How 15 Minutes of Strength Training Can Reduce Pain Via Endocannabinoid System

We all know working out is good, even if we don’t like doing it. Now, new research sheds light on just how strength training effects the endocannabinoid system, and how this in turn can help reduce pain and inflammation. And it brings several implications with it.

Let’s be honest, exercise is good and we should all be doing it. If 15 minutes of daily strength training can activate the endocannabinoid system, and lower inflammation and pain, this could be a great answer for many people. For those who want to stimulate their endocannabinoid system in other ways, there are tons of cannabis compound out there to help. Remember to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter for deals on legal cannabis products, as well as all the latest news and industry stories. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!


What’s the news?

In a recent study through the University of Nottingham, in England (The anti-inflammatory effect of bacterial short chain fatty acids is partially mediated by endocannabinoids), it was found that short daily strength training periods of approximately 15 minutes, are enough to reduce the pain of people suffering from arthritis, as well as lower inflammation, while increasing endocannabinoid levels in the endocannabinoid system.

The overall purpose of the study was to “explore the functional interactions between the endocannabinoid system and the gut microbiome in modulating inflammatory markers”. To do this, 78 participants were used in the study, all with arthritis. The group was split into two, with 38 participants engaging in 15 minutes of muscle strengthening exercises, on a daily basis for six weeks. The remaining 40 participants did no strength training exercise in that time period. After six weeks, the groups were compared.

It was found that the group which engaged in strength training exercise had a reduction in pain, lower levels of cytokines which cause inflammation, and higher levels of endocannabinoids in the endocannabinoid system. It was also found that this exercising group had a higher level of gut microbes which are known to produce anti-inflammatory compounds.

endocannabinoid system

These microbes are also linked to the higher levels of endocannabinoids (2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG] and anandamide [AEA]), in that the gut microbes produced – SCFAs, seem to be related to endocannabinoid levels. The scientists measured that about 1/3 of the anti-inflammation changes in the gut, were due to increases in endocannabinoids.

According to the researchers, “Our data show that the anti-inflammatory effects of SCFAs are partly mediated by the EC system suggesting that there may be other pathways involved in the modulation of the immune system via the gut microbiome.” They went on to say: “Our study clearly shows that exercise increases the body’s own cannabis-type substances. Which can have a positive impact on many conditions.”

What is the endocannabinoid system?

Basically, the endocannabinoid system is a system within the body made up of endocannabinoids, which are lipid-based neurotransmitters that bind to receptors to produce a response, as well as the receptor proteins they bind to, which can be found all throughout both the central and peripheral nervous systems. This system is incredibly important for CNS function, as well as aiding in synaptic plasticity (changes in synaptic behavior), and in how our bodies respond to relevant stimuli from within the body or outside.

Though the endocannabinoid system is still under much investigation, with many question marks attached, research has pointed to it being related to cognitive function, along with physiological processes like fertility and pregnancy, and natal and early growth and development.

Research also shows it likely playing a part in immune function, mood regulation, emotion, motivation, learning and memory, appetite, pain sensitivity and modulation, addiction behaviors, motor coordination and control, and of course, for providing us the psychoactive effects of cannabis cannabinoids like delta-9 THC.

The endocannabinoid system has several receptors of interest when it comes to cannabis, like CB1, CB2, and the more newly discovered GPR55, sometimes referred to as CB3. CB1 and CB2 receptors can be found in the brain, nervous system, immune system, and gastrointestinal system. CB1 receptors are known for regulating neural transmissions and peripheral aspects, while CB2 receptors are more known for the regulation of immune and inflammatory pathways.

GPR55 is less well understood, but is expected to be responsible for how many different cannabinoids effect the body, with receptor action being identified in the nervous system, in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hypothalamus, and brain stem of the brain, in dorsal root ganglia neurons, in the spleen, tonsils, adrenals, bones, endothelial cells, intestines, lungs, kidneys, and fat tissue. It is thought GPR55 is involved in the experience of neuropathic pain, and inflammation.

receptor sites

What other implications does the study have?

The first thing to remember is that the Nottingham University study was conducted on arthritics. This means that the results shown, a reduction in inflammation and pain, are not related to a healthy person, but one who has a specific disorder which increase both inflammation, and the experience of pain. The study showed that strength training exercise was able to decrease the inflammation and pain in people with arthritis, at least partially by way of activation of the endocannabinoid system.

