex plant that works through the interactions of various chemical components. While we’re continually discovering more about the compounds that make weed work—including things like terpenes, flavonoids and cannasulfurs—the OG elements of the plant’s therapeutic applications are the cannabinoids. Humans have receptor sites within our bodies that are configured to respond to cannabinoids. The ultimate goal of this interplay is to create stability and promote wellness. Here’s a rundown of common cannabinoids and their effects:

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most well-recognized cannabinoid because it’s the one that’s primarily responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis, the “high.” Once the only measure of the quality of any given cannabis flower, this cannabinoid’s brilliance over all others is only now starting to dim slightly with the rise of CBD. THC can alter the functioning of the hippocampus, the area of the brain that stores memories. THC also impacts the brain’s areas associated with pleasure, concentration, movement, coordination, and time perception. It’s the most prevalent of the active ingredients in cannabis. The presence of THC, more specifically 0.3% THC, is the arbitrary measure that defines a plant as cannabis as opposed to hemp. 

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the second most prevalent cannabinoid found in cannabis. This cannabinoid doesn’t make people feel “stoned” or intoxicated and can alleviate some of the adverse effects of feeling too high. Scientists and researchers are studying CBD to treat a wide range of illnesses associated with anxiety, chronic pain, depression, and inflammation.

The acidic precursors of what becomes THC and CBD, these cannabinoids need the heat to become “active” in the traditional sense. In their raw form, these cannabinoids benefit the body by reducing inflammation and regulating the immune system. 

Cannabinol (CBN) is what THC turns into as it ages. This cannabinoid has synergistic effects with THC, leading to enhanced sedative effects, meaning it’s useful for treating insomnia. The easiest way to find CBN is through aged flowers.

The “mother” of all cannabinoids, cannabigerol (CBG) is the main building block for what later becomes THC and CBD. As the plant matures, enzymes break down the acidic form of CBG, CBGA, into THCA, CBDA and CBCA (cannabichromene). The amounts of CBDA that remain after this process become CBG with heat. CBG is gaining increasing attention for its potential to treat things like inflammatory bowel disease, chronic pain and epilepsy.

Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is a rare cannabinoid that acts as an appetite suppressant. This cannabinoid has shown an ability to treat diabetes and several other conditions, including anxiety and osteoporosis. 

Cannabichromene (CBC) has potent anti-inflammatory effects and treats pain.

ECS Interactions

Memory and Depression
Cannabinoids can suppress memories, but they can also work to preserve them. The mood-altering abilities of cannabinoids show promise in treating anxiety and depression.

Cannabinoids can increase the appetite, which is a good thing with conditions that cause nausea, but they can also decrease the desire to eat and treat diseases like diabetes. 

The primary function of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is to maintain a steady set of conditions within our bodies. In this way, the ECS is critical in regulating metabolic risk factors associated with obesity. Cannabinoids control glucose metabolism in several organs.

Stress Response
A negative response to stress stimuli can cause physical harm. The fact that cannabinoid receptors are highly assembled in the hippocampus, an area associated with memory, learning and emotional processes, suggests that ECS signaling prevents stress and worry.  

Immune Response
Cannabinoids modulate our immune system’s reaction to inflammation and infection. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system interferes with cancerous cells’ proliferation in two ways: either inhibiting cell signaling or inducing the death of cancerous cells.  

It’s common knowledge that cannabis can help with sleep. Studies suggest cannabinoids improve sleep quality, decrease disturbances and decrease the amount of time it takes to go from fully awake to sleeping. 

Courtesy of The Quarto Group

The post Common Cannabinoids & Effects appeared first on High Times.

CBD Pioneer Elixinol is Helping You Rest Easy

Whether the result of a demanding lifestyle or medical issues, improper sleep health affects 50 to 70 million Americans of all ages and stages. Lack of sleep can impact alertness, reaction speeds, learning ability, mood, hand-eye coordination and short-term memory accuracy. The new Sleep Collection from Elixinol promotes a quality night’s rest while also supporting calmness and relaxation.

Considered a pioneer in the hemp industry, Elixinol was founded in 2014 with a mission to deliver high-quality CBD products that provide real results for real people. As one of the first CBD brands on the market, the company has spent the last seven years focusing on the science, research and creation of world-class cannabinoid products.

