Bloom Where You’re Planted

You could tell me it’s November (it’s actually March), and I’d probably believe you. This is to say that I only just realized that, shit! It’s time to pop seeds once again. I’ve been unsure of doing it, knowing the time commitment that growing requires may not be best combined with the relentless demands of newborn life. 

I’ve been on a years-long cannabis-growing journey, otherwise. After many years of merely consuming cannabis, happy to enjoy the fruits of other dedicated peoples’ labor, I decided a while ago that how involved I was in cannabis in my professional life didn’t quite match up with my dedication on a personal level. Sure, I was smoking a lot, which is obviously a commitment in its own right. But could I truly understand how this plant works and manifests without seeing it bloom from seed to smoke? To truly get connected, I knew I had to start growing myself.

In adulthood, I’ve really developed my love for plants, the outdoors, animals, and anything related to nature. While I thrive being surrounded by plants, keeping them alive has been a bit of a struggle for me. Succulents, monsteras, even garden tomatoes—you name it, I’ve killed it. So I was hesitant to wade into my absolute favorite plant on Earth out of sheer respect. Wasting a seed—especially one with “cool” genetics—seemed kind of sacrilege to me. But you never know if you don’t try, I reasoned, and I figured my mild terror and deep reverence for the cannabis plant would keep me in line.

It did. I’ve become a bit of a plant mommy, in addition to now becoming a human mommy, a process that was fraught with similar anxieties and overthinking. I’ll never claim I’m growing any kind of fire, far from it, but I grow purely outdoors (thanks, Southern California!), and the several harvests I’ve now reaped have been totally smokable. 

As expected, growing cannabis has deepened my relationship with the plant exponentially: I understand its cycles, how each variable—weather, water, nutrients, pest control, to name just a few—contributes to the quality of the final product (or lack thereof), the rainbow spectrum of genetics and how differently they all manifest, and also, frankly, how easily it grows without any intervention at all (hence the nickname “weed”). It’s informed my reporting, my evaluation of products in the marketplace, and it’s been a mental health balm in times when getting my hands dirty was just what my body and soul needed most. It also gave me immense respect for those who do this on any kind of commercial scale for money. The plant will grow just fine on its own, but it won’t shine without the special touch of expert know-how.

I also view growing as an act of political resistance—yes, even in the age of legalization. It’s still federally illegal to grow, even in states that allow homegrow. In April 2022, I was called to be a witness in a federal cannabis case as an expert on the cannabis plant, something I was comfortable doing thanks to my experiences reporting and growing, and I admitted on the stand as part of my proving my bonafides that I had grown cannabis before.

“You’re aware that a lot of the things you just listed as part of your qualifications, growing weed, for example, is illegal?” the prosecutor asked me while I was on the stand.

“Yes,” I replied.

“What quantity did you grow it in?” she asked.

“Under six plants, per California regulations,” I said.

“And do you also know that, regardless of your personal feelings about them, you still have to follow the federal marijuana laws in this country?” she asked.

“Yes,” I replied, while the right side of my face twitched a little bit.

I know enough to know that nobody’s prosecuting federal cannabis cases for homegrowers anymore, so I’d be safe. But I was definitely sweating bullets nonetheless. Federal court will do that to you. Still, it felt like an important moment of defiance. Especially considering many states with adult-use legal cannabis sales and consumption have outlawed homegrow entirely. That’s not just a force of the government, but something lobbied for and enacted specifically by cannabis industry lobbyists and so-called “advocacy” groups, like the New York Medical Cannabis Industry organization and others across the nation, who often represent the interests of monied cannabis corporations.

As for me this year, I’ve decided I’m going to pop some seeds after all and line up a few clones, just in case the aforementioned goes sideways. I’ll do the best I can (my baby is due late May) and allow myself room for distraction while making sure to tag in my husband to help hand water. If my grow fails and I become engulfed by my baby, which is entirely possible, I’ll know it’s just the way things are meant to be for this season and allow myself some grace. 

But mostly, I have visions of myself with a baby strapped to my chest, sitting on the earth and slowly trimming leaves under the San Diego sun. It’s an idyllic vision to look forward to (if potentially unrealistic), and it excites me for what’s to come. I’m hoping that in any free moments I can steal, these growing female plants will remind me of the transformation that took place in my own womb and that they’ll offer me a mental salve in the difficult days of early motherhood. That it’s a female plant, a mother plant, whose bloom is healing and beneficial is not lost on me at all. I feel like I have to start the growing process, at least, seeing as I’m about to pop new life myself.

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NukeHeads, the Most Advanced Seed Bank in the Cannabis Industry

Hi, I’m Cody Oebel, the owner of seed bank the most advanced seed bank in this industry. If you would like to join my Facebook page please click here:

I’m excited to share with you what NukeHeads does that is radicalizing the seed bank industry. So how did I take the age-old seed bank industry and turn it upside down on its head you might be wondering?

I did it with robotics, automation, C/C++ programming and 3D SLS, SLA, and FDM printing technologies combined with building relationships with the world’s best breeders and seed production farms!

Wow, what a mouth full right? So, what is it that NukeHeads does for marijuana growers differently than other seed banks?

Courtesy NukeHeads

When you order from NukeHeads we 3D design a laboratory container with your name designed into it, custom to you, that can protect your seeds from over 300lbs of crush force.