This implies that a healthy person who undergoes the same exercise regimen should also be able to reduce inflammation, and that such exercise could therefore help regulate standard inflammation issues not related to a specific illness.

Healthy people also suffer inflammation from injuries, from stress, and from other environment factors, so understanding what exercise can do for those with a specific issue, also sheds light on what can be expected for those who only deal with standard problems.

It also implies the ability to help with other medical issues that involve pain and inflammation, like asthma and allergies, autoimmune disorders, IBS, coeliac disease, and hepatitis. Does it mean exercising 15 minutes a day will cure these things? Or even arthritis? No, but it does show a possible ability to help. And for people suffering ailments specifically related to bad lifestyles and faulty health, simply adding in such an exercise regimen might actually be capable of completely reversing some problems.

Can the endocannabinoid system be overly-activated?

The answer to this seems to be yes, based on previous research. While the topic hasn’t been 100% flushed out, there is good indication that those with obesity have an overactivated endocannabinoid system and elevated endocannabinoid levels.

In fact, in the study Overactivation of the endocannabinoid system alters the antilipolytic action of insulin in mouse adipose tissue, researchers specifically looked into whether “obesity-related metabolic dysregulation is associated with overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which involves cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R), in peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue (AT).” Adipose tissue is fat tissue.

over-active endocannabinoid system

The researchers found a link between obesity and the endocannabinoid system over-functioning, drawing the conclusion that their “study indicates the existence of a functional interaction between CB1R and lipolysis regulation in AT. Further investigation is needed to test if the elevation of ECS tone encountered in obesity is associated with excess fat mobilization contributing to ectopic fat deposition and related metabolic disorders.”

This is a good time to remind that too much of anything tends to be bad, even good things. For example, fruit is good for you, but eating too much means the overconsumption of sugar. Or, eating carrots is good for your eyes, but eat too many and you’ll turn orange. So, it suffices to say that there is a point at which too much function in the endocannabinoid system could be a bad thing too.

Weirdly enough, though cannabis is so often associated with the munchies and being hungry, a strange fact can often be missed: regular cannabis users tend to have lower BMIs, suffer less obesity, and tend to have better metabolic health, than others who consume less calories but don’t smoke cannabis.

In the study Theoretical Explanation for Reduced Body Mass Index and Obesity Rates in Cannabis Users, it’s posited by researchers: “We provide for the first time a causative explanation for this paradox, in which rapid and long-lasting downregulation of CB1R following acute Cannabis consumption reduces energy storage and increases metabolic rates, thus reversing the impact on body mass index of elevated dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratios.”

Conclusion

With some things in life, its hard to know if they’re necessary or not. Maybe taking vitamins helps, maybe they never get absorbed. Maybe eating meat helps, and maybe it leads to other health issues. But I never see anyone say anything bad about exercise, especially in the 15-minutes-a-day range.

Sometimes it really is hard to know what’s good for you, and what’s not. However, sometimes there isn’t an argument at all. Whether a person exercises to stay in shape physically, as a form of stress-release, or to regulate a health issue, the one thing that seems to be a general fact, is that exercise is good. That 15 minutes of strength training a day could have such positive benefits for the endocannabinoid systems of arthritics patients, to the point of decreasing pain and inflammation, says a whole lot about what we should all be doing every day to stay healthy.

Welcome to CBDtesters.co! Your one-stop-shop for all the best and most current cannabis and psychedelics-related news from everywhere in the world. Check us out daily to stay aware of what’s going on in the always-moving universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for The THC Weekly Newsletter, to ensure you never miss a single thing.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post How 15 Minutes of Strength Training Can Reduce Pain Via Endocannabinoid System appeared first on CBD Testers.

The Third Cannabis Receptor Site – GPR55

We talk all the time about the two cannabis receptor sites in the body, CB1 and CB2. Scientists, however, have uncovered what appears to be a third cannabis receptor site, GPR55. What is this site? And how does it impact things like inflammation, cancer, and anxiety?

CB1 and CB2 might be the main cannabis receptors, but a third cannabis receptor site exists called GPR55. Perhaps in the future, this receptor site will play a bigger role in the research and development of cannabis products. For now, there are plenty up for grabs, including a growing array of cannabis cannabinoids including delta-8 THC, THCV, and even hemp-derived delta-9. No matter what your favorite delivery method, we’ve got a product for you. Check out our deals, and start your holiday shopping today!


