Which Cannabis Cannabinoids Will Survive Into the Future?

There are a ton of new cannabis products coming out all the time now, some with more relevance and staying power than others. Which will really survive this stage and go into the next? It’s hard to say. Some cannabis discoveries have caught on better than others. Which cannabinoids will survive the current industry, any new decriminalization or legalizations that might occur, and prosper into the future? This still remains to be seen.

Is delta-8 one of the cannabis cannabinoids that will make it into the future? Of all the alternate cannabinoids on the market, delta-8 is the most popular, and most likely to make it big. We’re ahead of the game with tons of delta-8 THC products and deals for you to look into. But delta-8 isn’t alone in the game, other hemp-derived THC products, such as delta-10 THCTHCVTHCO, THC-PHHC are also selling very well and might survive into the future.

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Cannabis cannabinoids

Everyone knows about delta-9 THC. This is the main psychoactive compound of the cannabis plant, and the part that makes a person feel euphoric. THC was first isolated in 1964 by Raphael Mechoulam, but it was first found by Roger Adams in the early 40’s, around the time that CBD was isolated. CBN was the first cannabinoid to be isolated, in an attempt to find the ‘intoxicating factor’ of cannabis, which it didn’t end up being. CBN was discovered by Thomas Easterfield at the end of the 1800’s.

Everyone also knows about CBD at this point, the other major cannabinoid of the cannabis plant, which is the primary cannabinoid of the low-THC hemp plants. Significantly less CBD is found in high-THC marijuana plants, and vice versa. CBD was discovered in 1940 by Roger Adams, although Alexander Todd discovered it at about the same time in the UK, making for dueling research and discoveries for several years.

The whole reason Roger Adams investigated cannabis at all, was at the behest of the US government. The US government, often through the military and CIA, has done all kinds of drug research and testing, from the Edgewood Arsenal Experiments, where THC-O-Acetate was given to military personnel, to MDMA tests during the Cold War era for use as psychological warfare. There are even various unconfirmed reports of unleashing chemicals like LSD in public places. That compounds like THC-O-Acetate and LSD were found on the streets at the time of such testing even indicates that street use might have been started by these organizations in an attempt to study the compounds further.

cannabis plant

This, of course, is supposition on my part, but in the 1940’s, the government did sponsor research into cannabis, with a main factor being the isolation of the intoxicating agent. In so doing this, and in the follow-up research when THC was isolated, several different cannabinoids were found, including other delta THC’s, like delta-8, delta-7, and delta-6, some naturally occurring, and some entirely synthetic. Other compounds were found around this time including CBL, CBC, and HHC.

Most of what has been mentioned are cannabinoids, but what exists in the actual cannabis plant, before decarboxylation, oxidation, or any other chemical process that changes the chemical structure, are phytocannabinoids. THCA and CBDA are the precursor acids to CBD and THC, and a range of other cannabinoids. These cannabinoid acids also have tons of medical benefits, but are different from their cannabinoid counterparts. THCA, for example, is not psychoactive, and does not cause the same response as its decarboxylated version, delta-9 THC.

Research into the cannabis plant has turned up tons of naturally occurring cananbinoids like delta-8 THC, THCV, CBC, CBG, and 11-hydroxy-THC, what delta-9 becomes after being ingested. There are also a range of purely synthetic compounds that can’t be found in nature. These include delta-10 THC, delta-7 THC, THC-O-Acetate, and HU 580.

How popular are these alternate cannabis cannabinoids?

This is an interesting question, and one without a formal answer, as there isn’t much data out on buying patterns for these products. This might be partly because this is an unregulated market, and a relatively new one, where that kind of information has not been collected as of yet. The best indication for establishing interest, come from individual sales statistics, mentions and conversations online, and overall population know-how about these compounds. Different researchers might turn up different opinions, since even these metrics involve personal research methods, and subjective analysis.

If a person is to blindly believe the marketing hype of an industry, delta-8 is about the biggest thing out there. But marketing campaigns are rarely real life, and looking at real metrics, (and over a period of time), is the better way of establishing where something actually fits into the grand scheme. Maybe delta-8 has raised in popularity, but if it has, will this be a passing fancy, to disappear in a year from now? And how big is this popularity to begin with?

It’s always good to remember that while it’s great to take the plant apart and find new ways to access different aspects of it, we never lose the original cannabis plant itself, which has been doing just fine keeping people happy for millennia. Whether these compounds really become stable market representatives or not, will likely do little to effect a worldwide cannabis industry that has propelled itself along, even under worldwide prohibition. This means, regardless of which currently out cannabis cannabinoids make it to the future, we’ll always have our standby.

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Sales statistics – there aren’t any

When it comes to sales, I don’t see any massive breakthrough reports about any of these compounds. Delta-8 THC gets the most press, but mainly only within the world of weed itself, and as a niche part of the cannabis market. For the most part, even delta-8 goes unnoticed in terms of sales statistics. Even in the articles where delta-8 is mentioned as a growing fad, none of them can offer any backup for this. In fact, an article like this one in Fortune Magazine, show this well. The article refers to delta-8 as the “fastest-growing segment of the market for hemp chemicals for roughly the last year.”

This makes it sound pretty big, right? But then it goes on to state that this happened only after “wholesale CBD prices plummeted amid oversupply and other issues.” This merely implies that with CBD leveling off (or possibly losing value), that delta-8 has taken its place as the top hemp chemical product. Even the comparison is weak, and shows a changing fad, from CBD to delta-8, with the inability to keep that trajectory long-term. Considering delta-8 isn’t likely to produce anything substantially new for users, the expectation of it getting to the point where it could threaten the longstanding regular cannabis industry, is sort of short-sighted.

One of the biggest indicators, which the authors of the Fortune article seemed to gloss over, is that if cannabis cannabinoids like delta-8 THC follow in the footsteps of CBD, they’re not going to make it into the future, especially if they don’t hit the same volume before leveling off. That CBD has lost momentum, is an indication that delta-8 is just a passing fancy too. 2021 numbers for CBD sales (when released) might help us understand how cannabis cannabinoids like delta-8 THC might fair in the future, better.

Mentions and conversations

Without sales statistics, one of the other ways to see how big something is, is simply in how much its mentioned and talked about. The internet is a huge place, so finding mentions of a subject is never that hard. But the questions become, how often is it mentioned, where is it mentioned, and what is being said? When it comes to delta-8 THC, the most popular of the alternate cannabis compounds, there are plenty of mentions online. Many of these mentions come from large scale publications that are non-cannabis related. Most mentions are of the fear variety, talking about the possible detriments, or mentioning new regulatory measures to keep it out. As an untaxed item with any amount of popularity, this makes sense. Delta-8 THC is undesirable for governments that can’t tax it.

But the general conversation is limited. Apart from what seem like pre-emptive fear-marketing campaigns, people aren’t talking about it all over the place. There aren’t a huge number of questions being asked, or reviews being given. Even a site like reddit, has some, but not too much. When I changed my search results to just the last month, only one reddit mention came up, and as a news article about issued warnings. A search for ‘Acapulco Gold’ turned up several mentions on Reddit just from the last month. And that says a lot. Since delta-8 proposes an issue to the government as an unregulated and untaxed product, the issues of legality and regulation are among the bigger talking points, when it does show up on-line.

Realistically, if the stuff is sitting on store shelves, at least some people are bound to buy it. Most of what’s written, however, seems like a reaction to the possibility of an out-of-control market, more than the reaction to an actually out-of-control market. This is also backed up by very few arrests being made, or government intervention beyond these articles.

cannabinoids

Do people know about it?

I find this question to be the most interesting one. It’s possible to get the wrong idea by something being seen online. It’s easy to forget how big the internet is, and how much is necessary to show real engagement with an industry or product. Marketers can fill internet pages with content that isn’t backed up by anything, and governments can put out campaigns in an effort to stop something before it starts. Neither has to indicate mass appeal, though they can be a factor in it. So, one of the best ways of assessing whether something has an influence, is to see if its actively influencing people. And this is where I see the biggest issue.