This customized container is just cool factor, right? Well, it’s not just cool. It’s practical to ensure that when we ship your seeds in the mail they get to you safely, but it’s more than that. Imagine when you show your medical patients or customers this customized lab container box with your name on it holding the seeds you’re growing. This tells your customers or patients that you only grow the best, that the genetics you purchase are meticulously cared for and a lot of work goes into the breeding work. The presentation shows you’re a serious grower and you buy from the most legitimate quality seed bank, and you grow genetics that’s seriously going to help medicate people. 

So as you see the job of the lab container is to protect your seeds in shipment, but it’s much more than that. Using 3D design software, we at NukeHeads are able to predict how much weight the design can sustain before your seeds get crushed. We carefully design around practical situations that can very much happen like a mailman stepping on your box or dropping something on your box. We want you to not have a bad day with crushed seeds that we hear occurs with how our competitors send seeds. Most of our competitors ship seeds in poorly structured glass tubes, encased in cardboard boxes that have flashy looking printing which means nothing when it arrives crushed in the mail. Even worse is most seed banks sending seeds in mylar baggies which have a huge percentage of seeds being crushed in the mail; this can really set you back on your grow schedule. With NukeHeads you won’t have this issue!

Our designs have proudly boasted a zero loss in the mail. We have had our containers get crushed badly but no seeds lost. When you need your seeds on time for a grow cycle you can count on NukeHeads.

Not only do we send this strong lab container we designed using generative design processes within computer aided drafting, but our lab containers are designed to take a few hundred pounds of crushing.

Each lab container we send you comes custom with your first and last name on it or your business name (it’s customizable just email to ask how

Courtesy NukeHeads

Customers who order 1,000 seeds or greater—bulk customers—we design you something completely unique. In fact, you can request a design you want. Some customers have requested a custom designed treasure box, or custom designed lock box with a key and lock, or their business logo be designed onto the box, or all the above combined. We can fully accommodate those customizations as we do all designs in house. We use $120,000 3D Printers boasting Hewlett Packard’s latest technology in their Model 580 Multi Jet Fusion 3D printer, as well as older technologies we incorporate into our production processes. We also use $500,000 Omax water jet cutting machines to make our grow light designs in house; we build them here in the United States of America. Most of our products are USA designed while we do have some of our products manufactured offshore in China, we mostly keep what we do here in the USA!

When you want top phytocertified lab grade genetics, NukeHeads seed bank is the leader in this regard. We are not only open to working with other seed banks who cannot match us in our technologies but produce amazing genetics, but we also work with huge farms producing feminized seeds at wholesale prices. NukeHeads has some of the lowest priced seeds in this industry, but lowest price doesn’t mean lower quality. No, what we have done in the four million dollars spent over three years is negotiate relationships to make NukeHeads seed bank the giant in the industry. We bulk order in advance from our fem seed breeders and farms and we bulk supply numerous businesses, and home growers. What our customers like most about our seeds is how fresh they are, and the high germination rates, and super low hermaphrodite reports. Sadly, the only complaints we see seem to be from dirty tactics of competitors having their people write false reports or making fake YouTube videos with false complaints about us. To combat this, we created, and invite everyone to join, our Facebook group with thousands of growers who grow our genetics who can share their actual buyer experience with you. We did this to remove any concerns new customers may have simply just click here and start talking with real growers on Facebook like yourself and ask them about NukeHeads genetics. Let them show you their plants and you will see for yourself why choosing to order from NukeHeads for all your feminized seeds is the best choice! You can also simply search for the NukeHeads Medical Cannabis Growers group on Facebook and join it that way, too! 

Courtesy NukeHeads

I’d like to thank you for your time today, but one last thing: If you grow magic mushrooms or drink coffee, we sell spores and green coffee beans you can purchase and roast yourself to your own darkness level. Providing you the most epic combination of quality coffees, mushroom spore genetics, and marijuana seeds to enjoy in the morning before you do that hard grow work in the garden!

Much love and STAY NUKED UP!

The post NukeHeads, the Most Advanced Seed Bank in the Cannabis Industry appeared first on High Times.

Royal Queen Seeds Launches F1 Hybrid Seeds

As all good cultivators know, the most crucial part of growing cannabis is twofold: choosing the right genetics and sourcing them from a reputable seed bank or breeder. Royal Queen Seeds, regarded as one of Europe’s leading cannabis seed banks, just launched a new range of F1 hybrid cannabis seeds—the first cannabis company to offer a true F1 hybrid cannabis cultivar.

With over ten years of experience breeding exceptional cultivars and delivering world-class customer service, Royal Queen Seeds (RQS) is a leader in the cannabis genetics space. The Barcelona-based company’s new F1 hybrid seeds are already being touted as revolutionary for today’s cannabis industry, just as feminized seeds were in the ‘90s.

“F1 hybrids are uniform plants with countless benefits for all sectors of the cannabis industry: Medical patients will benefit from consistent, quality cannabinoids; commercial growers will be able to streamline their operations by working with a reliable crop; and even home growers will have access to more potent, higher-yielding plants for their gardens/tents,” says Shai Ramsahai, CEO of Royal Queen Seeds. “The new autoflowering F1 hybrids have a solid structure, are nicely uniform, and have a beautiful inflorescence structure—almost indistinguishable from a photo-dependent cannabis plant.” 

Creating pure inbred lines.