CB1 and CB2

To start with, humans (and other animals) have an endocannabinoid system which is a neuromodulation network throughout the body. This system is highly important to central nervous system functioning, as well as being involved in synaptic plasticity, and the response to different stimuli, whether from inside or outside the body. The system involves cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids (or endogenous cannabinoids made in the body), and the enzymes that are required for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids.

There is currently plenty of research going on involving the endocannabinoid system, and how it functions. Research findings have pointed at the endocannabinoid system being related to the regulation of cognitive as well as physiological processes, like fertility, pregnancy, and natal and early development.

It is also thought to play into immune activities; mood, emotion, and motivation; memory and learning; appetite; pain sensitivity and modulation; behaviors involving addiction; and neural functions like motor coordination and control. And of course we can’t forget its also responsible for producing the psychoactive effects of cannabinoids like delta-9 THC.

GPR55

When it comes to the receptors, there are several, however the two of main interest, and which have been studied the most, are the CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 was first cloned in 1990, and those receptors are found mainly in the brain and nervous system throughout the body, including in other organs and tissue.

CB2 receptors are found in the brain (though far less than CB1 receptors), and in the immune system and gastrointestinal system. CB1 receptors therefore are regulators of neural transmissions and many peripheral purposes, and CB2 receptors are more geared toward regulating immune and inflammation pathways.

In terms of THC, “THC acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). A very high binding affinity of THC with the CB1 receptor appears to mediate its psychoactive properties (changes in mood or consciousness), memory processing, motor control, etc. It has been reported that a number of side effects of THC, including anxiety, impaired memory and immunosuppression, can be reversed by other constituents of the cannabis plant (cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids).”

Third cannabis receptor site – GPR55

CB1 and CB2 receptors are only two types of receptors found in the endocannabinoid system, but others exist. One atypical type of receptor, often thought of as the third cannabis receptor site, is GPR55. This receptor, first found in 1999, is still being studied, and not a whole lot is known about it for sure. However, it’s expected that it’s responsible for many of the effects of different cannabinoids, leading some to refer to it as cannabinoid receptor site 3. In actuality, it has not yet been given an official CB3 designation, but that could be coming.

GPR55 (or, G protein-coupled receptor 55) is thought of as a ‘type 3’ receptor, which is activated by cannabinoids like delta-9, as well as non-cannabinoid ligands. A ligand is a grouping of like molecules that can attach to receptor sites, and in this case refers to either endocannabinoids (made within the body), phytocannabinoids (produced by the plant), synthetic cannabinoids (made in a lab), and non-cannabinoids. So this means the receptor is activated by cannabis related compounds, and non-cannabis compounds as well.

GPR55 receptor actions have been seen in the nervous system; parts of the brain like the frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hypothalamus, and brain stem; and in dorsal root ganglia neurons; the spleen; tonsils; adrenals; bones; endothelial cells; large intestine; lungs; kidneys; and adipose tissue (or body fat).

CB1 CB2

In the brain, these receptors seem to be related to the perception of pain, neuroprotection, anxiety issues, motor coordination, and substance abuse issues. Apart from these attributes, GPR55 is also thought to be involved in the formation of bone, the experience of neuropathic pain, inflammation, and fetoplacental development.

What third cannabis receptor site GPR55 shows in research

So, what is this third cannabis receptor site GPR55 known for? Well, its still being researched, but there are several different attributes it’s being studied for. One of them has to do with how these receptors effect cancer. These receptors are associated with many different kinds of cancer, and can be found within cancer cells.

One of the things about GPR55, is that it seems (at least at times) to promote the proliferation of cancer cells. In general, something that helps cancer spread is not thought of as good. In one study it was found that the knocking down of the GPR55 expression in glioma cells (essentially using glioma cells where GPR55 expression has been muted) was related to decreased tumor growth. As in, when the receptors weren’t functioning, tumors didn’t function as well either. Another study showed the expression of GPR55 in different prostate and ovarian cancer cell lines.

