Are You Celebrating Danksgiving?

Happy Danksgiving! And yes, that’s not a typo, it is an actual holiday. If you haven’t heard of it but think it’s related to Thanksgiving, then you’re on the right track. We may have already celebrated Thanksgiving here in Canada, but American Thanksgiving is just around the corner, and that means you’re about to get […]

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Edibles Recipe: Cannabis-Infused Frozen Key Lime Pies

When it comes to crafting both beautiful and delicious cannabis edibles, Stephanie Hua and Coreen Carroll have got it down. These culinary mavens offer a host of creative and fun recipes for infused bites. In this excerpt from their book “Edibles,” Hua and Carroll walk canna-chefs through the basics of creating a canna-butter base that can be added to a host of sweet and savory items. We’ve also included their recipe for infused tiny, tart key lime pies.

Active Time: 40 minutes

Inactive Time: 4 hours

Makes 12 mini pies

Sweet and tart, cool and refreshing, with a texture like soft ice cream, these mini frozen key lime pies are perfect for summer entertaining. We love that they can be made in advance, so you can focus on being the fabulous host you are. The single-serving size is convenient as well. You won’t have to split a dose . . . which means you won’t have to share your personal pie (you’re welcome).


½ cup plus 1 Tbsp | 65 g graham cracker crumbs (from 4 to 5 whole graham crackers)

¼ cup | 50 g sugar

6 Tbsp | 85 g unsalted butter, melted

2 tsp | 9 g canna-butter, melted


7 medium limes

6 large egg yolks | 120 g, at room temperature

¼ cup | 50 g sugar

One 14-oz | 400-g can sweetened condensed milk


1 pt | 460 g heavy cream, cold

2 Tbsp powdered sugar

1 tsp vanilla extract


12-cup muffin pan

Shot glass

Pastry bag and star tip (optional)


The pies can be made up to three days in advance. Prepare them up to the whipped cream step, cover the muffin tin tightly with plastic wrap, and keep frozen until ready to serve.


Preheat the oven to 350°F [180°C]. Line a 12-cup muffin pan with cupcake liners and set aside.

In a food processor, blitz together the graham cracker crumbs and sugar until combined. Add the butter and canna-butterand process until evenly distributed. Fill each cup with an equal amount of the graham crust mixture, about 2 Tbsp plus 1 tsp [17 g]. For the most accurate dosage, weigh the total amount of the crust mixture and divide by twelve to determine the target weight per serving. Press the crumbs down using the bottom of a shot glass to create an even bottom crust. Don’t worry about getting the crust up the sides. Bake for about 10 minutes until golden. Remove from the oven and cool completely.


While the crusts cool, zest and juice 6 of the limes. You will need 2 Tbsp packed lime zest and ¾ cup [175 g] lime juice. Reserve any extra zest for garnishing.

Fill a medium saucepan with 1 to 2 in [3 to 5 cm] of water and bring it to barely a simmer over medium-high heat. Adjust the heat to low.

In a medium heatproof bowl, whisk the egg yolks, lime juice, and sugar until combined. Set the bowl over the saucepan (the bottom of the bowl shouldn’t touch the surface of the water), and cook for about 5 minutes, whisking constantly, until the mixture is frothy and puddinglike.

Remove the bowl from the heat. Whisk in the sweetened condensed milk and lime zest until well combined. Divide the filling equally among the 12 cups, about 1/3 cup of filling per portion.

Freeze until firm, at least 4 hours.


In a large bowl, combine the cream, powdered sugar and vanilla. Using a handheld electric mixer, beat for about 1 minute on high speed until medium to stiff peaks form. Alternatively, you can whisk by hand (earn that whipped cream!) or use a stand mixer. Dollop the cream on top of each pie, or, if you’re feeling fancy, transfer it to a pastry bag fitted with a star tip and pipe decoratively.

Cut the remaining lime into thin slices and garnish the pies, along with any extra lime zest. Enjoy immediately.