The vast majority of people have no idea what delta-8 THC is. Had I not been a writer in the cannabis industry, I probably wouldn’t know about it either. I know a lot of weed smokers, and somehow, not a single one has heard of this compound. First off, it’s only a US product that hasn’t gained popularity anywhere else, and that means we’re only looking at a US audience. On top of that, cannabis – as stated – is a stable industry, and its been there for a while. Even now it exists as bigger black markets than legal ones, which means, we already have a version we can use. It’s not like delta-8 is the answer to not being able to get any weed at all. We can all get it, and this will always be a roadblock to delta-8 sales.

Having said all this, I will point out one countering factor. Governments are making specific legislation to rule out delta-8 THC, even with other legalizations. This could indicate that sales are high enough to cause worry and necessitate these laws. But, it could also be a reactionary measure meant to stifle a possible industry, whether it would actually meet the potential indicated, or not. That it would be singled out by governments does say something for its existence, and ability for at least some popularity. However, even this doesn’t indicate that it’ll stick around.

Cannabinoids Future – Conclusion

None of this article really answers the question of what can be expected for all cannabis cannabinoids in the future. However, the most useful point comes from the fact that delta-8 seems to be following in the footsteps of CBD, which itself has been leveling off after a few years of being the golden product. If this is any indication, none of these products will last it out, not even delta-8 THC. In the end, there realistically isn’t a great reason for it. Does this mean it doesn’t have good or alternate benefits? No, it doesn’t mean that. But it’s also quite possible that the slightly lesser high and clearer head are more important  for medical patients, and might not be as desirable by those looking for a full effect. On top of that, reports of causing less anxiety have never been totally confirmed meaning it might not provide these effects the way we read about them.

Though this doesn’t mean something can’t catch on further, my best bet is that none of the newly released, bottom-feeding (let’s be honest) attempts to capture a greater part of the industry, will work. Alternate cannabis cannabinoids might be fun to try, but if they don’t provide a better answer, and if they come at a higher price, they’re likely to be dropped fast and never see the future. Luckily for us though, we’ll always have our regular weed. And if the last few years is any indication, our black markets for that aren’t going anywhere.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Which Cannabis Cannabinoids Will Survive Into the Future? appeared first on CBD Testers.

My Personal Experience with Cannabis Synthetics

There’s a lot that’s said about cannabis synthetics by different governments, and there’s accumulated information from many years of use by individuals. Sometimes, these two things don’t actually go together. Whereas tons of government smear campaigns are designed to cause fear in users over synthetics, I do not necessarily agree with any of this. As someone with a decent amount of experience with them, I’m more than happy to explain. Here is my own personal experience using cannabis synthetics.

While I have my own personal experience, the debate still rages on about cannabis synthetics. And we haven’t actually answered the question yet of whether delta-8 THC fits in this category. As a naturally occurring alternative to delta-9, delta-8 provides users with slightly less psychoactive effect, while also producing less anxiety and without sapping all a user’s energy. Synthetic or not, delta-8 provides a highly valuable experience which is great for both medical and recreational users. Test it out for yourself! We’ve got an array of delta-8 THC, delta 10, thcp, thco, thcv and even hhc deals, along with plenty of other compounds, for you to go ahead and get started.

What are cannabis synthetics?

This is an interesting question, but the answer is twofold, confusing (possibly deliberately), and devoid of much sense. However, having said that, my own experience is twofold, and most certainly describes why caution should be taken with cannabis synthetics. A synthetic cannabinoid, is a cannabinoid that either doesn’t exist in nature, and therefore must be created in a lab; or which does exist in nature, but in such small amounts that in order for human use, it must be synthesized in a lab to create enough for production. This latter point is indeed up for debate. Whether a synthesized version of something that does exist in nature, should be considered a synthetic, has not been 100% established, partially leading to the discrepancy in legalities when it comes to compounds like delta-8 THC.

So, to dive in, there are two kinds of synthetics, legal ones, and illegal ones. Legal synthetics are a part of the government authorized pharmaceutical industry that has sprouted up in response to cannabis legalizations. In America, the trend with legal synthetics started well before any medical or recreational legalizations, and began with the approval of Marinol (dronabinol) in 1985. The array of pharmaceutical – and therefore legal – synthetics, include Marinol, a synthetic of THC, Epidiolex, a cannabis -derived medicine based on CBD (with questions as to how synthetic it is), Sativex (Nabiximols), a synthetic based on THC and CBD, and Nabilone, another synthetic THC.

The one thing the medicines I just listed have in common, is that they are all approved legally for use by several different governments. This has not stopped governments, like France‘s, from trying to block out natural products in favor of the pharmaceutical version, even going as far as causing a whole lawsuit with the EU, just to protect pharmaceutical interest. We can all be glad that France didn’t win. When searching on the internet for ‘cannabis synthetics’, you’ll find something interesting, none of these show up, even though they are all examples of synthetic cannabis medicines. Your search results have been censored to only show illegal drugs when using those words.

create cannabis synthetics

On the other end are the illegal synthetics, which often get names like K2 and Spice. The funny thing though, is that these synthetics are directly based off of synthetics made by official cannabis researchers in the mid-1900’s when cannabis compounds were first being studied and mapped out. In fact, the main synthetics are actually based off of HHC, a compound that can be found on dispensary shelves itself, though its own legality is in question. It was, of course, studied by the government at one time, and tested for safety – which it showed to be. That it wasn’t used by the government has little to do with the fact that years after testing HHC, similar compounds were found on the black market.

According to the government, these untaxable black-market versions are considered dangerous, even though they are essentially the same as compounds discovered by the government and deemed safe. And according to the government, the only way for a synthetic to be safe, is for it to come from a taxable pharmaceutical company. Meaning while the government continues to demonize other government-made synthetics that simply are under no law for use at the moment, out of the other side of its mouth, its telling you that synthetics are not only just fine, but even preferable to the natural plant.

My experience with cannabis synthetics – flowers

My two modes of experience with synthetics come from smoking fake flowers, and from vaping synthetic vapes. As synthetic products are made to resemble the real ones, and don’t come with any accurate product labelling, I would never be able to say exactly which synthetics I’ve used. I can, however, say that my experiences are relatively consistent (on certain fronts), and my assumption when writing this, is that I likely used the popular forms of illegal synthetics that are around, namely K2 and Spice, which themselves denote ‘illegal synthetic’ more than anything with further specificity.

Now, to call the synthetic flowers I smoked, ‘flowers’, is disgraceful to actual cannabis flowers. The main brand of synthetic I smoked was called Mr. Niceguy, and this occurred in Israel from about 2010 to 2012, or so. At the time, it was actually very difficult to find weed in Tel Aviv, and Mr. Niceguy filled the gap. It appeared as crushed up leaves for the most part, nothing particularly cannabis-like about it. This makes sense as the synthetic is generally sprayed on. I found the effects of the synthetic to be consistent. I would get high, but it never felt exactly the same, or had the same intensity. It never made my head as cloudy as standard weed, but it definitely did get me high.

I will never say I consider this practice to be safe. By the end of my experience with it, I had tried another brand called Smart Joker, and this is where my bad experience came in. The problem with spraying a synthetic on leaves, is that where those leaves come from, and what else might be on them (fertilizer, pesticides, rat poison…) are not accounted for. So while the synthetic cannabis might not have been an issue (I honestly can’t say what the issue was for sure), the idea of random and unregulated chemical additives likely did become an issue.

I thought I was going to have a heart attack, and not in the standard THC overdose way. My heart began increasing in speed, and I began to lose the ability for motor control, to the point it became hard to control my body. It felt very much like being on a roller coaster that went out of control. Something was effecting me, and causing a massive speed-like response to my system. I happened to have a prescription for a light benzodiazepine, and in my somewhat-limited-understanding of the time, I did know that a benzo can often relieve other bad symptoms, especially those of an upper out of control.

cannabis synthetics

I was able to get enough inside me to stop the reaction, and bring myself back down. I do not know what would have happened if I had not been able to get to that medication in time, and I still find the whole experience to be one of the most frightening I’ve had. When there is talk of synthetics being dangerous, this is always the memory that comes to mind. And though I don’t automatically blame the actual synthetic, I am more than aware that I likely inhaled a very bad chemical that was also on the material. Having said all this though, about 99% of my experiences were not negative, and while everyone I know was smoking the stuff, I only heard of one other issue like mine. Meaning numbers-wise, the level of injury was incredibly low, and most likely not related to the synthetic itself.