Learning how GPR55 effects cancer cells, is useful for understanding how cancers grow, and how to treat them. For example, recently developed antibodies that work against GPR55, can detect it’s expression at protein levels in tumor tissue and normal tissue. At CB1 and CB2 receptors, cannabinoids act as agonists, and have been shown to be useful for fighting cancer because of antiproliferative, antimetastatic, antiangiogenic, and pro-apoptotic effects. Agonists of GPR55 are known for their pro-cancer effects.

THC has been shown to be an agonist sometimes with GPR55, but not always, leading to reasonable confusion as to how the receptors are effected by delta-9, and whether the effect created is positive or negative.

One of the big avenues of research for this third cannabis receptor GPR55, is regarding its anti-inflammatory properties. For example, in one study, the increased expression of GPR55 suggested a relationship with intestinal inflammation. In fact, GPR55 seems to play a pro-inflammatory role according to some research. Other research shows the opposite, like it having an anti-inflammatory expression on mast cells, by way of inhibiting mast cell-mediated releases of nerve growth factor. Investigating different agonists and antagonists of GPR55 can help us better understand how it’s used for inflammatory and anti-inflammatory purposes. Both are necessary for bodily function.

The takeaway? “The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been reported to modulate inflammation and is expressed in immune cells such as monocytes and microglia.” Of course, specifics to all this are still quite unknown.

cannabis receptors

Yet another attribute has to do with its use with anxiety, which is also still not well understood. In one study on mice with the GPR55 receptors silenced in the medial orbital cortex (knockout mice), it was found that use of O-1602 (synthetic compound somewhat related to abnormal CBD), which had previously shown to work as an anxiolytic in acutely stressed mice, no longer had this effect without use of the receptor. This indicates that the receptor might play an important role in experiencing anxiety, with its suppression effecting how anxiolytic compounds will behave.

GPR55’s existence in the central and peripheral nociceptive systems (the systems whereby we sense and experience pain), implies a possible ability to modulate these pathways. It has even been proposed that GPR55 (as well as receptor GPR18) could play a part in the experience of both acute and chronic pain. Research already suggests that GPR55 is related to the modulation of nociceptor excitability, meaning it can play a role in how we respond to painful stimuli. In terms of nerve damage, GPR55 was found to show mRNA expression in both the spinal cord and DRG (dorsal root ganglion) of nerve-damaged test rats, suggesting a link between GPR55 and neuropathic pain. Studies are across the board at the moment, with much further research needed.

Conclusion

Even though we talk about CB1 and CB2 receptors a lot, it doesn’t mean they’re the only ones at all, and in fact, other receptor sites have been found. Third cannabis receptor site GPR55 might not technically be called CB3 at the moment, but it might soon, and for good reason. It seems to play a big role in how cannabis is capable of effecting the body, though the jury is still out on exactly what this means in different contexts.

What is for sure is that cannabis is a plant with many and varied compounds capable of having many and varied effects. Perhaps GPR55 represents an avenue of cannabis we are still not as familiar with, and points us in an important direction for future cannabis study.

Welcome everyone! Thanks for stopping by CBDtesters.co, the best internet location for all cannabis and psychedelics-related news, offering up the most current and interesting stories of today. Come for a visit regularly to stay informed on the quickly-moving universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and don’t forget to check out the The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter, to get every important news story first.

For more articles like this one, make sure to subscribe to The THC Weekly Newsletter. Also save big on Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP & HHC products by checking out our “Best-of” lists!

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post The Third Cannabis Receptor Site – GPR55 appeared first on CBD Testers.

The Benefits of Treating Arthritis With Cannabis Topicals

Arthritis is a painful and sometimes debilitating condition characterized by joint swelling, pain, and stiffness, along with a decreased range of motion.

As a consultant for cannabis patients, I often work with those who are suffering from arthritis and looking for alternative ways to manage the painful condition. Often these patients come to me when they have exhausted the conventional options.

When arthritis gets severe, painkillers (such as opiates) are usually the primary treatment that these patients are receiving. But opiates have their limits. Patients adjust to their dose and it has to be continually increased. In some cases, opiates can actually increase sensitivity to pain. Many have already reached the highest allowable dose and will receive less and less relief from the drug as time goes on. Patients who have been relying on that pain relief are suddenly left without any recourse.