Excerpted from “Edibles: Small Bites for the Modern Cannabis Kitchen” by Stephanie Hua with Coreen Carroll.

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Fall-Themed Cannabis Recipes for Hungry Stoners

Any stoner worth their kief knows that sweater weather is nothing without an arsenal of fall-themed cannabis recipes to keep the good times rolling all season long. Who doesn’t yearn for cozy Fall days spent getting stoned while noshing on Fall’s signature treats? Almost everyone experiences the inexplicable urge to hunt down Fall’s staple ingredients […]

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Cannabis Now Sweets Roundup: 6 Special Brownies

In the cannabis industry’s plight to be more mature, more refined and more sophisticated in hope of mainstream acceptance (which is a good thing), some of the culture’s traditions have been thrown to the wayside for seemingly greener pastures. There’s nothing wrong with growing up and leaving some things behind — like the dated misconception that all smokers are lazy, dumb stoners with no future — but there’s also no shame in staying true to things that have stood the test of time (and criticism) to remain relevant, reliable and really good. Like special brownies.

The classic brownie recipe is a simple jewel of a dessert made with eggs, butter, sugar, plain flour, baking powder and cocoa powder or melted chocolate. It’s one of those foods lots of people have had more times than they can count with little to no variations on the recipes. Why fix what’s not broken, right? Of course, it’s always fun to put a creative spin on a beloved classic to remind you why you love it and how it can somehow get even better.

Whether you like your brownies chewy, fudgy or cakey, here’s your chance to bring it back into rotation with a little bit of style and few minor twists. For the following ideas on how to liven up the classic brownie, you’ll be using cannabis-infused butter like the one in this easy recipe in place of regular butter. Use this as a springboard for your own creative ideas while you hunt for the perfect recipe for your tastebuds.

Photo Iain Farrell

Mocha Brownies

Brownie purists will appreciate this simple way to add another layer of flavor without overpowering the original taste of the desert. All you need to do is add some brewed coffee or powdered instant coffee to your mixture for a little bit of a kick as the rich flavor of coffee deepens and complements the sweet fudge in these brownies.

Photo Quinn Dombrowski

Blackberry Cheesecake Brownies

Combine the best of both dessert worlds with this two-in-one treat that pairs a creamy layer of cheesecake with fresh (or thawed frozen) blackberries over a chocolatey brownie base. If you’re not a fan of blackberries, you can use the berry of your choice or skip the fruit altogether.

Photo Manolo Hoozn

Pumpkin Pie Swirl Brownies

It’s a little early for the annual return of all things pumpkin-flavored but that just means you will have time to perfect this recipe. Use canned or fresh pumpkin puree with some cinnamon, nutmeg and few other ingredients to swirl into your brownie batter before it goes in the oven to bake.

Photo Joy

S’mores Brownies

This version of the brownie is almost like a pie with it’s buttery, graham cracker crust and warm, gooey layer of marshmallow topping. It’s also a good substitute for the real thing when you’re craving a sweet snack that’s a little more substantial than the original version.

Photo Jules

Peanut Butter Brownies

A classic meets another classic in this fun spin on a peanut butter sandwich minus the bread. If you want a little bit of texture in your brownies, you can use crunchy peanut butter. Add jam and make it a PB&J You can also choose whether you use the peanut butter as a second layer on top of the brownies or as a swirl that you incorporate into the batter.

Photo Kim Love

Salted Caramel Brownies

You can make your own salted caramel or buy it premade to add directly to the brownie batter or dollop the salty-sweet combo over the top of the mixture before putting it in the oven. As it melts during the baking process, the flavors meld together for a deliciously decadent and chewy dessert.