Understanding F1 Hybrid Seeds

F1 hybrid seeds result from cross-pollinating two different parent plants to breed a plant selectively. Genetically speaking, the term is an abbreviation for Filial 1, which means “first children.”

The RQS team started developing the F1 hybrid seeds in 2019 when the bank created its first pure inbred lines (IBLs), a technique the vegetable industry used for decades to create uniform produce. Breeders select two plants (or lines) with desirable qualities—for example, high yields or particular terpene profiles—and then intentionally mate the plants together. Once confident they had created the optimum traits, RQS applied the same technology to cross its IBLs, creating the new genetics.

F1 Hybrid Seeds
Trimmed Titan F1 hybrid buds.

The initial RQS F1 hybrid seed launch includes a CBD strain called Cosmos F1, which offers high CBD levels, high yields and seven THC cultivars with the following favorable characteristics:

  • Hyperion F1: Touted as the tallest plant, this is a vigorous and resistant cultivar.
  • Apollo F1: A compact and robust plant with a lavender aroma.
  • Titan F1: The plant’s highest THC level offering is matched its high trichome density.
  • Milky Way F1: A uniform and convenient plant with a delicious, chocolatey flavor.
  • Orion F1: This sizable and resilient plant delivers large yields.
  • Epsilon F1: With a low odor output, this plant is a great option for discreet growers.
  • Medusa F1: Offers the highest flower density and high levels of the CBG cannabinoid.
Seed packs.

The Benefits of Choosing F1 Hybrid Seeds

With a promise of unbeatable consistency and superior results with exceptional traits in every harvest, the autoflowering F1 attributes include high THC levels, fast flowering, larger yields and greater resistance to stress and uniformity.

Let’s explore three of the ways F1 hybrid seeds will outperform traditional seeds:

1. Greater Yields

Certain inputs will affect a cannabis plant’s end output, including lighting, nutrients and even the size of the pot. However, every cannabis cultivar is genetically predisposed to produce yields within a specific range. With F1 hybrid seeds, every plant is selected to deliver the most significant yield. As they say, the greater the yield, the greater the reward. 

2. Consistency and Stability

Medical patients will benefit from the uniform cannabinoid and terpene profiles offered with F1 hybrid seeds. One of the perks of synthetic cannabinoid medicine like Dronabinol is its consistent cannabinoid delivery, which some patients find therapeutic for their health concerns. This helps give patients peace of mind, as they can rest easy knowing the cannabinoid content in their medicine will always be consistent. 

3. Autoflowering

The new F1 hybrid cannabis seeds are auto-flowering, meaning that after two to four weeks of growth, the plants will start to flower independently. This is a convenient characteristic for growers, as it removes the need to switch the light schedule to initiate and maintain the plant’s flowering phase.

As Ramsahai says, “Royal Queen Seeds’ new F1 hybrids are set to transform the cannabis industry with superior performance, offering growers uniform plants with higher yields, increased THC potency and unbeatable F1 stability.” 

The post Royal Queen Seeds Launches F1 Hybrid Seeds appeared first on Cannabis Now.

Best Herbies Seeds Strains’ Battle: Grandmommy Purple vs. Apple Betty

Grandmommy Purple and Apple Betty are two hit marijuana strains brought to you by Herbies, a leading cannabis seed reseller. In 2021, the company launched its in-house seed bank, Herbies Seeds, after spending almost two decades selling other breeders’ creations and perfecting its own breakthrough genetics.

Herbies Seeds offers many amazing strains with bold terpene profiles and sky-high potency, but Grandmommy Purple and Apple Betty are in a league of their own. Both took the market by storm and were featured in the High Times Magazine, which holds the world’s leading marijuana trade show: The Cannabis Cup. We decided to pit them against one another in a friendly competition without bias —it’s up to you to pick the winner.

Grandmommy Purple and Apple Betty Scorecards.

Introducing the Contestants

Placing these champs next to each other like this shows how remarkably similar they are in many important ways—which is part of what makes the contest so interesting.

Herbie Seeds can vouch for the quality of their genetics and the accuracy of their data, but you probably want to get a second opinion, right? Well, some folks have already put out a few reports on GrowDiaries. Most are still in the making, but some of them are already finished.

Grandmommy Purple and Apple Betty grow stats.

So, What’s in the Scorecards?

As you can see in this table, quite a few growers have put Grandmommy Purple to the test, while Apple Betty is an up-and-coming contender that’s relatively new to the growing community.

When you’re done pouring over the numbers, let’s hear what real-world growers have to say about their experience with both strains.

Grandmommy Purple and Apple Betty growing indoors.

Plant Structure

There’s a remarkable similarity here: Both Grandmommy Purple and Apple Betty plants tend to be bushy, with side branches that are naturally long and compete with the central cola. You can top both strains early on and get a flat canopy with multiple colas of the same size.

The internodes are long, with golf-sized buds that stay well-spaced in Apple Betty but tend to fill the gaps in Grandmommy Purple. In both strains, the lowers are small and fluffy, so you’d be better off lopping them to channel more energy to the tops.

Grandmommy Purple and Apple Betty show similar structures.


Reviewers point out that both Grandmommy Purple and Apple Betty produce powerful highs. Some smokers said that they either couldn’t finish their joints or forgot to do so, which speaks volumes about these strains’ potency.

Customer potency feedback.