My experience with cannabis synthetics – vapes

These days, the more relevant experience has to do with the synthetics used in cannabis vapes, as they are the popular product at the moment where synthetics can often be found. They also propose a different set of issues. Things like pesticides, rat poison, and fertilizers might not be an issue, but with vapes, we need to worry about chemicals used to thicken, or stabilize, or flavor, or preserve the oil, which much like with the additives on fake flowers, come with their own risks.

I have bought plenty of real vapes, but I’ve also bought vapes off the street and from illegal dispensaries. The one I have right now claims to be California Gold brand, Cherry Zkittles distillate, with 90% THC. I can smoke it all day and still get my work done and workout, two things that would never be possible for me if this cartridge was what it says it is. What it feels like, is exactly what I used to buy off the streets. It gives the same subtle high, but without messing with my head too much, and it’s rather short-lived. Basically, it feels like a less intense form of THC, and without other peripheral effects, much like what HHC was established for. It’s not bad, per say, but it certainly lacks the intensity I was hoping for. I don’t even know if I’d call it a sativa or an indica, because it doesn’t feel like either, and no synthetic I’ve had, ever did.

Now, in terms of safety, I can only tell you what I experienced. I can’t say if something I breathed in might cause cancer later, or if it damaged my throat or lungs more than a vape should have. But I can tell you how it feels. I find a lot of vapes can be harsh on the throat, which I do expect has to do with the heat and chemicals. Some vapes are smoother, which would indicate the chemicals used within do make a difference. For example, a real full flower cannabis oil cart won’t need flavoring, which means that’s one set of chemicals less.

I don’t know what hurt people in the past. No one really does, to be fair. There were so few actual injuries (despite government claims to inflate the problem), that its hard to know why. If vitamin-e-acetate was really the problem, and if it was widely used (maybe still is), then the death count would be much higher. That as few deaths as 68 have been confirmed in the US, from the advent of vaping to early 2020, due to vapes, says something about the actual level of danger. If vitamin-e-acetate is the biggest issue, then there doesn’t seem to be an issue.

In fact, with such few actual cases of injury and death, it presents as isolated incidences where a batch used an alternate chemical from the norm, thus causing these experiences. This mirrors my experience from above, as well as the nature of the history involving injury with cannabis synthetics. The one thing I can equivocally say for sure, is that I have harmed my body far less, (by ridiculously massive margins), by vaping over smoking. And as an asthmatic, I can also say this with complete medical certainty, as I have dealt for years with the damage due to smoking. And this means everything to me and my health.

smoking vs vaping

How to tell a synthetic cart from a real one

If you’re wondering how to tell the difference between a fake vape and a legit one, there are a few ways. For one, fake products usually have minor flaws or inconsistencies in packaging. If you are unsure if you have a real product, look up the specifics for that product and all the details in packaging. See if you can find subtle differences, but be careful, fakes operations are getting incredibly good at recreating accurate packaging, even down to test result claims, and the inclusion of QR codes. Next, synthetics will generally only be of distillates, not of full flower oils. The reason for this is that in real cannabis oils, the weed can be tasted, and that can’t be faked.

Since distillates have everything removed other than a specific cannabinoid like THC, there is no flavor to them. This means both distillates and synthetics (which have no flavor), require the same kind of flavoring chemicals, and will therefore taste the same, and never like real weed. If you ever by a full-flower vape oil that tastes like fake flavoring, it’s likely fake. The last thing to consider, is how it makes you feel. If you buy a distillate of a heavy indica, which claims 90% THC, that stuff should seriously weigh you down. Your mind should be cloudy, your body stuck to whatever it’s sitting on, and your mental processes slowed. If you get a semi-high without that intensity, its not real. In fact, if you can vape on that, and on one sold as a sativa, and get the same experience, it’s likely synthetic.

Synthetics don’t come with ranges, and you can’t pick what you’re getting. In my experience they feel about the same, and the high is – much like HHC was produced for, sort of minimalized. HHC was developed to be a paired down version of THC without any extra bells and whistles. It was meant to activate receptors and nothing else. Which is why the high is less extreme, almost in the periphery, and a lot can be smoked without causing THC sickness. If you find that you’re trying different distillates, and they all feel about the same, they’re probably synthetic.

Conclusion

While I can give my experience with cannabis synthetics, it’s not for me to tell anyone what they should feel comfortable with. As with anything else, I always implore others to do their own research, but to do it with eyes open. If something doesn’t make sense, question it. If something seems wrong, try to figure out why it’s being said. Most of all, use logic in life. If a story simply doesn’t make sense, there’s usually a reason, and that reason is 99.9% of the time monetary. But having said all this, also be aware of real dangers, and the things you can do to minimize your own exposure to bad products. These are huge industries that depend on you thinking a certain way to sell products. So do the best thing for yourself, and be your own informed buyer.

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DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post My Personal Experience with Cannabis Synthetics appeared first on CBD Testers.

CBGA More Effective For Seizures Than CBD, Study of Mice Finds

Researchers in Australia say they’ve discovered the “mother of all cannabinoids,” and it isn’t THC or CBD. For the first time, a study reports that three acidic cannabinoids found in cannabis, notably cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), reduced seizures in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome, an intractable form of child epilepsy.

The three acidic cannabinoids—CBGA, cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA) and cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA)—”may contribute to the effects of cannabis-based products in childhood epilepsy,” and were noted with “anticonvulsant potential.” CBGA, however, demonstrated the most potential for certain anticonvulsant effects.

“From the early nineteenth century cannabis extracts were used in Western medicine to treat seizures but cannabis prohibition got in the way of advancing the science,” said Associate Professor Jonathon Arnold from the Lambert Initiative for Cannabinoid Therapeutics and the Sydney Pharmacy School. “Now we are able to explore how the compounds in this plant can be adapted for modern therapeutic treatments.” The study was recently published in the British Journal of Pharmacology

CBGA is the precursor “granddaddy” molecule of CBDA and THCA, which eventually convert to THC and CBD, among other compounds. CBGA is part of a protective system for cannabis, produced by trichomes that triggers targeted plant cell necrosis—natural self-pruning to allow the plant to focus energy on the flower. 

“We found that CBGA was more potent than CBD in reducing seizures triggered by a febrile event in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome,” Lead author of the study, Dr Lyndsey Anderson, said. “Although higher doses of CBGA also had proconvulsant effects on other seizure types highlighting a limitation of this cannabis constituent. We also found CBGA to affect many epilepsy-relevant drug targets.”

Fight Against Dravet Syndrome with CBGA

The mission for the team at the Lambert Initiative for Cannabinoid Therapeutics is simple: develop a better cannabis-based treatment for Dravet syndrome—an intractable form of child epilepsy.

In 2015, Barry and Joy Lambert made a hefty donation to the University of Sydney to push forward scientific research on medicinal cannabis. Barry and Joy’s granddaughter Katelyn suffers from Dravet syndrome.

“After using hemp oil for treatment, we got our daughter back. Instead of fearing constant seizures we had some hope that our daughter could have a life worth living. It was like the noise cleared from her mind and she was able to wake up. Today Katelyn really enjoys her life,” said Michael Lambert, Katelyn’s father.

In order to learn more, the research needs to be continual. “Our research program is systematically testing whether the various constituents of cannabis reduce seizures in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome,” said Associate Professor Jonathan Arnold. “We started by testing the compounds individually and found several cannabis constituents with anticonvulsant effects. In this latest paper we describe the anticonvulsant effects of three rarer cannabinoids, all of which are cannabinoid acids.”

The Entourage Effect

In the meantime, anecdotal evidence from cannabis consumers abroad suggests that there is more to cannabis’ healing powers than THC and CBD, although the science is limited.

Families like the Lamberts have noticed significant drops in seizures when children facing intractable epilepsy take cannabis extracts, although the source makes huge differences.

Supporting the concept of the Entourage Effect, there are unknown benefits from lesser known cannabinoids. Many people believe that the presence of terpenes and other compounds in cannabis make it more effective.

Harvard Professor, Dr. Lester Grinspoon, said that you need more than THC and CBD if you want cannabis’ full effects. It should be called the Ensemble Effect, not the Entourage Effect, he said. Dr. Grinspoon believed THC should be taken with CBD and other phytochemicals in order to be more effective. Any chemical in isolation does not perform the same way as it is found in nature, he believed.