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Got the Munchies? 5 Recipes You Can Make Right Now

Stoners and the Munchies have warred for centuries. In fact, this battle has gone on ever since the first joint was lit. We are here to once and for all, take down the evil Munchies and their nefarious grip on all of stoner kind. Check out these recipes you can make with very few ingredients […]

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Best Vegan Cannabis Recipes and the Benefits of a Plant-Based Diet

Although the connection between food and health is quite complex and significant, the medical community and mainstream media still places very little emphasis on the importance of a natural diet. Roughly 160 million people in the US suffer from hypertension, heart disease, and/or diabetes, and most primary care physicians would rather prescribe them a cocktail of pharmaceutical drugs (many of which carry the risk of dangerous side effects) when the answer to their health problems could be as simple as changing what they eat.

Enter the world of plant-based diets. Every year, a growing number of people are cutting out meat, excess sugar, sodium, and products with preservatives and artificial ingredients in exchange for better health and longevity. Some people are becoming vegetarian, some vegan, some full-time, some part-time, but regardless, the interest in these types of diets is on the rise.

A vegan diet is comprised of only plant-based foods. People who choose to follow this diet avoid all animal products including meat, dairy, eggs, and sometimes even honey. Some people go vegan for health reasons, while others make it a lifestyle choice. Many vegans choose this way of life citing animal welfare, environmental benefits, and sustainability.  

A large number of vegans also avoid cosmetics, clothing, and other products that contain both animal DNA as well as artificial ingredients. The urge to go all-natural can spill over into many other areas of life, especially medicinal practices. In addition to changing diets, many health-conscious individuals are looking at natural alternatives to pharmaceutical drugs as well. Note that most western medications DO contain animal products, or at the very least, extensive testing on animals was conducted in order to get that product on the market.

Research suggests that the number of cannabis users who are vegan is significantly higher than vegans in the general population, indicating that pot users are among the growing number of people seeking healthier options in all areas of life.

Food is the best, and there are a million interesting edibles on the market for cannabis! Whether you like your cannabis edibles sweet, or salty, (or vegan), there’s something for everyone. Some are higher in CBD, some in THC, and some are made with delta-8 THC, the alternate form of THC on the market, which produces slightly less psychoactive effect, and a more energetic, clear-headed high. No matter how you like to consume cannabis, there are plenty of options, so make sure to subscribe to The CBD Flowers Weekly Newsletter, your source for all the most up-to-date cannabis information, as well as access to exclusive deals on flowers and other products.

The Rise of Veganism

Numerous studies and surveys report that around 3% of the people in the United States are fully vegan, and an additional 5% are vegetarian. Worldwide, an estimated 79 million people are following plant-based diets. Because plant-based diets are rich in nutrients, and low in saturated fats and preservatives, they are ideal for preventing many diet-related, preventable chronic diseases.

Data from numerous other sources indicates that this rise has been particularly large over the last couple years, especially following the COVID-19 pandemic. In May, a report from the Plant-Based Foods Association found that sales of vegan and vegetarian foods increased by 90% overall during the pandemic, and specifically, plant-based meat products saw a 148% rise. Another report from HappyCow, an online resource for vegans, found that during the pandemic, more vegan and vegetarian restaurants opened than closed. It’s one of the few industries that thrive while many others shuttered.

Although the root causes of the shift are related to health and environmental concerns, it seems that social media is playing a substantial role in fueling the flame of curiosity. A number of popular celebrities have been following a vegan diet for years including Billie Eilish, Woody Harrelson, Zac Efron, Natalie Portman, and Miley Cyrus, just to name a few. On Instagram, #vegan has more than 90 million posts and the vegan groups on Facebook have hundreds of thousands of followers.

Giles Quick, director at market researcher Kantar Worldpanel, said: “The vegan market has changed fundamentally in the last six or seven years – it’s now for everyone. “Social media has brought it to the forefront of customer’s minds, and the mainstream. It’s not seen any more as a choice for life, but as a choice for one meal, one moment, for one or two days a week.” Flexitarianism, part-time vegetarianism or veganism, is becoming increasingly popular.