As usual, it’s hard to say anything definite about the effects in general because people’s reactions are all very individual. So, here are the quotes:

Customer effects feedback.

Smell and Taste

Growers describe the flavor of both strains as pleasant and often unique but clearly very different from one another.

Customer flavor feedback.

Final Thoughts

If everything you’ve read above hasn’t helped you make a choice, we’d say that it all depends on the old Indica/Sativa distinction.

Grandmommy Purple is more Indica-dominant, with higher yield potential and bigger, denser buds on average. Her effects are on the heavier side and induce more sleepiness, even if taken in moderation. As for the terpene profile, you’ll discover some familiar and beloved Indica notes, such as earth, Kush and berries.

Apple Betty, on the other hand, has more Sativa genes, which results in longer internodal spacing and a more open bush structure. In the two harvests that we’ve seen on GD, this led to smaller yields, but frankly, there’s too little info to reach a final verdict. The high—while strong and quite narcotic in larger doses—can energize and motivate you only when used moderately, and the sweet smell and taste have unique notes reminding you of this weed’s exotic origin.

The potency shouldn’t affect your choice, as both Grandmommy Purple and Apple Betty are equally hard-hitting and thus will be strong enough even for a heavy smoker and last you a while. We hope this made your choice between the two a tad easier.

The post Best Herbies Seeds Strains’ Battle: Grandmommy Purple vs. Apple Betty appeared first on Cannabis Now.

Growing Cannabis? It All Starts with the Seeds – Labor Day Seedbank Deals

Growing cannabis, and DIY projects in general, have spiked in popularity over the last few years. Not to say that this is a new trend, because people have been quietly growing pot in private for ages, but now that regulations are loosening up in the US and rest of the world, it’s much easier, safer, and cheaper to establish a good set up in the comfort of your own home. But where do you start? Aside from organizing a space and gathering the correct equipment, arguably one of the most important steps in the process is choosing the right seeds. This will determine what strains you grow and, to a certain extent, the quality of your flower. And to get proper seeds, you need to choose wisely when it comes to what seedbanks you use.

To celebrate Labor Day, we have a handful of deals on cannabis seeds from a variety of different seedbanks. Scroll down to learn more about growing weed, what seedbanks are, and to access the deals. Happy Labor Day Weekend!  

To stay current on everything important happening in the industry, subscribe to The Cannadelics Weekly Newsletter. Also, it’ll get you premium access to deals on cannabis flowers, vapes, edibles, and much more! We’ve also got standout offers on cannabinoids, like HHC-O, Delta 8Delta 9 THCDelta-10 THCTHCOTHCVTHCP HHC, which won’t kill your bank account. Head over to our “Best-of” lists to get these deals, and remember to enjoy responsibly!

Growing Cannabis  

A survey published in 2020 by Statistica’s research department found that more than half of respondents (54 percent) aged between 18 and 24 years old said they would “definitely or probably” grow cannabis if it was legal in the United States. Conversely, only 21 percent of participants over the age of 65 were interest in cultivation, (which could be related to man different things including a lack of disposable income to buy equipment and products, minimal expertise, and the fact that it can be time consuming and labor intensive). 

A solution to the latter problem, is using an automated growing system, but they do come with a hefty price tag for their convenience. Although data and research is sorely lacking on this subject, it does seem the most common method for growing weed is the traditional way, by planting germinated seeds in nutrient-rich soil either in a grow tent within a small room or closet. Greenhouses are becoming more sought-after as well, but still more of a niche market.  

In total, roughly 6% of cannabis consumers grow their own flower, as per another survey from New Frontier Data. Among those polled, 60% of the homegrowers were men, it was mainly consumers under the age of fifty-five. Nearly 31% were aged 18-34, and another 49% were between the ages of 35-54. More than 67% live in a legal state – either medical or recreational. Just over 56% state they grow indoors and another 31% grow outside. The remaining 13% percent are doing greenhouse grows.  

Almost half of the survey participants claim to have been growing for less than one year. About 25% are growing two plants, and another 35% are growing 3-6 plants (6 being the legal limit in most states, sometimes this is 6 plants per patient, other times it is 6 plants per household, regardless of how many patients/consumers live there). It should come as no surprise, but people who grow their own weed, typically do so because they want to smoke – 72% reported using their own flower exclusively.  

People grow for a variety of reasons, but statistically most of them do it for convenience (52%), or because it’s cheaper (46%). Another 35% do it so they can grow rare strains they can’t find at dispensaries, and an additional 32% reported growing to avoid pesticides and other contaminants that are prevalent in commercial flower. All that said, regardless of the reason, most homegrowers truly enjoy the art of growing weed. Roughly 70% said they enjoy growing weed as a hobby, obvious perks aside.  

What are Seedbanks ? 

A seed bank is an organization that collects, stores, and sells cannabis seeds. Seed banks often purchase seeds from several breeders and sell them to customers. Seed banks play an important role in preserving and distributing cannabis genetics. They collect and store seeds from various cannabis breeders, which helps ensure that these strains are available for future generations. 

Not to be confused with cannabis breeders. A cannabis breeder is an individual or company that creates new cannabis strains and preserves old ones. Cannabis breeders use various methods to develop new strains, including crossbreeding and inbreeding. Cannabis breeders spend a lot of time developing new strains and often have many years of experience. Therefore, they typically have a deep understanding of cannabis genetics and how to manipulate them to create new strains. 