Founder Paul Benhaim has been working with the hemp plant for more than 25 years and is considered an expert in the industrial hemp industry. The environmental and wellness advocate was first attracted to hemp as a dietary supplement and, according to an interview with The Big Smoke, he has “strived to create the best quality products, for the best end-user experience through science and technology, using whole plant-based products as naturally as possible.”

The Elixinol Experience

Elixinol’s products are formulated for a targeted experience, whether that’s for supporting balance, recovery, immunity or sleep.

Data suggests that 25% of adults report inadequate sleep for at least 15 out of every 30 days. Now, those seeking more natural sleep remedies can turn to Elixinol’s line of sleep supporting CBD products, which includes capsules, gummies and oils. Let’s take a closer look at these products and how they work.

Sleep Good Night Capsules

This full-spectrum blend contains 15mg of CBD and 2mg of melatonin in each capsule to help you relax and get a solid night of sleep. The small amount of melatonin in Sleep Good Nights Capsules won’t leave you feeling groggy the next morning. Additionally, these capsules are vegan, non-GMO, gluten-free, lactose-free, cruelty-free and include supercritical CO2-extracted full-spectrum hemp oil.

Sleep Gummies THC Free

Elixinol CBD Sleep Gummies

Elixinol’s Sleep CBD Gummies contain natural fruit extract and are packaged in a discreet, pocket-sized container. Each gummy contains 15mg of CBD and 2mg of CBN. Made with broad-spectrum hemp extract the gummies contain no detectable amounts of THC, are GMO-free and suitable for vegans and vegetarians.

Liposome Technology

Elixinol is one of the few CBD companies featuring products with liposome technology for efficient absorption. Liposomes enhance the capabilities of the active compounds encased in an aqueous interior or lipid bilayer and are typically found in pharmaceutical delivery systems. Essentially, they create microscopic bubbles that encapsulate CBD and allow for a more effective delivery. This means your body receives more CBD per serving that might otherwise be lost in the digestive process.

Elixinol has two liposome products: Sleep Rapid Rest and Everyday Rapid Reset.

Sleep Rapid Rest Liposome

Sleep Rapid Rest contains a custom blend of CBD (5mg per serving) and CBN, a cannabinoid that’s known for helping with sleep, along with other calming ingredients, including chamomile and lemon balm. Sleep Rapid Rest supports feelings of calm and relaxation, and the advanced liposome technology will help you hit the pillow with purpose.

Everyday Rapid Reset Liposome

Sometimes, you just need a little help resetting. Everyday Rapid Reset is here to help you relieve any occasional stress, help physical discomfort, and just get that overall balanced feeling. This custom blend of broad-spectrum hemp extract contains 5mg of CBD per serving and is flavored naturally with orange and lemon extracts for a zesty pick-me-up.

Elixinol CBD Tinctures

Elixinol & CBD Education

All Elixinol products are certified by the U.S. Hemp Authority, so you can rest assured the products you’re consuming have been stringently regulated and tested. Elixinol conducts rigorous third-party laboratory testing and quality control across its full range of products and provides clear and detailed certificates of analysis.

Elixinol only uses the cleanest, highest-quality extraction processes that leave behind no harsh solvents or chemicals. By using CO2 extraction, the resulting high-quality hemp extract is better for you and the environment.

Finally, Elixinol is a resource for education and transparency for consumers. In 2016, Elixinol became the first company in the world to receive the seal of approval for its CBD products from the cannabis research, education and support group, the Realm of Caring.

“Education and research is an important core mission of Elixinol,” Benhaim explains. “The more people understand about CBD, the more they can make informed choices, and we want to help them get the best information and the highest-quality product.”

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Oregon Cracks Down on Lab-Made Cannabinoids

Regulators in Oregon will enact a ban on cannabinoids produced through laboratory processes, making the state the first in the nation to restrict the sale of so-called synthesized cannabinoids at grocery stores and other general retailers. The ban from state cannabis regulators, which goes into effect on July 1, prohibits the sale of lab-made cannabinoids including delta-8 THC at supermarkets, drug stores, and other retailers that have not obtained a special license. The new regulations will go into effect only weeks after a federal appeals court ruled that delta-8 THC and other cannabinoids derived from hemp are legal under federal law.

Delta-8 THC and minor cannabinoids derived from hemp have become business across the country since the federal legalization of hemp agriculture and processing with the 2018 Farm Bill. Although these cannabinoids are generally found in hemp at very small concentrations if at all, many of the substances can be created in a lab through the chemical conversion of CBD. But the Oregon Liquor and Cannabis Commission (OLCC) is concerned about the safety of the process and the chemicals used to carry it out and more than a dozen states have instituted bans on delta-8 THC.