Grocery store chains and fast food restaurants around the world are starting to take notice. In the US, a popular brand of easy frozen products that are completely plant-based, Morningstar Farms, makes a variety of plant-based burger patties, “chicken” patties, meatless meatballs, and more. And a range of fast-food companies, including McDonalds, Burger King, KFC, and Carl’s Jr. are providing vegan/vegetarian options to their customers.

Benefits of a Plant-Based Diet

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) states that roughly 40 percent of annual deaths are preventable, and a leading cause of what’s driving the high number of deaths is a poor diet. Nutritional diseases include some obvious deficiencies or excesses (ie vitamin deficiency and excess of saturated fats), obesity, and eating disorders, as well as chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. There are also a number of other disorders, like allergies, that aren’t necessarily caused by food, but do respond to dietary treatments.

According to a survey of more than 1,000 adults, almost 50% of people who expressed interest in going plant-based, were doing so for health-related reasons. Weight management was high on the list, as well as the need for more energy, reducing mucus, and improved sleep, all of which can benefit from a healthier diet.

Vegans and vegetarians also typically consume less calories than people on a standard Western diet, meaning they have a lower body mass index and are less likely to become overweight or obese. In the United States, roughly 72% of adults 18 and older are overweight, and 41% are obese. Additionally, almost 20% of children ages 2-17 are overweight or obese. Obesity doubles a person’s mortality risk, and a significant contributor to numerous chronic health conditions.

A large scale study completed in 2019 found that consuming less animal products and bumping up your vegetable intake was directly linked to a reduced risk of heart disease and death. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), saturated fats raise cholesterol which greatly increases a person’s risk of heart attack, stroke, and other heart-related diseases. Meat, cheese, and butter are leading sources of saturated fat in our diets. Plant-based foods are also a leading source of dietary fiber, another factor that contributes to better heart health.

Eating plant-based has also been credited for lowering a person’s risk of cancer by around 15 percent. There are a couple reasons for this. First, a lot of the meat we consume is carcinogenic itself, like deli meat and a large portion of red meat. Second, plants are high in fiber, vitamins, and other beneficial phytochemicals that are known to protect against cancers. The International Agency for Research on Cancer claims that meat-heavy diets have primarily been linked to colorectal, prostate, and pancreatic cancers.

And finally, one of the largest studies on vegan diets found that eating plant-based can greatly reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, a chronic disease that effects how the body regulates sugar and which can lead to severe complications if left untreated. Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 is preventable and treatable, despite the fact that nearly 32 million Americans suffer from this disease.

Veganism and Cannabis

Although research in this area is sorely lacking, the bit of data we do have shows that more cannabis users are following a plant-based diet than the general population. A study conducted by industry research firm, Brightfield group, in California, the world’s largest cannabis market, found that both vegans and vegetarians are more likely to be frequent cannabis users.

Roughly 3 percent of American adults identify as vegan, whereas 6 percent of cannabis users are vegan and 8 percent are vegetarian. This implies that cannabis users are growing increasingly aware of, and concerned about, what they consume and how it impacts their health and the environment.

This applies to food, hygiene products, and medicine – which includes cannabis quality. Market data found that 40 percent U.S. cannabis users (both medical and recreational) would pay more for organic flower strains and other products. Companies that grow organically, provide certificates of analysis and/or safety testing, and provide gluten-free, non-GMO, all-natural options are dominating the industry.

Vegan Cannabis Butter, Cooking Oil, and Cannamilk

Before we get to the actual recipes, we need to start with the basics. All of the recipes I am providing you here contain either cannabutter, cannabis cooking oil, or cannamilk. Of course, for this article, we will be doing vegan versions of our favorite cannabis infusions.