Some seedbanks breed but many do not – and out of those that do, many times it’s just to mass produce and not to cultivate top shelf genetics. A lot of seeds banks simply act as resellers – buying seeds in bulk at a low price then passing on those savings on to the consumers by offering low prices for individual products.

Labor Day Seedbank Deals 

In honor of Labor Day this upcoming Monday, we have some BOGO deals from six different seedbanks so you can stock up on a huge variety of different strains. Between the sites below, you should be able to find whatever flower/s best fits your growing needs.  

Rocket Seeds 

Rocket Seeds is the fastest growing cannabis seed bank in North America with an established online presence alongside stores in 45 states and 2 US Territories. All of our partner brands offer an 80% germination guarantee, 24/7 LIVE customer support Chat and over the phone, and worldwide shipping.

Buy 10 seeds and get your choice of 5 seeds for free – OR – Buy 25 seeds and get your choice of 10 seeds for free. Use the coupon code RKSFREE and follow the link below to claim this deal. 

Click here for Rocket Seeds BOGO

Crop King Seeds 

Crop King Seeds has been in the industry since 2005. In the last 17 years, they have expanded from a single-employee business working out of a small apartment to a leading seed bank with over 700 strains on the market. They have a huge variety including new-age hybrids, CBD, feminized seeds, autoflowering seeds, and regular seeds.

Buy 10 seeds and get your choice of 5 seeds for free – OR – Buy 25 seeds and get your choice of 10 seeds for free. Use the coupon code CKSBOGO and follow the link below to claim this deal. 

Click here for Crop Kings BOGO

Sonoma Seeds 

Vancouver-based Sonoma Seeds offers more than 500 organically-driven, terpene-rich strains. In deference to it’s “Valley of the Moon” heritage, Sonoma Seeds follows lunar grow practices to ensure quality and consistency across its offerings.

Buy 10 seeds and get your choice of 5 seeds for 50% off – OR – Buy 25 seeds and get your choice of 10 seeds for 50% off. Use the coupon code SNM50 and follow the link below to claim this deal. 

Click here for Sonoma Seeds BOGO

Sun West Genetics 

Sun West Genetics has a strong focus on preservation of strains compared to other seedbanks. But they don’t just preserve them, they also aim to improve the strains by continuously breeding to find unique varieties. They are based out of Canada with an office in Michigan and they ship to all 50 states, and globally as well.

Buy any pack and get another one of the same quality for 50% off. Use the coupon code SWGBOGO and follow the link below to claim this deal. 

Click here for Sun West Genetics BOGO 

Beaver Seeds

Beaver Seeds is a Canadian based seed bank that sells premium yet low-priced cannabis seeds. If you are looking for high-quality marijuana seeds at a reasonable price, then you will enjoy shopping with Beaver. They offer a wide selection of strains, discreet shipping, and delivery worldwide.

Buy 10 seeds and get 5 seeds for free. Use the coupon code BVR5PK and follow the link below to claim this deal. 

Click here for Beaver Seeds BOGO

Seed Supreme

Seed Supreme is currently offering what they’re calling the “Judge Jenny’s BOGO” sale, which features three different late season auto strains. Buy 8 seeds, get 8 more seeds on the following stains: Zkittlez Autoflower, Blue Cheese Autoflower, and Critical Autoflower.

Buy 8 seeds and get 8 more for free. No limits and no coupon code needed. Just follow the link below to claim this deal.

Click here for Seed Supreme BOGO

Final Thoughts 

When it comes to growing, it all starts with the seeds. Save big this weekend with deals from the above seedbanks, and have a wonderful Labor Day weekend. Although we only listed a few resources in this article, we always love to learn more about different companies. If you have a favorite seedbank that wasn’t listed here, or if you know of any fun deals, drop us a line in the comment section below!

Hello readers! We appreciate you joining us at, a top choice news platform for independent coverage of the growing cannabis and psychedelics landscapes of today. Come by the site whenever possible for updates on current and world-changing events, and head over to the Cannadelics Weekly Newsletter, so you’re always up on what’s going down.

The post Growing Cannabis? It All Starts with the Seeds – Labor Day Seedbank Deals appeared first on Cannadelics.

A Brief History of Getting High

Nowadays people tend to associate the cannabis plant with Mexico, and for good reason. For decades, narcos smuggled their harvests into the United States and Europe. Along with California, Mexico is known to produce some of the finest cannabis in the world. The states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Chihuahua, Sonora, and Durango—where the largest farms are located—all have climates that are perfect for cultivating cannabis: year-round temperature ranging between 70 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit, with cool, long nights and low humidity.

But long before cannabis was introduced to—and became synonymous with—the New World, it was being cultivated in the lands of Central Asia. Initially, though, the cannabis or hemp plant was grown not for its leaves but for its stems, which could be processed into a strong and durable rope.

Excavations reveal that humans have been using hemp rope since the Neolithic age. The earliest evidence for burning cannabis, meanwhile, dates back to 3,500 BC, and is attributed to the Kurgans of modern-day Romania. This Proto-Indo-European tribe probably burned the plant as part of their rituals and ceremonies, a practice that spread eastward as its practitioners migrated. Why the Kurgans burned cannabis is difficult to say. They may well have discovered the plant’s psychoactive properties by accident, only to find that the smoke heightened their connection with all things spiritual.