Steven Crowley, the hemp and processing compliance specialist with the OLCC, told Oregon Live that delta-8 THC and other cannabinoids became increasingly popular with hemp processors after a glut of CBD flooded the market.

“The supply of CBD was outstripping the demand for CBD,” said Crowley. “And so, the people who had CBD on hand were looking for other ways that they could market it. People started working on different products that they could convert the CBD into. This is where you get the delta-8 THC products.”

FDA Issues Delta-8 THC Warning

Last month, the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a warning about delta-8 THC, noting that more than 100 reports of adverse effects caused by products containing the cannabinoid were recorded over the span of 15 months. And the OLCC is concerned about the safety of the chemicals used to process CBD into other cannabinoids and whether trace amounts of the substances can be retained in finished products.

“We have testing for pesticides,” said Crowley. “We have testing for residual solvents from the extraction process. We don’t have any testing for any of the whole universe of chemical reagents that you could use to synthetically turn one cannabinoid into something else, or for any of the byproducts of that reaction.”

The new OLCC regulations prohibit the sale of products containing synthesized cannabinoids at general retailers beginning on July 1. At that time, the sale of such products will be allowed exclusively at retailers licensed by the OLCC, but only after they have undergone rigorous safety testing and receive approval from the  FDA.

The decision by the OLCC is opposed by companies that produce and market cannabinoids derived from hemp including Wyld, an Oregon firm that manufacturers gummies with the cannabinoid CBN, which can be processed from CBD and has been shown to promote sleep. Gabe Lee, general counsel at Wyld and Wyld CBD, said that the new regulation will help the company’s bottom line and have a negative impact on consumers, as well.

“The Wyld elderberry CBN gummy is the number one selling gummy on earth right now,” said Lee. “It’s 20%-30% of our revenue depending on the state. People love it.”

Instead of a complete ban, Lee said that Oregon should draft best practices to be followed in the production of hemp-derived cannabinoids.

“There are ways to regulate it and there are definitely ways that we can ensure that the end product that’s being sold is subject to enough safety testing and safety standards to ensure, to the degree possible, the safety of the product without any sort of larger federal research grants or anything like that,” Lee said.

The attorney also noted that with the ban, consumers who have already been using the products without problems will see higher prices at licensed retailers.

“They may not want to go shop at an OLCC retailer or pay the prices that are up there,” Lee said, “because they are definitely charging a higher price in the OLCC regulated market than they are at New Seasons,” referring to a chain of neighborhood grocery stores popular in the Pacific Northwest.

The new regulations go into effect only weeks after a federal appeals court ruled that delta-8 THC and other cannabinoids derived from hemp are legal under the 2018 Farm Bill. In an opinion from the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals released last month, Judge D. Michael Fisher wrote that products made with delta-8 THC are generally legal under federal law, which defines hemp as “any part of” the cannabis plant, including “all derivatives, extracts, [and] cannabinoids,” that contains less than 0.3 percent delta-9 THC by weight.

Federal statute “is silent with regard to delta-8 THC,” the court said in its 3-0 ruling.

“Regardless of the wisdom of legalizing delta-8 THC products, this Court will not substitute its own policy judgment for that of Congress,” Fisher wrote in the appeals court’s unanimous decision.

The post Oregon Cracks Down on Lab-Made Cannabinoids appeared first on High Times.

Best Business Opportunities In The Cannabis Market In 2022

With the recent growing legalization of cannabis world-wide, greater opportunities for business are here to capitalize on. Three of the most opportunistic trends when it comes to the cannabis markets are: cannabis beverages, products for health, and an interest in the different compounds of cannabis. We believe these to be the best business opportunities in […]

The post Best Business Opportunities In The Cannabis Market In 2022 appeared first on Cannabis News, Lifestyle – Headlines, Videos & Cooking.

ReCreate Nanotech Drink Additives Amplify Beverages

As cannabis consumption becomes more socially acceptable and legally available, an ever-increasing number of people are looking for ways to incorporate cannabis products into their life. Cannaseurs and the canna-curious alike are searching for products that are designed to provide safe, consistent and repeatable results that can be readily included in their wellness regimens. Concurrently, advances in cannabinoid delivery technology are expanding the product options available to that rising consumer base. One such range of products is the new line of nanotech drink additives by ReCreate, a brand built by cannabinoid therapy pioneers, the Stanley Brothers. 