  • 7-10 grams of cannabis flowers
  • 2 cups of plant-based milk (soy, almond, coconut, cashew, or whatever your preference is)


  • Baking sheet
  • Parchment paper
  • Weed grinder
  • Large saucepan
  • Whisk
  • Fine mesh strainer
  • Jug with lid
  • Cooking thermometer


  1. Preheat the oven to 220°F.
  2. Grind up the cannabis buds using a weed grinder or scissors. You want the pieces to be small and equal sized for proper decarboxylation.
  3. Line a baking sheet or pan with parchment paper scatter your ground cannabis in a single layer.
  4. Bake for 20-25 minutes to decarb (to learn more about the importance of decarboxylation, click here).
  5. Toss the cooked cannabis flower in a large saucepan, add the vegan milk and whisk everything together. Cook until temperature reaches 220°F.
  6. Adjust your heat source accordingly to maintain temperature (this is VERY important), continue stirring occasionally for 45 minutes.
  7. After 45 minutes, remove the saucepan from the burner and allow the infusion to cool.
  8. Once cooled, put your fine mesh strainer over the jug, and use it to strain the cannamilk. Most of the plant matter should get filtered out during this process. You can run it through the mesh a second or even third time if needed.
  9. Put the lid on the jug and make sure it’s properly sealed, and store your cannamilk in the fridge for up to 2 weeks.

Cannabis cooking oil


  • 7 grams cannabis decarbed
  • 1 lb. cooking oil such as coconut, olive, avocado, canola


  • Fine mesh strainer
  • Cheesecloth
  • Large saucepan
  • Large bowl


  1. To decarb flower, read above
  2. In a medium saucepan, heat the oil over low heat until thoroughly warmed.
  3. Add the decarbed cannabis to the oil. Stir to mix.
  4. Continue to cook over low heat for 3 hours. Stir occasionally. Do not allow the oil to get too hot, it should not boil or simmer.
  5. Line a fine mesh strainer with cheesecloth and place it over a large, heat-safe boil. Carefully pour the oil through the cheesecloth, allowing any excess oil to strain through.
  6. Allow the oil to cool completely before transferring to an airtight container for storage.



  • 3 1/2 grams decarboxylated cannabis flower
  • 2 cups vegan butter


  • 2 Mason jars
  • Large pot
  • Cheesecloth


  1. To decarb flower, see above
  2. Place the cannabis in a mason jar and add vegan butter, leave at least 1-inch of room at the top. Tightly close the lid and place the jar in a large pot. Fill with water, ensuring the water level does not exceed the top of the jar and lid (the water level only needs to be above the butter level). Heat on high until simmering, then drop thes heat to a low simmer for 3-4 hours.
  3. Carefully remove the jar from the water and let cool enough to handle. Strain the mixture through cheesecloth into the second mason jar. Let cool completely and store in the refrigerator.

Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner, and Dessert

Now then, it’s time to share with you a few of my all-time favorite vegan recipes that I’ve collected over the years. Whether cannabis infused or not, these vegan recipes are incredible, and you have options for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and even dessert. All of these recipes are 100% plant based and use only natural, healthy ingredients.

Vegan cannabis chia seed pudding


  • 1 cup of vegan cannamilk
  • 1 cup of unsweetened plant-based milke (almond, soy, coconut milk, or similar)
  • ½ cup of chia seeds
  • 1-2 tablespoons of maple syrup (to taste)
  • 2 tablespoons of vanilla extract
  • Fruits and other toppings (optional)


  1. In a large bowl, mix together your cannamilk, unsweetened non-dairy milk, chia seeds, maple syrup, and vanilla extract.
  2. Place the mix into mason jars or other airtight containers.
  3. Shake the container well or stir before placing it in the fridge covered. If it is convenient, stir the mix every 1-2 hours, at least for the first one or two times. It will take around 6 hours for the mix to be ready, and it can store for 5-6 days in your fridge.
  4. Serve your chia seed pudding either by itself or with some additional fruits or other toppings. Some ideas include berries, bananas, or whatever your favorite fruit is, granola, honey, nuts, granola, coconut flakes, etc.