The earliest evidence for smoking cannabis comes from the Pamir Mountains in western China. There, in 2500-year-old tombs, researchers discovered THC residue inside the burners of charred pipes that were probably used for funerary rites. (Similar pipes, dated to the 12th century BC, were later found in Ethiopia, left there by a separate culture). These devices, compared to pyres, would have yielded a much stronger high. Given their placement inside a crypt, however, it’s safe to say they were used only ceremonially, not recreationally. 

Some scholars have argued that cannabis was an important ingredient of soma, a ritual drink concocted by the Vedic Indo-Aryans of northern India. Described in the Rigveda, a collection of ancient Sanskrit hymns, soma was made by extracting juice from an unknown plant. When taken in small doses, soma was reported to induce a feeling of euphoria. In higher doses, it caused people to see hallucinations and lose their sense of time. All three of these effects have been ascribed to cannabis, but even if cannabis was not the main ingredient of soma, it may have been combined with psychedelics such as psilocybin, a.k.a. magic mushrooms.

Aside from rope, cannabis was most often processed into medicine. When the Hindus of India came down with a case of “hot breath of the gods,” healers treated the illness with cannabis smoke. The logic behind this treatment was not exactly scientific; cannabis was thought to possess healing powers because it was the favorite food of the supreme godhead Shiva, also called “Lord of Bhang.” In reality, cannabis would have been able to reduce fevers because its active ingredient, THC, works on the hypothalamus to lower body temperature.

The Assyrians used cannabis not in a medical but religious context, burning it in their temples to release an aroma that supposedly appeased their gods. Sources from the region refer to cannabis as qunubu, providing a possible origin for the word we use today. The Assyrian Empire was conceived in the 21st century BC and lasted until the 7th. During this time it engulfed much of modern-day Iraq as well as parts of Iran, Kuwait, Syria and Turkey. Through trade and conquest, Assyrian traditions spread to neighboring societies, including the Dacians, Thracians and Scythians, the latter of which were among the first to consume cannabis in a distinctly recreational manner.

The Scythians were part of a Central Asian nomadic culture that flourished from 900 to around 200 BC. Originating in northern Siberia, Scythian tribes settled as far as the shores of the Black Sea, where they came into contact with the ancient Greeks. When Scythians died, their friends and family burned hemp inside tents to commemorate their passing. While the Kurgans and Assyrians burned their cannabis out in the open or in large indoor spaces, the Scythians were essentially hotboxing themselves at every funeral. At least, that’s the image we receive from the historian Herodotus, who wrote that “the Scythians enjoy [the hemp smoke] so much that they would howl with pleasure.” And so, the primary purpose of this ritual was to send off the dead, it clearly also served to entertain the living.

Herodotus did not live among the Scythians, but his observations seem to have been confirmed by excavations. Archeologists discovered fossilized hemp seeds at a Scythian camp in western Mongolia that were left there between the 5th and 2nd century BC.

Romans, too, consumed cannabis for their own pleasure, but not in the way you might expect. Like many societies of classical antiquity, they harvested the plant for its seeds rather than its leaves, which were discarded as a waste product. When grounded, the seeds were used in medicine. When fried, they were served up as delicacies during lavish dinner parties. Roman chefs mentioned cannabis seeds in the same breath as caviar and cakes. Galen, the famous Roman physician, wrote that they were consumed “to stimulate an appetite for drinking.” Nowadays, it’s the seeds—not the leaves—that are considered useless. However, the Romans believed they, too, had some intoxicating properties; Galen adds that, when consumed in large amounts, the seeds would send people into a “warm and toxic vapor.”

Cannabis was so widely consumed in classical antiquity that people raised the same questions and concerns we are debating today. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides, for instance, wrote that the plant’s spherical seeds, “when eaten in excess, diminish sexual potency.” Modern-day cannabis users are all too aware of the connection, even if they don’t eat seeds. As stated by Healthline, cannabis is “often associated with side effects that may affect sexual health, including erectile dysfunction.” Similar to some psychedelics, the general sense of euphoria generated by cannabis may counteract or override the reception of sexual stimuli.

Let’s skip forward a bit. Recreational smoking became especially popular after the 9th century AD. In the Middle East and Western Asia, the followers of Islam took up the habit for the simple but somewhat amusing reason that their holy scripture, the Quran, forbade the consumption of alcohol and various other intoxicating substances. Fortunately for Muslim stoners, the Quran did not say anything about weed. Of course, they smoked not just any weed, but hashish.

Skipping forward again, this time to the 16th century—the century that cannabis arrived in the New World, and for the sole purpose of making rope no less. Actually, Americans did not start smoking weed until about one-hundred years ago, when Mexican immigrants entered the country to seek refuge from the Mexican Revolution. For decades the U.S. government turned a blind eye on this harmless, multicultural and age-old practice. However, this changed during the Great Depression, when Washington redirected the anger of unemployed workers to their Mexican brethren. After millennia of peaceful consumption, cannabis was suddenly decried as an “evil weed” and, in 1937, the U.S. became the first country in the world to criminalize cannabis on a national level.

The rest, at this point in time, has now become history as well.