Using proprietary rapid nanotech formulations, ReCreate combines full-spectrum extract with the latest technology for one of the most tailored and advanced experiences on the market.

What is Nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology is the hottest trend in cannabis consumption methods. According to Research and Markets, the worldwide nanotechnology market has the potential to reach $125 billion by 2024. The rise of nanotechnology in the cannabis sector will account for a portion of that figure. 

Known and applied in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, nanotechnology has recently been embraced by the cannabis industry because it addresses two issues faced by the infused edibles and beverages market: bioavailability and water solubility.

THC, CBD and other cannabinoids are lipophilic compounds, which means they are not water-soluble in their native form. When you consider that our bodies are up to 60% water, this can be a problem, making it harder to gain the maximum benefit from these types of molecules.

Additionally, cannabinoids are hydrophobic by nature, meaning they don’t absorb well in the human body. To avoid these problems, nanoemulsion decreases the particle size, enhancing absorption and water solubility. Nanoemulsions are emulsions that are nanoscale in size and are used to improve the delivery of active medicinal substances. The resulting nano-cannabinoids are water-soluble and may be easily incorporated into beverages at almost any concentration.

The Benefits of Nanotechnology

  1. Fast Acting: Drinking beverages infused with nano-cannabinoids is simple and constant, meaning you will get the same effect on two different days. Similar to alcohol, the result is felt rapidly, starting in about 10 minutes, peaking around 30 minutes and usually lasting a couple of hours before it wears off. You will also feel the benefits quickly, which can help avoid the pitfalls of overconsumption.
  2. Increased Bioavailability: Nano-cannabinoids have a very high bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy and are absorbed quickly and fully by the body. Bioavailability refers to how much of the ingested THC or CBD is absorbed into the bloodstream and ,therefore, how much of an effect it has on the user. A variety of factors can influence this, depending on the consumption method. Smoking cannabis, eating an edible or drinking a nanoemulsion-based beverage, for example, will all deliver different effects. ReCreate’s nanotech drink additives provide one of the fastest absorption methods. If you live an active lifestyle, your body may need to recover quickly post-workout. Increased cannabinoid bioavailability may aid in the reduction of exercise-induced stress, damage and inflammation. It can also aid in reducing anxiety, promoting better sleep and improving overall health.
ReCreate’s 10:10 drink additive features proprietary nanotechnology that enables a faster onset, and overall superior experience.

Convenient and Functional Drink Additives

Using proprietary nanotechnology to increase bioavailability, the cannabinoids and other functional botanicals in ReCreate’s nanodrink additives are formulated with a focus on the end result, whether that means achieving deeper relaxation or better sleep; tapping into creative energy; or relieving body aches. 

There are three products with different cannabinoid rations for balanced, well-rounded effects: the 5:5 drink additive, which is 5mg CBD: 5mg THC; the 10:10 drink additive, which is 10mg CBD: 10mgTHC; and the sleep drink additive, which contains 2.5mg CBD, 2.5mg CBN and 5mg THC.

ReCreate’s Sleep additive features CBN in addition to CBD and CBN. Add it to your favorite bedtime beverage for a restful night.

CBD, THC and CBN are combined with functional botanical boosters including turmeric, valerian root, lemon balm, Chaga and ashwagandha. Many of these herbs, plants and fungus are common in Ayurvedic medicine, which has been used in Indian traditional medicine for over 5,000 years. Additionally, ReCreate products are made with only clean ingredients that are ethically sourced, non-GMO and suitable for vegans.

ReCreate’s range of nanotech drink additives is built for both convenience and wellness. Each one is designed to provide safe, consistent and repeatable results that can be easily woven into your daily routines.  

The post ReCreate Nanotech Drink Additives Amplify Beverages appeared first on Cannabis Now.

DIY: How to Make Your Own CBN

There’s a lot of talk about different cannabinoids, and the growing unregulated cannabinoids market. One of the cannabinoids of interest is CBN, for its possible ability to help with sleep. Unlike many cannabinoids which require synthetization, CBN can be made pretty easily, and not as a synthetic. Read on for tips on how to make your very own CBN.