Thankfully, cannabis offers new hope for safely and effectively managing arthritis. As a potent painkiller and anti-inflammatory agent, cannabis has helped many with their arthritic symptoms. It can also be used safely in conjunction with opiates, so patients who are still using opiates, or tapering off of them, don’t have to worry about dangerous interactions. Research shows that cannabis use actually allows patients to decrease their opiate use, and in states where cannabis is legally accessible, opiate-related deaths have gone down by 25 percent.

In addition, research suggests that cannabis can do more than just ameliorate the symptoms of the condition, it may also be able to reverse it, leading to increasing improvements in mobility, inflammation and pain. Research shows that arthritis patients actually have a higher level of CB2 receptors in their damaged joints, than most.

One study, conducted in Canada, researched the effects of topical applications of cannabis on rheumatoid arthritis. The researchers behind it believed that saturating the patients CB2 receptors with cannabinoids will not only aid with pain relief but may actually repair the joint damage that has already been done.

Treating Arthritis with cannabis topicals

In my own experience with arthritis patients, topical applications of cannabis have been extremely helpful. Patients often complain that the topical isn’t doing much at first, but with regular saturation, they experience a gradual but significant change in their pain and mobility.

Those looking to try treating arthritis with cannabis topicals should start by finding a topical cannabis product that they can regularly apply. For patients with mild arthritis, you might start with a regular strength topical. I am a big fan of Leafy Botanicals’ hard lotion balm, as well as their massage oil. These topicals not only work well, but they smell delicious, with hints of lavender and rosemary.

For those with more severe arthritis, I recommend Fleurish Farm’s extra strength balm. This incredibly potent product was designed specifically with arthritis sufferers in mind, and I have seen it deliver immediate pain relief to some of the most severe arthritis patients I have worked with. This whipped balm is unscented and made entirely of oils that score a zero on the pore clogging scale, so it is light and hypo-allergenic enough for even the most sensitive skin. It’s also infused with high-quality rosin, a solventless cannabis concentrate, which contains powerful terpenes in addition to the cannabinoids found in most topicals.

Whether you are using topicals, edibles or inhaling it, cannabis can help ease the pain of arthritis and may even lead to long lasting improvements in joint health. If you are one of the 50 million people struggling with daily arthritis pain, cannabis just might be the perfect solution. Talk to an MD who specializes in cannabis to find out if it is right for you.

The post The Benefits of Treating Arthritis With Cannabis Topicals appeared first on Cannabis Now.

Is it possible to boost your Endocannabinoid System without Cannabis?

The world is facing some pretty big problems right now and it’s hard to think about little else. At a time like this, why should anyone turn their attention to their endocannabinoid system? There are so many reasons! Not only does it help regulate your immune system, but it also helps to manage stress, pain, […]

The post Is it possible to boost your Endocannabinoid System without Cannabis? appeared first on Latest Cannabis News Today – Headlines, Videos & Stocks.

Sex Drive and The Endocannabinoid System

He once told me that he knew he was in trouble as soon as I looked at him. I knew the look because I remember the thoughts behind it. We were high school hot for each other and when we finally got a hold of each other, we didn’t let go for hours. Then, one […]

The post Sex Drive and The Endocannabinoid System appeared first on Latest Cannabis News Today – Headlines, Videos & Stocks.

Cannabinoid Receptors: What They Are and How They Work

Cannabinoid receptors are extremely important to our overall well-being, yet they remain shrouded in mystery. Most people are aware of the fact that cannabis has medicinal value, but how it actually works in the body is less than common knowledge; and it has everything to do with these receptors.

Cannabinoid receptors are a class of G protein-coupled cell membrane receptors that make up part of the endocannabinoid system – which is responsible for a diverse range of physiological functions as well as overall homeostasis.

Cannabinoid receptors are activated by three major groups of molecules: endocannabinoids – which are produced by our own bodies, phytocannabinoids – which come from plants, and synthetic cannabinoids – like the medication Marinol, for example.

As of now, there are two known subtypes of cannabinoid receptors – CB1 and CB2 – although there are believed to be many more. They can be found in different areas throughout the whole body and are present in all mammals, fish, birds, and reptiles, although their signaling is strongest among mammals.

Each type subtype of CB receptors are found in different parts of the body and have a different purpose in the body. Let’s take a closer look.