Dr. Raphael Mechoulam is best known for his extensive work in cannabis acids, as well as Dr. Ethan Russo. In 1996, Japanese researchers found that CBGA is a precursor to CBDA and other compounds.

The post CBGA More Effective For Seizures Than CBD, Study of Mice Finds appeared first on High Times.

Roger Adams and the Unexpected Discovery of CBD

The name Raphael Mechoulam has gained prominence in the last several years, as he is the man who first isolated delta-9 THC. Not as many people are familiar with the scientist Roger Adams, though he was just as important in the early research on cannabis. The story of Roger Adams and the unexpected discovery of CBD marks one of the biggest milestones in today’s cannabis research. Here’s how it happened.

Not everyone knows the name Roger Adams, or that he made the unexpected discovery of CBD. Just like not everyone knows what delta-8 THC is, or how it relates to marijuana. Both are very important. Roger Adams made some of the biggest discoveries related to identifying cannabinoids; and delta-8 THC represents what that research provided – an alternate form of THC which causes less psychoactive high, less anxiety, and less cloudy head. We support cannabis research, and all the great stuff that comes out of it. Check out our deals for delta-9 THCdelta-8 THC, and for a range of other minor cannabinoids like THCVTHCPdelta 10HHCTHC-O and more, to experience the outcome of decades of research!

Who is this Roger Adams?

Born in 1889, Roger Adams was an organic chemist from Boston, Massachusetts. Adams is from the same family as former presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams, and is a direct descendent of John Adam’s grandfather. Adams attended Harvard University starting in 1903, and completed his undergraduate degree in three years. He went on to earn his PhD at Radcliffe College in 1912. He was such an outstanding student that he won the Parker Traveling Scholarship for 1912-1913, and used the money to work in laboratories in and around Berlin for that time period.

In 1913, Adams returned to the US, and began working as a research assistant, teaching organic chemistry at both Harvard and Radcliffe. He left the world of Harvard in 1916, upon accepting an assistant professor position at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He remained at this university for 56 years. Adams spent the majority of this time as the department head for chemistry, taking the role from his predecessor William A. Noyes.

While working in this position, Adams accomplished several things. Together with students he created the Adam’s Catalyst, something used in hydrogenation reactions along with an apparatus for using this catalyst. He also elucidated the composition of complex vegetable oils and plant alkaloids. In the late 1930’s he began research into the cannabis plant and isolated the cannabinoids CBN and CBD, synthesized both, found delta-9 THC, and did a partial synthesis of that as well. He also synthesized analogues of these compounds. In this way, Roger Adams was the first guy to create a synthetic cannabinoid.

discovery of cannabinoids

Thomas Easterfield & Robert S. Cahn, the guys before Roger Adams

Before getting into Roger Adams, and his discovery of CBD, there’re two other guys who need to be mentioned, Thomas Easterfield and Robert S. Cahn. As science builds on itself over time, Easterfield’s and Cahn’s discoveries were what led into some of the bigger milestones in cannabis research. It all started with the desire to find what ended up being THC. In the search for the compound that caused intoxication, cannabis was first distilled into a ‘red oil’, which was the first form of it to be studied in modern times.

This red oil was discovered in the late 1800s by Doctor Thomas Hill Easterfield, a member of the Cambridge Group, who had been lecturing at Cambridge University at that time. In the late 1800s when he wrote about the red oil, he called ‘cannabinol’ a narcotic, which it was later clarified not to be by Cahn. At that time cannabinol was the main focus of the cannabis plant, first thought to be the intoxicating factor, but there was intense confusion around it.

Both the red oil, and the compound within, were given the name cannabinol. Though deeper questions were not answered at that time, cannabinol was the first cannabinoid to be isolated, and this was done by Easterfield.

All research was stopped, and Easterfield moved to New Zealand, following a couple incidents. One that involved the death of two collaborators in a lab accident, and one that involved the voluntary ingestion of a large dose of cannabinol by another collaborator, which led to the guy being out of his mind, and wondering around the lab as it caught fire around him. The fire was put out, and he returned to normal, but the news of these accidents was exaggerated and used in smear campaigns against cannabis, with claims that it was causing death and injury to researchers. This stymied research at the time, and it took about three decades for the next major breakthrough, brought by Robert Cahn.

In the 1930s, Doctor Robert S. Cahn began studying the structure and bioactivity of CBN. Cahn called the red oil ‘crude cannabinol’. He used the name ‘cannabinol’ specifically for the pure compound within the oil which he was able to show did not have intoxicating properties, ending the idea that CBN was the psychoactive constituent of the plant. Cahn was able to map the structure of CBN, using the relative position of specific atoms and groups of atoms within the compound, but there were still several questions that didn’t get ironed out until Roger Adams and Alexander Todd began studying the compounds later that decade.

Roger Adams and the unexpected discovery of CBD

The whole idea with the research previous to Adams, was to locate the intoxicating element of cannabis, which was first thought to be cannabinol. Roger Adams began his research into cannabis after the Marihuana Tax Act was passed in 1937, meaning he couldn’t legally study the plant anymore, and had to receive authorization to do so. Prior to getting into cannabis research, Adams had been studying biphenyls and their atropisomerism. What this means is less important for our purposes, than the understanding that cannabinol is a biphenyl derivative, meaning Adams was already well versed in compounds similar to cannabinol, and this made him a great choice to study it.

Hemp-derived Delta 9 THC

It was actually the Bureau of Narcotics of the US Treasury Department which requested Adams do the research into cannabinol, in an effort to locate and isolate the intoxicating element. Funny enough, it was the general misunderstanding about cannabis at the time, that led to the confused discovery of CBD.

You see, cannabis was not well understood, and instead of providing Adams with high-THC cannabis (marijuana), he was provided with high-CBD cannabis (hemp). Using hemp to study THC is much harder, as there is considerably less of it there. THCA is the precursor to CBN, and it only exists in small amounts in hemp, whereas CBDA is more prevalent, but is the precursor to CBD, not CBN. This made it very difficult for Adams to isolate the already-known-about CBN from the plant.

It was this attempt to isolate CBN from the red oil which led Adams to try different methods of isolation. He could not get a direct crystallization of CBN by acetylation (a specific kind of chemical reaction). He instead tried other reagents, eventually finding himself with a previously unidentified crystalline substance. This substance ended up being CBD. In order to isolate the CBN, Adams had to go through a process of purification from the crystalline CBD, which means Adams had to identify a new cannabinoid, in order to isolate the one already found.

What about Alexander Todd?

The story of the discovery of CBD, is twofold. Though Roger Adams is the one who gets credit, there was a parallel discovery around the same time, and that was made by British chemist Doctor Alexander Todd. The two scientists were rather competitive in the late 1930’s and early 1940’s, each publishing their discoveries as they came across them, and likely spurring each other on to work harder and do more.

There was even some contention between them as they both raced to find the same thing – THC, and though neither did find it, they did identify the other major component of the plant. In later years they actually became friends and formed a partnership, but I expect the competitive nature between them is what sped up the discoveries they made.

Anyway, Alexander Todd is more notorious for his winning of a Nobel prize for his work with nucleotides, but before this happened, he got into studying cannabis at the relatively young age of 32. He worked out of the University of Manchester with a very small research group, but was still able to isolate CBD from a sample of Indian hash. The hash had to be carefully gotten to him, as cannabis was illegal in Britain starting in 1928. When he published his paper in 1940, Todd was required to register at the Home Office for holding 2.5kg of hash.

Indian Hash

Part of what was interesting about the rivalry between Todd and Adams, is that they both made great discoveries, but were a generation apart in age and training, and used different means to make their discoveries. Todd identified CBD in an entirely different way, which was more in line with the principals of Cahn. Todd found he could take all the CBN out of the red oil using a type of chloride, and that in so doing, he could isolate a different cannabinoid – CBD.

In terms of who was technically first to make the discovery of CBD, it’s hard to say. In terms of published work, Todd had his first discoveries published in the journal Nature on March 2nd, 1940, but without any detail. Later that month, he published a full, detailed, version in the Journal of Chemical Society. On the other hand, Adams submit his first notes about CBD to the Journal of America Chemical Society in 1939, technically giving him the win, though the discoveries were essentially made in tandem.

These two scientists exemplify the often meandering line it takes to get from point A to point B in scientific research. And though neither reached the goal of finding the intoxicating agent, in attempting to do it, they both became pioneers in the world of cannabis research. Together, yet separately, they discovered one of the main aspects of the cannabis plant.