With a wide-ranging cannabinoids market out there, there are now tons of ways of enjoying cannabis besides standard THC. Whether you’re interested in delta-8 THC which causes less anxiety, CBN which might be good for promoting sleep, THCV which has shown as a possible aid in weight loss, or HHC a minimized version of THC, options abound, and we’ve got plenty for you. Check out all our deals on these compounds, and find the ones that work best for you.

What is CBN

Before getting into how to make CBN, we need to know more about what it is. The cannabis plant is made up of many components including flavonoids, terpenes, chlorophyll, lipids, cannabinoids, and other compounds. In fact, the main association with cannabis, is the cannabinoid delta-9 THC, sometimes erroneously called ‘THC’. This term actually stands for ‘tetrahydrocannabinols’, which can involve more cannabinoids than just delta-9, but somehow that slang term has prevailed, even showing up in medical literature. However, what we are actually speaking of, is delta-9 THC.

Cannabis plants can be split into two general types of plants, though both categories fit under the umbrella of ‘cannabis’. One, which we refer to as ‘hemp’ has lower amounts of delta-9 (which actually shows in a live plant as the acid THCA), and higher amounts of CBD (which shows in a live plant as the acid CBDA). On the other hand, ‘marijuana’ is now the term used for plants higher in THCA than CBDA.

Both THCA and CBDA are ‘phytocannabinoids’ because they appear in the plant. And both convert in the presence of light and heat to their respective cannabinoid counterparts THC (delta-9) and CBD. But this is not the end of the story. Once converted to delta-9 and CBD, these new cannabinoids can eventually degrade further into what we call ‘degradants’. These degradants can be entirely new cannabinoids. And this is where CBN comes in. CBN is the main degradant of delta-9, for which the vast majority of delta-9 will become. This makes CBN a rather prevalent cannabinoid in comparison to others like delta-8 or THCV, which only ever show in miniscule amounts. The chemical formula for CBN is C21H26O2, and it’s considered only minorly intoxicating.

make CBN

While it’s hard to say exactly what CBN is capable of, there is a growing belief that it could be related to properties like the ability to help with sleep and anxiety. This thought came around because of the noticed effect of older cannabis (which is more degraded than a new flower), making people more relaxed and tired. Plenty of research is currently being done into the possible existence of these properties. Apart from a sleep aid, CBN has many other similar benefits to delta-9 THC and other cannabinoids.

The history of CBN

Weirdly enough, CBN was the first cannabinoid of the cannabis plant to be discovered. This was not the goal at all, though, as the goal was to find the intoxicating element of the plant, for which CBN was confused. This research to establish the intoxicating element was already underway in the late 1800’s, being led by different scientists, namely Thomas Easterfield. And it was his discovery that led to the finding of other cannabinoids like CBD and THC.

To find this intoxicating element, cannabis was distilled into what was referred to as a ‘red oil’, and this was the first form to be studied in modern times. This red oil was discovered by Dr. Thomas Easterfield, who was a member of the Cambridge Group, and a lecturer at Cambridge University. When he first wrote about this ‘red oil’, he gave it the name ‘cannabinol’. These days we know that term to specifically mean the compound CBN, but at the time, it was related to the red oil distilled from the plant, as well as what was thought to be the intoxicating factor.

It was thought at that time that cannabinol was a narcotic substance, which was later clarified to be untrue. Easterfield was the first to isolate cannabinol, which, he stated in his late 1800’s writing, as being the intoxicating factor. Perhaps Easterfield would have gotten further, but a couple incidences got in the way of research.

One involved the accidental death of two collaborators in a lab accident. The other is a strange story of the voluntary ingestion of a large dose of CBN by another guy, leading to this guy getting extremely high and somehow catching on fire. Don’t worry, it was extinguished and he was fine, but research stopped upon media reports exaggerating the circumstances for smear campaigns against cannabis (started that early!) Research was halted for decades.

Things didn’t really pick up again until the 1930’s when Dr. Robert S. Cahn began studying CBN again. Cahn started calling the red oil ‘crude cannabinol’, and started using the term ‘cannabinol’ for the actual cannabinoid compound. Through his research he was able to validate that CBN was not the intoxicating factor. Cahn did map the structure of CBN, but many questions were still left unanswered until future scientists finally discovered CBD and THC. Separately, Easterfield and Cahn made the initial discoveries into CBN.