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DEA Voices New Cannabis Seeds Decision 

The US Drug Enforcement Administration has issued a legal interpretation that acknowledges that cannabis seeds, tissue culture samples and other genetic material with less than 0.3% THC are legal hemp products not subject to federal prohibitions on marijuana. The DEA cannabis seeds decision was revealed its decision in a letter to Shane Pennington, an attorney focusing on cannabis law and litigation with the legal firm Vicente Sederberg LLP.

The 2018 Farm Bill legalized hemp, which was defined as any part of the cannabis plant, including the seeds, with a delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (the most commonly known form of THC) concentration of not more than 0.3% on a dry weight basis. In November 2021, Pennington sent a letter to the DEA seeking a determination whether cannabis seeds, clones and other genetic material with no more than 0.3% THC are subject to federal control. This April, he received a reply from the agency, which he shared in his Substack column “On Drugs”on April 4.

In a January letter to Pennington, Terrence L. Boos, the chief of the Drug & Chemical Evaluation Section of the DEA, wrote that “marijuana seed that has a delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3%on a dry weight basis meets the definition of ‘hemp’ and thus is not controlled under the CSA. Conversely, marijuana seed having a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of more than 0.3% on a dry weight basis is controlled in schedule I under the CSA as marijuana.”

Source Rule Questioned

The decision calls into question the veracity of the so-called source rule, a legal theory that holds the legality of cannabis material is dependent on the source from which it was derived—federally illegal marijuana or legal hemp. Under the theory, any seeds, clones or other plant material sourced from cannabis with less than 0.3% THC (i.e., hemp) is legal to possess, process and sell.

“In my view, the letter is significant because we continue to see confusion over the source rule—the argument that the legal status of a cannabis product hinges on whether it’s ‘sourced’ from marijuana or hemp—influencing legislative proposals even at the federal level,” Pennington told Marijuana Moment.

In addition to seeds, the letter from the DEA also acknowledges that “other material that’s derived or extracted from the cannabis plant such as tissue culture and any other genetic material that has a delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3% on a dry weight basis meets the definition of “hemp” and thus isn’t controlled under the CSA.” 

Pennington says he is hopeful this will clear up a lot of confusion in this area of the law. 

“Now that we know that the legality of the ultimate ‘source’ of both hemp and marijuana plants (their seeds) hinges on delta-9 THC concentration alone, reliance on the source rule is much harder to defend,” he said. 

DEA Decision Doesn’t Change Law

In an email, Pennington noted that the DEA’s decision doesn’t change the law. Instead, the letter reveals how the DEA is interpreting existing law, namely the Controlled Substances Act. Pennington wrote that the “DEA’s view of the control status of various substances under the federal Controlled Substances Act is authoritative, and many people assumed DEA’s authoritative view was more restrictive.” 

“Now that people know that DEA agrees that seeds, tissue cultures and any other genetic material with not more than .03% delta-9 THC by dry weight isn’t subject to control under the Controlled Substances Act, it feels to them like the law has changed,” he continued in an email to Cannabis Now. “In fact, though, this letter simply revealed what DEA very likely thought all along.”

But the attorney also noted that the decision is limited in scope and doesn’t mean that cannabis companies will be permitted to freely send their genetics across state lines. The DEA only found that cannabis seeds, clones and genetic material with less than 0.3% THC aren’t subject to control under the Controlled Substances Act and “there are many other state and federal laws and regulations that may apply to any proposed interstate shipment of cultivars.”

The DEA cannabis seeds decision is another example of the reach of the legalization of hemp in the 2018 Farm Bill. Last year, the DEA clarified to state regulators that delta-8 THC, an intoxicating cannabinoid that can be processed from hemp, is also not under the control of the Controlled Substances Act.

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Europe’s First Seed Bank with Registration to Open in Copenhagen

Finding high-quality cannabis seeds in Europe is about to get easier. Franchise Global Health announced that its Danish subsidiary, Rangers Pharmaceutical, will be Europe’s first legal and registered seed bank in Copenhagen, Denmark, according to an April 28 press release.

The seed bank is home to one of the largest collections of its kind with 286 strains, including several world-class genetics and winners of 19 High Times Cannabis Cups. The company has a footprint all over the globe, including Germany, Canada, Colombia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Portugal, and Denmark.

While seed banks can be found in places such as the Netherlands and the U.K., this seed bank is licensed to store, sell, and export cannabis seeds globally under legal international trade frameworks, with permits to import and export. Rigorous adherence to good manufacturing practices (GMP) is part of the equation.

“In Europe, we abide by EU-GMP standards, which requires a rigorous approach to production of all medicines,” Franchise Global Health Executive Chairman and CEO Clifford Starke told High Times via email. “Medical cannabis is by definition a medicine and we are committed to adhering to these requirements so that patients can have the confidence that they are ingesting consistently high-quality product.”

New Frontier Data special contributor Oliver Bennett explained in an article why EU-GMP certification is critical in Europe—especially in the world of medical cannabis, in which quality control is of the utmost importance. Adhering to those good manufacturing practices is key to surviving in the regulated market.

Starke continued, “In our conversations with patients in Germany and other European countries, we became acutely aware that they are discerning and demanding, wanting quality control at all points of the journey, thereby making the procurement of high-quality genetics vital to our vertically integrated business model.” 

According to the news release, Franchise Global will set aside its most distinguished strains for its own internal flower production for global markets. In 2021 it received a third-party audited valuation of C$9.5 million.