Conclusion

It’s quite possible that Roger Adams and the unexpected discovery of CBD was very much helped along by his rivalry with Alexander Todd. Either way, neither scientist reached the goal of isolating THC, though Roger Adams was able to identify it. It took another 25 years until Raphael Mechoulam finally did the job in 1964.

In a way, CBD was found completely accidentally. Though it would likely have been discovered at some point, it wasn’t even conceived of at the time it came to light. Roger Adams and Alexander Todd were trailblazers when it came to cannabis research, paving the way for Mechoulam, and the industry as we know it today.

Hello all! Thank you for joining us at CBDtesters.co, the best online location for the most up-to-date and cutting-edge cannabis and psychedelics-related news from around the globe. Drop by regularly to stay abreast of the ever-changing universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up for our newsletter, so you always know what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Roger Adams and the Unexpected Discovery of CBD appeared first on CBD Testers.

CBD (Cannabidiol) Explained – The Real Benefits of this Trendy Cannabinoid

While a fringe, alternative treatment option only a decade ago, today, CBD is everywhere you look – in wellness supplements, beauty and hygiene products, FDA-approved prescription medications, food and beverages, dental products, and even pillows, mattresses, and other random household goods.

As far as cannabinoids go, CBD, or cannabidiol) is the most widely accepted. Not only is there a growing body of clinical research to support its benefits, but it is non-intoxicating which makes it much more likely for laws to be passed in its favor – as is evidenced by the fact that CBD is federally legal in the US and many other countries, while THC still is not. But when it comes to CBD, what are some actual legitimate uses for this compound, and which ones are just marketing gimmicks? Let’s take a look at some of the real, science-backed benefits of CBD.

CBD is amazing, and so incredibly versatile. To learn more about this compound, and for exclusive deals on CBD flowers, as well as on Delta 8Delta 10 THCTHCVTHC-OTHCPHHC and even on legal Delta-9 THC! , make sure to subscribe to The CBD Flowers Weekly Newsletter, your hub for all things CBD-related.


What is CBD?

CBD, or cannabidiol, is the most prominent, non-intoxicating compound found in cannabis plants. When most people think of cannabis, they’re thinking about marijuana, which is the type so cannabis that is high in THC and associated with feelings of being “stoned”. Some types of cannabis, hemp for example, are high in CBD and contain only trace amounts of THC, meaning these plants can be considered non-intoxicating, by all accounts.

CBD is gaining popularity as a safe, non-toxic, non-addictive, natural treatment option for many different chronic and debilitating ailments; both mental and physical. Not only is CBD itself non-psychoactive, but when taken in combination with compounds that are, like tetrahydrocannabinol for instance, CBD can minimize the likelihood of negative side effects such as paranoia and anxiety that are occasionally associated with THC use.

The reason CBD (or any cannabinoid for that matter) works in the human body at all is because of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) – a complex signaling system made up of numerous receptors, as well as some naturally produced endocannabinoids, that exists in the bodies of nearly all animals (except insects). Researchers have discovered two different endocannabinoids so far, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), plus the two most studied receptors, CB1 and CB2. This quad makes up the majority of existing cannabis research.

As a whole, the ECS regulates numerous different functions and processes in our bodies and maintains internal balance and homeostasis. Many cannabinoids engage directly with the ECS receptors. Others, like CBD, have indirect connections by activating other receptors that will then interact with the endocannabinoid system. Specifically, CBD activates the TRVP1 receptors, which in turn activate receptors in the ECS and also function as ion channels.

CBD as an Anti-Inflammatory

One of the most common uses for CBD is to treat inflammation, which is the body’s process of fighting against pathogens and other hazards, such as infections, injuries, and toxins. When something damages your cells, your body releases chemicals that trigger a response from your immune system, thus causing inflammation.

The phrase “too much of a good thing” really applies in the case of inflammation. When this inflammatory response lingers after your body is done fighting the infection or whatever it is trying to overcome, this leaves your body in a constant state of stress and unrest. Chronic inflammation can have devastating effects on the tissues and organs and research indicates that it’s the root cause of many ailments including arthritis, contact dermatitis, acne, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes, asthma, and cancer.

Cannabidiol is becoming a very popular alternative for standard NSAID (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) drugs like Aspirin. Long-term use of NSAIDs can lead to various health problems such as heartburn, stomach pain, ulcers, headaches, dizziness, and even damage to the liver and kidneys.

CBD to Manage Anxiety

Anxiety is another condition that’s been researched extensively to determine how well it responds to cannabis therapies. Cannabidiol targets cell receptors in the body and brain that regulate your mood. Many mood disorders, including anxiety and depression, have a few things in common, including a lack of naturally produced endocannabinoids.

Treating mood disorders with CBD is becoming more widespread is among the top-rated treatment options for young adults ages 25-40. According to a study conducted a couple of years ago, thirty-four percent of millennials prefer to manage their mental health with natural and holistic remedies, and 50 percent of millennials believe CBD oil is the best way to do this; and this number continues to grow.

The main reason cited was a fear of being prescribed a medication that is too potent for their level of symptoms. Because CBD doesn’t have the mind-numbing and other unwanted side effects of prescription drugs, nor is it psychoactive like THC, it can be used all day like any other medication or supplement.

CBD for Controlling Seizures

One of the first, medically-accepted, modern-day uses for CBD was to treat epilepsy. There are many studies out there researching its effectiveness. As a matter of fact, there is even an FDA-approved, cannabidiol-based medication, Epidiolex, that’s used to treat two rare and severe forms of childhood epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) and Dravet Syndrome (DS).

Epidiolex is currently being prescribed in the United States, many countries in Europe, and Japan. Epilepsy medications can have some very serious side effects, and that’s why more natural alternatives are becoming the go-to ­­way to treat children and younger adult patients who suffer from epilepsy.

CBD for Pain Management

Although not common, many patients turn to a CAM, or complementary alternative medicine approach, to manage chronic pain. CBD is at the top of the list for those looking for natural, yet effective, alternative remedies. Because inflammation is the root cause of so many conditions that cause chronic pain, it makes sense how CBD eliminates pain.

Numerous different studies have found that cannabinoids like CBD can help with chronic pain from multiple sclerosis, cancer, and neuropathy. CBD and CBD topicals help with pain — if you suffer from chronic pain, CBD oil may help, as well. Chronic pain can be the main source of a diminished quality of life — CBD may give you hope for getting pain-free, or at the very least, reduced pain, and anything is worth a try.

CBD for Skin Conditions

Studies have shown that CBD can provide relief for the symptoms of various skin disorders, such as eczema and allergic reactions. Reverting back to ​inflammation, we know that cannabidiol can be used internally inflammatory conditions, and now we also know that it does the same when applied topically.

Topical creams containing CBD have been shown to ​or greatly reduce and sometimes even completely eliminate itching and dryness​ ​in sufferers of eczema. The chemical ‘histamine’, which is largely responsible for the irritating itches we experience, has been shown to react well to topical cannabinoid therapy. One study​ ​found that in almost 59% of its participants, their dry and scaly skin significantly reduced with the regular use of a cannabinoid cream, which reduced itching and as a result lead to less sleep loss.

Final Thoughts on Cannabidiol Benefits

Simply put, cannabidiol is an incredible compound. It’s non-psychoactive, non-toxic, and non-addictive; and it can be used to treat dozens of different health conditions. The ones covered in this list are the most common uses for CBD, but it can be utilized for many other ailments as well. Do you use CBD? And if so, what do you use it for? Drop us a line in the comment section below!

Thank you for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your hub for all things cannabis-related. To learn more about weed, and for exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, topicals, and other products, make sure to subscribe to The CBD Flowers Weekly Newsletter.

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Artificial High – The History of Cannabis Synthetics

The idea that cannabis exists as a pharmaceutical product, is still strange to people like me who grew up with the plant as the only form of ingestion. Whereas some medications have no natural counterpart, like Tylenol (acetaminophen) or Benadryl (diphenhydramine), some do, like anything based off cannabis. And we know the plant itself works fine, but that hasn’t stopped an immense amount of research into synthetic cannabis, and the production of synthetic cannabis products. Here we’ll take a look at the history of cannabis synthetics, and what can be expected in the future.