How to make CBN

When it comes to how to make CBN, the important thing to remember is that it’s a degradant of delta-9 THC, and that means you can make CBN from regular marijuana. Though it can be made from a hemp plant, since a hemp plant has considerably less THCA, it would require synthetization, rather than being made naturally. The best way to make CBN, therefore, is by using high-THC marijuana plants.

So how do you make CBN? It’s actually quite easy. Just add the things that naturally convert THC to CBN, light and/or heat. Both of these options essentially speed up time, allowing for a quicker degradation process that allows for CBN to be made. When made industrially, CBN is often created using solvents and metallic catalysts. However, if you do it yourself, not only do you know you’re getting the right product, but you can actually make a cleaner product. This can go for many cannabis products, where DIY methods can often net a better result when done correctly.

Heating: If you want to use the heating method (and you probably do as its more defined), you need to go through the regular process of decarboxylation that turns THCA into delta-9. However, in this case, you need to go a little further, to degrade the delta-9 in order to make CBN. Regular decarboxylation to convert THCA to delta-9 is usually done for no more than 20-40 minutes at a temperature of 230-250°F. These temperatures are low enough that the further conversion to CBN and degradation of other plant compounds, isn’t a problem. In this case, though, you would decarb at higher than 302º F, for a total of 15 minutes, although some publications say that 300º F for one hour also works. And that’s it. After this, you can go on to use the bud to make oil, butter, or whatever other product you know how to make, or can find instructions for.

UV light: The other option to age the plant in order to make CBN from delta-9, is with UV light. Unfortunately, less has been published about the specifics for this method, apart from the fact that a very intense light would need to be used. How intense, and for how long, is harder to say. Perhaps in the future, as CBN becomes more popular, this topic will get further flushed out.

There is, however, plenty of information about how light effects the cannabis plant, and much can be gleaned from this explanation:

“In cannabis, Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) naturally degrades to cannabinol (CBN) over time. Light exposure supplies energy and speeds up this process. The ratio of THC to CBN in a stored sample of cannabis can actually be used to indicate age and quality of storage.

Lindholst (2010) examined tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa) in cannabis extracts. Samples exposed to daylight degraded at a half-life of 35 days, while those kept in darkness degraded at a half-life of 91 days (an approximate 250% difference).”

Cannabis UV light

While this is not specific, it does indicate that if you leave your weed out in bright sunlight, or put it under a UV light, that the process of converting delta-9 to CBN is much faster. I didn’t see an exact consensus on how to do this online, but several message boards contained different instructions by different people, and interested parties should check through to find more specific information if this is a desirable method to try. Personally, I suggest using the heat method.

How this differs from other minor cannabinoids

The cannabinoids market of today offers tons of options of both naturally occurring and synthetic cannabinoids. What’s the catch? Even the naturally occurring ones (besides THC and CBD) don’t occur in high enough amounts for extraction without synthetization. Meaning if you’re buying a product, even if it’s something like delta-8, which most definitely is naturally occurring (as likely another minor degradant of delta-9), your product will have gone through processing. This likely means the involvement of harsh chemicals or processes that may not be safe, and which aren’t currently being regulated.

Beyond that, the lack of regulation means its hard to know you’re getting the product you’re paying for, and that it’s not a fake, or filled with adulterants. For this reason, this has become a questionable market in terms of safety and product quality. And this goes for any cannabinoid product that fits the category of requiring synthetization. It also goes for many other cannabis products, but minor cannabinoids in particular we already know cannot be easily and directly extracted for use.

The difference with CBN is that it can be made to appear in large enough amounts, by simple methods that don’t involve synthetic processing. However, for the other reasons mentioned, this doesn’t mean that because you’re buying a CBN product, that it will be real. And that brings us to the other difference with CBN and other minor cannabinoids. Much like delta-9 itself, it can be made DIY style, giving users the ability to make a clean product, and to know for sure what that product is.


CBN likely has plenty of medical benefits, and one seems to be the ability to help with sleep and anxiety, though this is not formally stated. Research has been inconclusive, and is ongoing, but message boards are already filled with people talking up these qualities. Perhaps in the future we’ll know more. Let’s remember one thing. The government never likes when people can make their own products, or buy them outside of regulation, since it means less money in taxes for the government.

The push to say CBN isn’t effective for sleep could be more related to trying to save it for the pharmaceutical market, or simply to keep people from buying it, than trying to help people find a safe method to promote sleep. This is supposition, but something to consider in the whole ongoing cannabis debate, and with the rapid growth of the government backed pharma market.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advice, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

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