The Endocannabinoid System

The reason CBD can impact so many different physiological functions is because of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). The ECS is a network of receptors that can be found throughout our bodies. We naturally create cannabinoids which bond to these receptors to regulate different processes in our bodies and maintain homeostasis.

The ECS helps manage things such as immune function, appetite, sleep wake cycles, pain response, and the list goes on. However, when we are ‘cannabinoid deficient’ our bodies become destabilized and no longer function optimally. This is where supplementing with plant-based cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids) comes into play.

CB1 Receptors

The CB1 receptor is expressed mainly in the brain (central nervous system or “CNS”), but also in the lungs, liver and kidneys. Throughout the brain, varying levels of CB1 expression have been detected in the following regions: the olfactory bulb, cortical regions (neocortex, pyriform cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala), multiple parts of basal ganglia, thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, and other subcortical regions (e.g., the septal region), cerebellar cortex, and brainstem nuclei.

How it works is that endocannabinoids released by a depolarized neuron bind to CB1 receptors on “pre-synaptic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons”, resulting in decreased glutamate or GABA release. Restricting glutamate release causes relaxation and limiting GABA release suppresses inhibition, which in turn in energizes the postsynaptic cell.

One of the primary roles of the CB1 receptors is to maintain homeostasis and equilibrium throughout the body, but they’re also an important factor in the treatment of various disorders. It’s believed that the expression of these receptors can help reduce anxiety, minimize pain, and treat inflammatory symptoms.

CB2 Receptors

CB2 receptors are found primarily throughout the immune system and in hematopoietic cells. According to the most up-to-date research, “Through their inhibition of adenylyl cyclase via their Gi/Goα subunits, CB2 receptor agonists cause a reduction in the intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).” Simplified, that means these receptors are linked to various immune system functions such as regulating immune suppression, induction of apoptosis, and facilitating cell migration.

cannabinoid receptors

CB2 receptors have many important roles, as far as therapeutics go. Shockingly, changes in CB2 receptors have been detected in nearly every disease on earth that affects humans. Although more studies on this subject are needed, theoretically, CB2 receptor activity can be a factor in treating disorders ranging from cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, liver, kidney, psychiatric, bone, skin, autoimmune, lung, pain and even cancer.

It’s also believed that CB2 receptors can be used to treat neurogenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. As such, their importance in the overall treatment plan in elderly patients should not be overlooked.

Other Cannabinoid Receptors

It’s been a long-standing hypothesis that additional cannabinoid receptors exist throughout the human body. According to a study published in the Journal of Pharmacological Reviews, “It is now generally accepted that some endocannabinoids, including anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and N-arachidonoyl dopamine, as well as Δ9-THC and a number of synthetic CB1/CB2 receptor agonists and antagonists can activate or block established non-CB1, non-CB2 GPCRs, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels and/or nuclear receptors (PPAR receptors).”

Certain compounds referred to as “abnormal cannabidiol” that produces effects which mimic those of regular cannabinoids but do not activate the documented CB1 and CB2 receptors. This “abnormal cannabidiol” can reduce pain and inflammation, and lower blood pressure just like plant-based CBD. It’s believed that anandamide (which is the first endocannabinoid to be discovered and studied by Israeli Professor Raphael Mechoulam) interacts with the “abnormal cannabidiol” receptor in the Central Nervous System (CNS).

“Importantly, some cannabinoids seem to target these channels or receptors with potencies that differ little from those with which they activate or block CB1 and/or CB2 receptors. Anandamide, such example, displays such potency at T-type voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-gated KV3.1 and KV4.3 potassium channels, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels, NMDA receptors, glycine receptors, and allosteric sites on 5-HT3 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors,” the study further stated.

Another proposed cannabinoid receptor has been discovered in the hippocampus, as well as two possible others in different regions of the brain. These are, however, just theories that have come to fruition based on the activity of these receptors with the endocannabinoid system.

Final Thoughts

If one thing can be gathered from this article, it’s that our bodies are intricate machines that are capable of more than could ever be imagined. Ultimately, the goal of all the functions in our bodies is homeostasis, and as it turns out, cannabis can play a major role in helping us achieve this.

This all thanks to our beautifully complex Endocannabinoid System and the cannabinoid receptors that it interacts with.

The post Cannabinoid Receptors: What They Are and How They Work appeared first on CBD Testers.