The history of cannabis synthetics is important because it’s a large part of today’s current market, including products like delta-8 THC. Though delta-8 is naturally occurring, it does require human synthetization help to provide large quantities, which means the dealt-8 we use in products, is all synthetic. We’re into quality cannabis products, whether naturally occurring or synthetic, and have a nice selection of delta-8 THC, delta 10 THCTHCVTHC-OHHC, THCP and even legal hemp-derived Delta-9 THC products. Subscribe to the Delta 8 Weekly and check ’em out!

What is a synthetic?

First things first, when talking about the history of cannabis synthetics, or simply what the synthetic version of something is, it’s best to know what we’re talking about. According Dictionary.com, the definition of ‘synthetic’ encompasses several principals. Under adjective, the definitions that relate to cannabis are:

  • Of, pertaining to, proceeding by, or involving synthesis (opposed to analytic).
  • Noting or pertaining to compounds formed through a chemical process by human agency, as opposed to those of natural origin: synthetic vitamins; synthetic fiber.
  • Not real or genuine; artificial; feigned: a synthetic chuckle at a poor joke.

Under noun, the following relates to cannabis:

  • Something made by a synthetic, or chemical, process.
  • Substances or products made by chemical synthesis, as plastics or artificial fibers.
  • The science or industry concerned with such products.

A synthetic is something that was created, rather than occurring naturally, although this not does negate that a naturally-occurring compound can also come as a synthetic. A synthetic is something that is not real or genuine, but is instead artificial. Synthetics are made through a process, and studying synthetics, means studying the process of making artificial products. Thus, synthetic cannabis compounds, are compounds that do not exist in nature on their own (or which do, but still require synthetization help outside of nature for products), and are manufactured by human production. This can relate to much more than just cannabis. For example, a lot of clothing uses synthetic plastic fibers rather than natural ones like cotton or hemp.

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Main points of cannabis research

When talking about the history of cannabis research in general, two of the occurrences that stand out the most are related to the isolation of certain compounds: the two main compounds of the cannabis plant. By isolating a compound, researchers can understand what it is, how it’s made, and are then able to synthesize it, and modify it. The two most spoken about findings in cannabis history are these:

1940 – The funny thing about the solation of CBD, is that it gets way less attention than the isolation of delta-9 THC, even as the current CBD industry booms. In fact, the name Doctor Roger Adams is way less known than Raphael Mechoulam, the guy up next. However, back in 1940, Roger Adams and his team at the University of Illinois, were the first to isolate CBD. In 1940, the team published their findings here: Structure of Cannabidiol, a Product Isolated from the Marihuana Extract of Minnesota Wild Hemp. It should be noted, that while Adams was not the first one to synthesize delta-9 completely, he was the first one to identify it, and he did do a partial synthesis.

1964 – Doctor Raphael Mechoulam, an Israeli researcher from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, isolated delta-9 THC for the first time in 1964. Mechoulam and team published their findings here: Isolation, Structure, and Partial Synthesis of an Active Constituent of Hashish. Since this time, Mechoulam has been a leader in the industry, actively taking part in research, and even discovering this synthetic cannabinoid in 2020, called HB 580, or cannabidiolic acid methyl ester. And this at the ripe old age of 90. Mechoulam is still the president of The Multidisciplinary Center for Cannabinoid Research at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Tons of other research has been done into different compounds within the cannabis plant, its history of use, and how it can be used today. But somehow, the isolation of these two main cannabinoids stands out as beacons in the history of cannabis research. And it’s through the finding of these compounds, that the history of cannabis synthetics began.

History of cannabis synthetics

If you’ll notice from the publication put out by Mechoulam and team in 1964, in the title it directly states that not only did they identify delta-9 THC, but they did a partial synthesis of the compound. What does this mean if delta-9 does appear in nature? It means, the researchers were able to isolate and map the compound, and that they then attempted to re-create it themselves, without help from nature. The ‘isolation’ is the part where the single molecule can be taken and studied, its chemical formula identified, and its chemical structure mapped. The ‘synthesis’ part is when the same molecule is created through human production. This might make it seem like the history of cannabis synthetics started here, but once again, it was really the other guy.

The thing about Roger Adams, is that he didn’t just isolate CBD, he isolated CBN (cannabinol), identified delta-9 THC as well, and was able to show the relationship between CBD, CBN and delta-9, as the three are isomers to each other. Not only that, he was able to synthesize analogues of CBN and delta-9, meaning he was able to create artificial versions of these cannabinoid analogues. He wasn’t, however, the only one doing this at that time!

cannabinoids

Enter Doctor Alexander Todd, the British researcher who was neck and neck with Roger Adams, and who received a Nobel prize for his work with nucleotides. In 1940, while at the University of Manchester, at the age of only 32, and working with a very small research group, Todd was able to isolate CBD from a sample of hashish from India. He published his findings in the journal Nature in 1940. Adams submitted his first notes on CBD in 1939 to the Journal of America Chemical Society, making him technically first over Todd. Todd’s version was without detail originally, with a full detailed version published in March of 1940 in the Journal of Chemical Society

Adams’ early synthetization of cannabinoids can be seen in his published research, which additionally shows a partial synthesis of delta-9 THC. Both Adams and Todd showed the isolation of CBN, which was fully mapped before CBD. Adams takes the win for first providing the structure of CBD, though Todd was right there with him. In fact, the two scientists spent a few years dueling in the scientific press, each publishing their findings as they came to them, in direct competition with each other. Later on, the two scientists became good friends and even worked together. It should be pointed out that the goal of both scientists had been to find the intoxicating agent of cannabis (delta-9), which neither ever established for sure.

During this time, delta-9 THC was not synthesized fully, though it was identified. But other compounds were synthesized, like CBN, CBD, and analogues of these cannabinoids and delta-9. CBN seems to be the very first cannabinoid that was synthesized in the quest to find delta-9, which CBN was assumed to be very closely related to. This makes CBN and CBD the first examples of synthetic cannabinoids, even though they do appear in nature. This reinforces the idea that a naturally occurring compound, can also be produced in synthetic form.

Cannabis synthetics today

We could have a whole debate about why cannabis was illegalized, and the part that pharmaceutical companies played in it, as a way to minimize use of a plant that couldn’t be patented. And while we could go back and forth on that one, the results of it can be seen clearly in today’s world. For example, while the US government likes to talk about how bad synthetics are, it also approved synthetic cannabinoid medications like Dronabinol, Epidiolex, and Sativex, and this in place of allowing the actual plant which has been used for thousands of years. This means, the only cannabis medications approved in the US, are synthetics.

In a great example of how far a government will go to protect pharmaceutical interests, France literally went to court with the EU over the ability to block sales and imports of naturally-occurring CBD. Of course, what the majority of reporters missed in the story, was that while France went on and on about the dangers of CBD (which it failed to back up in court), it was allowing GW Pharmaceuticals’ Epidiolex, a synthetic version of CBD, to be sold. Kind of seems like France wasn’t actually all that against CBD, huh?

At this point, there are about a million synthetic cannabinoids out. From non-naturally occurring like THC-O-Acetate, delta-10 THC, and canabidiolic acid methyl ester, to naturally occurring, like delta-8 THC, Dronabinol (THC), and Epidiolex (cannabidiol). And then, of course, there are the compounds that are generally thought of as synthetic, like Spice and K2, although these are no more or less synthetic than the pharmaceutical versions being sold to patients, and were discovered through the same lines of research. In fact, the compound that led to spice and K2, was none other than HHC, which was created in a lab in a search to find a simplified, yet working, THC compound. THC-O-Acetate was also an early street synthetic, possibly put out by the military, as the military was doing testing on this compound, and it seems to have shown up in public around that time.

legal cannabis synthetics

Some of the first non-naturally occurring cannabinoids to be synthesized were non-naturally occurring delta THCs like delta-7 THC and delta-10 THC, synthesized around the time that Adams first identified delta-9. The very first cannabis medicine to be approved in the US, was Dronabinol, under the name of Marinol, which gained FDA approval in 1985. Marinol, of course, is synthetic, meaning the very first cannabis medicine allowed in current day America, is synthetic. Clearly the US is A-okay with synthetics.