Infused butternut squash quinoa salad


  • 1/2 small red onion, diced
  • 1 small 2-pound butternut squash peeled and cut into ¾ inch cubes
  • 2 teaspoons cannabis-infused oil
  • 1/2 tablespoon maple syrup
  • 1 teaspoon kosher salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon black pepper
  • 1 1/2 cups vegetable broth
  • 3/4 cup uncooked quinoa
  • 1/2 cup reduced-sugar dried cranberries
  • 1/2 cup toasted pumpkin seeds (or pecans, walnuts, or similar)
  • 3 tablespoons chopped fresh thyme or parsley
  • Arugula, spinach, or other mixed greens


  • 3 tablespoons cannabis-infused oil
  • 1 1/2 tablespoons apple cider vinegar or white wine vinegar
  • 2 teaspoons Dijon mustard
  • 1 teaspoon maple syrup
  • 1/2 teaspoon kosher salt
  • 1/4 teaspoon black pepper


  1. Place a rack in the center of your oven and preheat the oven to 400 degrees F. Place the red onion in a small bowl and cover with water. Set aside. (This preserves the onion’s flavor but with less intensity)
  2. Place the butternut squash in the center of a large rimmed baking sheet. Drizzle with olive oil and maple syrup, then sprinkle with salt and pepper. Toss to evenly coat, then spread the squash into a single layer.
  3. Bake for 15 to 20 minutes, turning once, until tender. Remove from the oven and set aside.
  4. While the squash is baking, bring the broth (or water) and quinoa to a boil in a medium pan. If you are using water, add ¼ teaspoon kosher salt. Once boiling, reduce the heat to a simmer, cover, and let cook 15 minutes, until the water is absorbed. Remove from the heat and let stand with the lid on for 5 minutes. Fluff with a fork, then transfer to a large serving bowl.
  5. In a small bowl or large measuring cup (or a mason jar with a tight-fitting lid), combine the dressing ingredients: olive oil, vinegar, mustard, maple syrup, ½ teaspoon salt, and ¼ teaspoon pepper. Drizzle enough of the dressing over the warm quinoa to moisten it, then stir to combine.
  6. Scrape the roasted butternut squash and any pan juices into the bowl with the quinoa. Add the cranberries, seeds/nuts, and thyme/parsley. Drain the red onion then add it to the bowl. Toss to combine, adding dressing as desired.
  7. Serve at room temperature over mixed greens

Vegan cannabis alfredo


  • 12 ounces fettuccine or pasta of choice, for serving
  • 2 cups raw cashews
  • 3 tablespoons cannabis-infused cooking oil
  • 1 small yellow onion, chopped
  • 4 cloves garlic, minced
  • 2 cups unsweetened almond milk, cashew/soy/coconut also fine
  • 3 tablespoons nutritional yeast
  • 1 tablespoon lemon juice
  • Salt, pepper, Italian seasoning (to taste)


  1. Bring a large pot of water to a boil, then add the pasta and cook according to package instructions. Drain, then add it back to the pot and cover until the sauce is done.
  2. Bring 4 cups of water to a boil. Pour the hot water over the cashews and let soak for 5 minutes.
  3. Meanwhile, heat the olive oil (or water) in a small pan over medium heat. Once hot, add the chopped onion and garlic and saute for 5 minutes, until fragrant and the onion is translucent.
  4. Drain the cashews and discard the soaking water. Add them to a blender along with onions/garlic, unsweetened almond milk, nutritional yeast, lemon juice and salt. Blend until very smooth.
  5. Pour the sauce over the pasta and stir. If the noodles are still hot, you may not need to cook it any more. If you want, heat the pasta with the alfredo sauce on low heat until warm. Serve immediately.