“Our goal is to become Europe’s most trusted source of high-quality EU-GMP cannabis. This will be achieved in part by establishing our seedbank as a source for high-quality, Cannabis-Cup winning genetics,” Starke said in the announcement. “Essentially this is 30 years worth of IP from landraces all around the world with strong genetic heritage including from Thailand, Colombia, and other highly sought after sources of origin.”

Franchise Global Health gained early mover advantage in Europe after securing licenses in Germany to import and distribute cannabis, with a 90,000 square foot EU-GMP-certified processing facility. In Germany, Franchise Global also operates a 500,000 square foot reserved cultivation capacity at an EU GMP certified facility in Ontario, Canada that has delivered to Germany, as well as a 30,000 square foot EU-GMP facility.

Last May, the Danish government permanently authorized licensed companies to produce and export medical cannabis, independent of an existing pilot program, Hemp Today reported. Many Canadian-based companies have their sights set on working with operations in the country.

Meanwhile, Germany imported a record number of medical cannabis in 2020, according to a study conducted by Prohibition Partners released last year. That trend continued to show a year-on-year rise in imports, according to additional data.

Seed banks typically sell viable seeds with a high rate of germination. Seeds are typically bred to increase the likelihood of female plants, which is needed for growing flower and producing THC.

In general, cannabis seed banks store autoflowering, feminized, and normal seeds. In 2016, former High Times cultivation editor Danny Danko provided a short explanation of the difference between those three types of cannabis seeds.

Check out the Franchise Global Health website to learn about the plan for the seed bank.

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420 Tribute to the late Greg ‘Marijuana Man’ Williams

Today is going to be a great day because guess what… it’s 420! In Vancouver, the 420 festivities have been happening for over two decades. It’s a huge event with a market, music, guest speakers, and of course, lots and lots of weed. Needless to say that because of the public health orders, this did […]

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Weed Sprouts Across New Zealand Parliament Grounds Weeks After Occupation

An unknown protester sowed cannabis seeds throughout the rose gardens of New Zealand’s Parliament in Wellington, most likely as an act of defiance. The guerilla grower may have splintered off a violent anti-vaxxer occupation that took place weeks earlier.

New Zealand Herald reports that half a dozen of the weed plants were promptly destroyed by Parliament grounds staff as they continue to sift through the rubble of the occupation.

According to New Zealand’s 1 News, an unnamed protester returned to Parliament grounds on Thursday claiming the seeds had been sown during the chaos, alongside a range of other plants that are always there, such as coriander, brassica and marigolds.

Many of the cannabis seeds had been scattered throughout Parliament rose gardens, the protester told 1 News in anonymity, and “many more will likely germinate for years to come.” It is not immediately clear if the protester was involved in or liable for any of the violence that took place weeks prior. 

With a few weeks’ head start, nature takes over and it can spread like a weed. A Parliament groundskeeper agreed that more seeds will inevitably sprout. “There were a few cannabis seedlings,” the groundskeeper said. “A lot of seeds had been scattered around, amongst other things left from the protesters.”

Parliament grounds Speaker Trevor Mallard told 1 News, “I’ve asked for the weed to be weeded.”

This comes after a 23-day occupation of New Zealand’s Parliament grounds and surrounding streets by protesters against the country’s vaccine mandate—eerily similar to the insurrection at the United States Capitol building in Washington, D.C. The copycat insurrectionists torched areas, threw flammable objects, and in some cases, tried to ram into law enforcement with cars.

The occupation began as a “convoy” that kicked off in Wellington on February 8, and was very similar to the Canadian convoy that took place in Ottawa in Canada. The convoy first camped in front of the Parliament building before things went South and they began to blockade most streets.

According to John Pratt from Victoria University of Wellington, the police did nothing to prevent the occupation from taking place, nor did they enforce a complaint from nearby Victoria University against the protestors. So by the stretches of imagination, the weed scattered throughout Parliament grounds could have been prevented as well if they had chosen to do so. Protesters attempted to burn the Law School building at the university.

Opposition National Party leader Christopher Luxon repeatedly extends sympathy for the protesters. Amid the vaccine mandate protesters, other issues are also at play.

Is it Connected to Random Roadside Drug Testing?

Random roadside drug testing will kick off in New Zealand in 2023 as part of an effort to deter drug-impaired driving, after the Land Transport (Drug Driving) Amendment legislation on March 29. The Māori Party is the only party to have voted against the bill.

“In July 2020 the Government introduced legislation that would introduce a compulsory random roadside drug testing scheme in New Zealand,” the Ministry of Transport wrote in an announcement. “Under the proposed drug driving regime, oral fluid tests will detect the most prevalent impairing illicit and prescription drugs at the roadside. The proposed change allows police to test drivers for the presence of drugs anywhere, any time, just as they can for alcohol.”

There are blood limits for 25 different street drugs, including THC. The problem with that is the fact that THC lingers in the bloodstream for much longer than most street drugs.

Drivers who test positive for drugs will be fined and stopped from driving for a minimum of 12 hours. On a positive note, drivers will not be criminally charged if they are simply high and not in possession of controlled substances.

A flurry of medical organizations in New Zealand slammed the roadside drug testing plan. The framework for oral fluid and blood tests is “not supported by reliable scientific evidence”, the Royal NZ College of General Practitioners said. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists said “the presence of drugs … does not directly relate to impairment.” The NZ Medical Association also said that the science is “not quite sufficiently adequate.”

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