What can be expected in the future should be obvious. Use of the plant will likely not be stopped, but increasing pressure will probably be put on consumers to buy pharmaceutical products. The demonization and smear campaigns for cannabis will in all probability continue since they incite fear, and can be used to push the pharmaceutical ‘better answer’. And though this ‘better answer’ might prove to be true for people fighting ailments like cancer, for many people, nothing more than the plant would ever be necessary.

Conclusion

It might not be very well known, but the history of cannabis synthetics started at around the same time as the first major breakthrough in cannabis research. Adams and Todd led the charge in the early 40’s, identifying isolating, and synthesizing CBD and CBN, making them the first isolated cannabinoids, and the first examples of synthetic cannabis compounds.

Hi there and welcome! Thanks for joining us at CBDtesters.co, the best online location for the most relevant and up-to-date cannabis and psychedelics-related news from around the world. Stop by regularly to stay abreast of the exciting universe of legal drugs and industrial hemp, and sign up to get our newsletter, so you always know what’s going on.

DisclaimerHi, I’m a researcher and writer. I’m not a doctor, lawyer, or businessperson. All information in my articles is sourced and referenced, and all opinions stated are mine. I am not giving anyone advise, and though I am more than happy to discuss topics, should someone have a further question or concern, they should seek guidance from a relevant professional.

The post Artificial High – The History of Cannabis Synthetics appeared first on CBD Testers.

Should THC be Considered a Performance-Enhancing Drug?

When Maradonna and Lance Armstrong were both found to be using performance enhancing drugs, the world had to take a step back and rethink their sports heroes. In many people’s eyes, the greatest footballer and the greatest cyclist had both decided to – in want of a better word – cheat their way to victory. In fact, any use of performance-enhancing drugs – which are decided by the World Anti-Doping Agency – are completely illegal and will cause the user to face suspension or even lifetime bans. However, the question is, what constitutes a performance-enhancing drug?

Why are some drugs chosen to be banned and others aren’t? And, of course, what about THC and cannabis? There is no doubt that certain drugs can give an athlete an unfair advantage, but whether THC sits within this realm is controversial. 

Could THC possibly be used as a performance enhancing drug? What about delta-8 THC? This alternate form of THC provides users with slightly less psychoactive effect, less cloudiness in the head, and more overall energy, which makes it a possibility for active users. Which one is better for you and working out (or just sitting around)? Best way to find out, is to try and see. We’ve got an array of great delta-8 THCdelta 10thcv, thcp, hhc THC-O deals. Pick a product, and give it a shot. See what works best for you! Subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for more articles like this one and exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other legal THC products!


Performance Enhancing Drugs

So, what is a drug and what makes it performance enhancing? A drug in its simplest form is: ‘a medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect when ingested or otherwise introduced into the body’. Obviously not all drugs are considered performance-enhancing, as some are prescribed to treat physical or mental health conditions. Therefore, the World Anti-Doping Agency – who have been regulating the use of drugs in sport for millennia – have criteria that decides if a drug should be banned or not. The WADA states that a drug should be banned from sport-use if:

  • It has the potential to enhance sport performance;
  • It represents an actual or potential health risk to the Athlete;
  • It violates the spirit of sport (this definition is outlined in the Code).

As you can see, the criteria is slightly vague and, in a way, all drugs could somehow fit within them. For example, if a athlete uses paracetamol to treat a headache, does that count as performance-enhancing? The most obvious way to decide if a drug would be included in the WADA list would be to judge if it was performance-enhancing or not. Of course there are drugs that have been created and designed to enhance people’s abilities in sports. These same drugs will crop up a lot in various cases where athletes have utilised them for victory. Therefore, let’s take a look at some of the most common performance-enhancing drugs. 

Anabolic Steroids 

Anabolic steroids are used by many athletes to increase their muscle strength. The substance produces testosterone, which is used to help muscle building. For body builders especially, this drug can have some performance-enhancing tendencies. Some more dangerous versions of anabolic steroids are called: ‘designer steroids’. These are designed to be undetectable by drug tests. However, this means that they have not been tested. Some people have suffered infertility and baldness as a consequence of this drug.  

Diuretics 

Diuretics can help decrease an athlete’s weight by changing the natural balance of electrolytes in the body. The decrease of water in the body, which the substance causes, can lead to a ‘prefered’ weight for the athlete. Also, Diuretics is often called the ‘masking’ agent as the dilution of the urine can sometimes help athletes pass drug tests incorrectly. 

Erythropoietin 

Erythropoietin, or EPO, is the same performance-enhancing drug that Lance Armstrong took. Why? Well, EPO is a hormone which is usually used to treat Anemia. The drug increases the amount of oxygen that is carried to the body’s organs. This enhances performance in endurance sports like cycling because it improves the movement of oxygen to the muscles. Again, the overuse of these drugs can cause some detrimental effects.  

What Are The Common Traits?

In order to decide if THC should also be part of the WADA performance-enhancing team, then let’s take a look at what are the common traits in these three stated drugs. In all Diuretics, EPO and Anabolic Steroids, there is an example of a shifting of body functions that changes the way the body creates certain chemicals. This creates a short-term atmosphere within the body that enhances the athlete’s ability. However, over time, this short-term shift can cause negative long-term effects. Does THC do the same?

The Wonders of THC

Let’s first remind ourselves of the wonders of tetrahydrocannabinol before judging if it should or should not be part of the WADA list. THC is a major cannabinoid within the cannabis plant and is responsible for the well-known ‘high’ effects. THC is used both recreationally and medically because of its enjoyable and helpful benefits. Recreationally, it can be used to cause: 

  • Relaxation
  • Euphoria
  • Giggliness
  • Creativity 
  • Amusement
  • Sensory Enhancement

THC is also now being used more to treat physical and mental problems. Although lots of governments around the world have not legalized it, self-medicating THC is common. Here a list of the some of the problems it treats: 

  • Cancer Symptoms
  • Epilepsy
  • Loss of Appetite 
  • Muscle Spasms
  • Chronic Pain 
  • Depression
  • PTSD
  • Anxiety
  • Seizures
  • Tourettes

With THC being used by many people both recreationally and medically, the question is: is it on the World Anti-Doping Agency list?

THC In Sport

WADA considers THC to be a performance-enhancing drug. This is despite the fact that many countries have now legalized THC, such as the Netherlands, Spain and 19 states in America. In 2011, the WADA published a paper in Sports Medicine, which highlighted the reasons why cannabis, and more specifically THC, is on the list of performance-enhancing drugs. 

  • “Athletes who smoke cannabis or Spice in-competition potentially endanger themselves and others because of increased risk taking, slower reaction times and poor executive function or decision making.”
  • “Based on current animal and human studies as well as on interviews with athletes and information from the field, cannabis can be performance enhancing for some athletes and sports disciplines.”
  • “Use of illicit drugs that are harmful to health and that may have performance-enhancing properties is not consistent with the athlete as a role model for young people around the world”.

The most recent case of cannabis in sports was very recently. In June 2021, Sha’Carri Richardson – the female US Olympic sprinter – was found positive for THC in her medical test. She even went on TV and admitted to the use of it, stating that she was using cannabis to deal with the recent death of her mother. She was given a 1 month ban and will now not race in the 100m sprint in the delayed 2020 Tokyo Olympics. This decision, despite being eligible by the WADA rules, has caused much outrage. 

Should THC be considered a Performance-Enhancing Drug?

Whilst the World Anti-Doping Agency has one idea, the answer should surely be a no. It seems that the WADA are stuck in time, unable to accept modern cannabis research and are outright stubborn. Margaret Haney, who is a professor of Nerubiology at Colombia University, states that:

 “the evidence is extraordinary weak…(cannabis).reduces reaction time and has other effects that would worsen performance ”

In fact, the reason why Richardson’s ban was only 1 month in length was because the WADA accepted that her use of cannabis was not to do with the competition, unrelated to sport performance, and was done because she was suffering bereavement. However, they still felt a ban of any length was necessary. 

Overview

If we look at THC and compare it to the other performance-enhancing drugs its hard to see why WADA have included it on the list. THC may enhance senses in an enjoyment sense – colours, sounds and tastes – but ultimately, the benefits of the drug don’t reach a performance-enhancing nature. THC has many benefits but, as any cannabis consumer would tell you, sports and THC certainly do not go hand in hand. Sports could become more enjoyable, like having a beer whilst kicking a football around, but competitive sports is not something that THC would help you with. Some people may argue that THC can calm you down or relax you before competing. However, so can meditation. So can alcohol. So can cigarettes. But what do you reckon? Do you think THC should be considered a performance-enhancing drug?