Vegan Canna-Banana Pudding


  • 2 ripe bananas, mashed
  • 1 1/4 cup cannamilk
  • Sweetener of choice, such as 1 tbsp pure maple syrup, honey, agave, or sugar.
  • 1 1/2 tbsp cornstarch
  • 1/4 tsp pure vanilla extract
  • optional 1/8 tsp turmeric for color
  • optional 1 tbsp vegan butter or coconut butter, for richer taste (and you can even do cannabutter for a double dose)


  1. In a small pot over medium heat, combine banana, sweetener, optional ingredients, and 1 cup of the milk of choice.
  2. Whisk the remaining 1/4 cup milk with the cornstarch.
  3. Once banana mixture is warm, whisk in the cornstarch mixture.
  4. Cook on low heat, whisking occasionally, until thick.
  5. Turn off heat and stir in vanilla. Serve hot or cold with vegan wafers.

Final Thoughts

Veganism, and even vegetarianism, is not for everyone. However, if you happen to be suffering from any number of chronic illness, many of which are diet-related, then you might be able to benefit from reducing your intake of animal products. Use the above recipes to get an idea of how delicious vegan food can be, most people I serve these dishes to can’t even tell that they are vegan – and to top it off, they’re all loaded with potent cannabinoids and tasty cannabis terpenes. Game over… it doesn’t get much better than that.

Thank you for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your hub for all things cannabis-related. We hope you enjoyed this article on vegan trends in the cannabis industry. Remember to subscribe to The CBD Flowers Weekly Newsletter for more articles like this one and exclusive deals on flowers, edibles, and other products.

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Recipe: Rosin Butter & Reese Peanut Butter Cereal Bars

Cannabutter has cemented itself as a staple amongst cannabis cooks. But just because the most popular way to make it is with whole flower origins, doesn’t mean there are not other ways to make cannabutter, too. In fact, you can make cannabutter with any material containing cannabinoids: shake, kief, and most importantly, rosin. Cooking with […]

The post Recipe: Rosin Butter & Reese Peanut Butter Cereal Bars appeared first on Latest Cannabis News Today – Headlines, Videos & Stocks.

Cooking With Cannabis 101 – Peanut Butter Chocolate Chip Cookies

In this week’s episode of Cooking With Cannabis 101, we’ll go over how to make cannabis-infused peanut butter chocolate chip cookies. For the infusion, we’ll be using cannabis-infused butter. Click here for our guide on cooking with cannabis concentrates, including how to make cannabis-infused butter. Follow the instructions above, here’s your list of ingredients to […]

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Decarboxylation: How Cannabis Becomes Psychoactive

Decarboxylation, which is an essential action in enjoying cannabis flowers and edibles, is a process in which carbon dioxide (CO2) leaves a stable molecule and floats off as a gas. Atoms in a molecule can be thought of like billiard balls, with each one having a size, weight, and exact position. As these atoms float away, the substance left behind will become lighter, like a dry towel being lighter than that same towel soaking wet. The idea is that as the CO2 leaves, the weight left behind is reduced.

Decarboxylation typically occurs by heating, but can also be caused by exposure to certain frequencies of light, and certain substances like molecular oxygen in the air.

If the weight of the molecule before and after its decarboxylation is known, then a percent of mass lost in decarboxylation can be calculated. If the CO2 contributes 10 percent of the weight of a molecule, than 90 percent of the mass remains after decarboxylation. This would mean that continuously heating 100 grams of this substance would eventually yield 90 grams of the decarboxylated substance, as the remaining 10 grams represent the weight of CO2 which gassed off.

How Does Decarboxylation Affect Cannabinoids?

Decarboxylation of cannabinoids and cannabis products is very crucial to understanding the power of cannabis as medicine. The cannabis plant only has the ability to produce cannabinoid acids, like THCA, and THC is only created by decarboxylation outside the plant. This decarboxylation is usually done by fire when smoking, or by baking in edibles. Most cannabinoids lose approximately 87.7 percent of their mass upon decarboxylation. This means that if you had 100 grams of crystalline isolate of a cannabinoid acid, such as THCA, after decarboxylation you would have 87.7 grams left of THC.

This is important for people decarboxylating their cannabinoids themselves, such as producers of cannabis-infused edible products and hash oil producer that wish to sell decarboxylated oil. This is also important for advertisers of raw cannabis products such as cured cannabis flower, who must either report the value of the cannabinoid acid directly observed by the testing lab, use the theoretical conversion, or display both.

This labeling issue with raw flower is not as easy as it seems at first glance. Let’s consider a typical example of THC-dominant cannabis. The lab will test the flower and find 26 percent THCA and 3 percent THC. This is because some of the cannabinoid acids produced by the plant are decarboxylated by air and sun before harvesting and curing. The smaller the amount of THC observed directly by the lab typically indicates that the cultivator has submitted fresh cannabis that has been protected from light and exposure. A very high THC content indicates that the cannabis flower is not as fresh and been more exposed.

Now the dispensary has to either advertise two numbers, 26 percent and 3 percent, or advertise one theoretically calculated number, 25.8 percent, or both. Both allow the patient to access the greatest amount of information and be the best informed, while also reducing liability on the cannabis business involved in label making.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a well-known cannabinoid for being the primary intoxicant and euphoriant of cannabis. THC is also one of the most practical and safe treatments for neuropathic, chronic, and other types of pain. THC is effective in addressing both the immunological and symptom component of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Despite the fact that THCA is not an intoxicant, it is a powerful medicine. THCA is one of the strongest anti-inflammatory agents in cannabis. Smokers receive very little to none of this cannabinoid, due to its decomposition in the smoking process. THCA is an anti-inflammatory agent, and according to one study, a more powerful neuroprotective agent than THC. THCA is a powerful COX-1 and COX-2 antagonist, similar to aspirin and ibuprofen, but with far less toxicity to the liver.

The effects of THCA and THC reflect the diversity of action on the human body a cannabinoid and its precursor acid can have. The other cannabinoids, CBD, CBG, CBC, and THCV all have acid forms which have distinct effects on human health.

Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to be an effective medicine for people suffering from anxiety. What CBD has also been shown to be effective at fighting is breast cancer cells. Many of these studies find that CBD promotes apoptosis, or cell suicide, in breast cancer cells while leaving the healthy cells unaffected.

Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is CBD’s acid precursor from raw cannabis flower. CBDA has also been shown to fight human breast cancer, but in a different way. Whereas CBD causes apoptosis in breast cancer cells, CBDA has been shown to slow or stop metastasis of breast cancer cells by arresting their motility, or ability to move throughout the body. This evidence would indicate that a breast cancer patient may want to talk to their doctor about dual CBD/CBDA therapy, taking both decarboxylated CBD and raw CBDA together.

Cannabigerol (CBG) has been shown to have some potent anti-inflammatory properties that are particularly applicable in inflammatory bowel disease (IBS). Additionally, CBG has been shown to have some properties not known among many other cannabinoids, such as an ability to interact with human adrenal receptors and serotonin receptors. Currently, more studies need to be done on cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) in isolation from CBG to get an understanding what, if any, difference there are between the cannabinoid and its precursor acid on human health.

It is important to note that the mass loss is not a conversion rate. Mass loss assumes that all of a substance will decarboxylate and calculates how the mass will change. An accurate answer must account for how much of the cannabinoid will decarboxylate. Studies indicate that 30-70 percent of cannabinoids undergo decarboxylation under standard smoking conditions. This is why our calculations are only a theoretical maximum, and are not a result with the same standing as those directly observed in the plant. This is also why it can be very important to label your theoretical calculations as such, and provide all original values provided by lab results, as a means of reducing liability upon your business.

TELL US, have you ever heard of decarboxylation?

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Weed Wordsearch – Cannabis Edibles

Today’s Weed Wordsearch is all about cannabis edibles! Don’t be fooled, its not as easy as it seems. Fire up a doobie and get ready for a quest! To embark upon it, search for the words listed below the puzzle.  When you find a word: Click on the first and last letter to cross it […]

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