Thank you for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your hub for all things cannabis-related. Remember to subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for more articles like this one and exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other legal THC products.

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The Real Difference Between Indica and Sativa Strains

When shopping for cannabis products, be it online or at a dispensary, you’ve likely noticed that aside from visibly posted THC content, the other way they are typically categorized is by whether they are indica, sativa, or hybrid. Most people use these groups as a benchmark for gauging potency and effects. But how accurate is this method, and what are the true differences between these strain types?

Indica, or “in da couch” as it is casually referred to, is said to be the stronger of the two, delivering super relaxing, often sluggish, “couch-locked” effects. On the contrary, sativa strains have the reputation of hitting users with those creative, lively, and energetic highs. This has been widely accepted as fact among cannabis consumers for decades now. If you have ever been to a dispensary, it’s highly likely you’ve had a budtender recommend strains based on these classifications (spoiler alert, they will almost always recommend an indica… sometimes a hybrid).

However, as research continues to emerge about the plant, it turns out the real differences between strains is the specific blend of compounds (cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, etc.) in each particular batch of flowers. As a matter of fact, the terms “sativa” and “indica” are rooted in geography and botany, having really nothing to do with what effects a user will experience. It’s like comparing apples around the world. In some regions they grow smaller or come in different colors, but they’re all still apples – just with a slight bit of variation based on where they are from. So for the sake of this article, think of cannabis like any other flowering plant, fruit, or vegetable.

Cannabis is a multifaceted plant with hundreds of active and inactive compounds working together synergistically. To minimize all that chemistry down to indica vs sativa makes very little sense and is actually, totally inaccurate. To learn more about the cannabis plant, make sure to subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter, your top source for all things weed-related as well as exclusive deals on delta-8 THCdelta 10thcvthcpthc-ohhc and even legal hemp-derived delta-9 THC.


What Are Indicas?

Cannabis indica refers to the intoxicating variety of cannabis that was originally discovered in the Hindu Kush Mountains of Northern India, where it grew comfortably in between 30-50 degrees latitude. In addition to being smoked, Cannabis indica was harvested for seeds, fiber, and hashish (hash) production (the world’s first cannabis concentrate). “Indica” technically means any plant that comes originally from India, although in the weed industry it has become synonymous with the stout, broad-leaf plants, believed to produce sedative effects with a powerful body high.

As far as cultivation goes, Indica plants are typically shorter and bushier with stout, wide leave and dense bulky nugs. There are many benefits to this smaller stature, first of which is that they require much less physical space to grow. They also flower considerably faster than Sativa strains, only taking about 6-8 weeks before you get a harvest. For these reasons, paired with the reputation of Indicas, they are most popular among modern growers and likely the reason you see more and more indica/hybrids on the market today.

More About Sativas

The exact origins of Sativa strains are less specific, although we do know that much of it hails from the latitudes of 0-30 degrees. Typically, it grew in warmer climates like Mexico, Columbia, Thailand, and Southeast Asia.  The term “sativa” was also used to describe hemp plants found throughout Europe, where it was cultivated for seeds, fiber, and other practical uses.

Sativa strains are associated with the uplifting “head high” that people claim makes them feel connected and euphoric. Again, these effects aren’t necessarily due to the fact that they are sativas and simply that, but rather because strains coming from those parts of the world may have different combinations of compounds than hardy, mountain Indica strains. My guess would be that it has a lot to do with the sun and warmth.

Sativa plants are tall and lanky. On average they get around 10-12 feet tall, although some can exceed 20 feet. The leaves are thin and pointed and the nugs produced by these strains are typically longer and fluffier than indica flowers. Sativas grow well outdoors and often require less maintenance than indica plants. Despite that, they are less popular for cultivators, especially those doing indoor and greenhouse grows.  

Defining Hemp

Hemp is a term used to classify certain varieties of cannabis that have less than 0.3 percent THC (by dry weight). This is the legal standard by which hemp is defined in the United States and throughout most of the world, although some countries are leaning now towards a 1 percent cutoff. Generally speaking, Hemp is used to describe Cannabis types that are non-intoxicating and harvested for its industrial purposes.

There is evidence of hemp cultivation and use that dates back roughly 10,000 years, leading many to believe that hemp was the first crop ever grown and harvested by man. Because hemp is so versatile and can be used to create a multitude of essential items like food, textiles, housing material, plastic, and even biofuel, one can presume that hemp has been a catalyst for some of our most important inventions throughout history.

Hemp isn’t used only for industrial reasons though. Smokable hemp/CBD flower is growing trend that has really gained a lot of traction in the U.S. market these last couple of years; although they are by far not as popular as THC/marijuana strains. Feminized Cannabis sativa flower that produces low levels of THC, also produces smokable buds that taste, look, and smell just like the marijuana you would find at a dispensary or on the street.

The most obvious difference between the two is that hemp/CBD flower doesn’t get you high. It may feel relaxing in the same way that cigarettes are relaxing, but there are no actual psychoactive effects. Personally, I feel like most hemp flowers seem to have the same underlying flavor and there is much less terpene variety in these strains compared to marijuana. Hemp flowers certainly have their place in the market though and can be great for curbing anxiety and depression, relieving pain, treating neurological disorders, or just relaxing without the high if that’s what you’re into.

Understanding Hybrids

Hybrid is a relatively new term used to classify cannabis that is bred from parents of two different strains. Theoretically, a hybrid can offer users the most beneficial medical and recreational properties from both parents, but in reality, it depends entirely on which traits get passed down during the breeding process.

To further complicate the issue of hybrids, there is no scientific evidence to support this dichotomy of cannabis types because on a molecular level, indica and sativa strains don’t have patterns that differentiate the two “types” from each other anyway. From a chemical standpoint, most strains on the market today can be classified as hybrids. Because, just stop to think about how unlikely it is that you would come across a strain that has the original parent genetics from hundreds of years ago. Not only is that close to impossible, but you’d likely be disappointed with how unrefined those flowers were compared to what’s available today.

Hybrid stains that display more characteristics from either side of the spectrum are labeled “indica-dominant” or “sativa-dominant”. Common notes you may see on a flower label at a dispensary include a sativa/indica ratio – for example, 60/40 indica/sativa – or you may just see the percentage of the dominant characteristics – 80 percent indica, or 70 percent sativa.

It’s worth noting that hybrids don’t have to be a blend of sativa and indica. Breeders often use both indica parents, or pair sativas with each other. Jack’s Dream is a good example of this, using two very popular sativa strains – Jack Herer and Blue Dream – to create a super sativa hybrid. Or Bubba Purps, a combination of Pre 98 Bubba Kush and Granddaddy Purps, both of which are well-known indicas.

Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and The Entourage Effect

To find a strain that will provide you with specific effects, you have to search beyond indica and sativa and look at the entire package instead – strain name and genetics, terpene blends, and cannabinoid content. In reality, the entire indica vs sativa vs hybrid trend is basically just a big marketing ploy anyway.

The cannabis plant is composed of roughly 400 different compounds – over 100 cannabinoids and close to 150 terpenes have been identified so far. The two most abundant compounds are THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol). Strains that are high in THC are generally very low in CBD, and vice versa, although some 1:1 ratio strains do exist. Both indica and sativa strains can exhibit similar cannabinoid and terpene profiles.

Terpenes are a very large and diverse class of organic compounds that are produced by a wide variety of plants including herbs, trees, flowers, and fruit. In cannabis, they are secreted by the same glands that produce all the most dominant cannabinoids. If it weren’t for these flavorful, aromatic compounds, weed would be nowhere near as appealing as it is.  

Not only do terps give cannabis its irresistible taste, but thanks to the entourage effect, they work synergistically with cannabinoids in the plant to offer us a better high and multitude of therapeutic benefits. Simply put, the entourage effect refers to the way different cannabinoidsterpenes, and flavonoids work together to offer health benefits you can only get when consuming the entire plant in its natural state. Even the slightest change in chemical profile (for example, switching out the limonene terp for myrcene, can result in noticeable changes in the way all the other compounds interact with each other, and thus, the effects felt but the consumer will vary as well.

Final Thoughts

To summarize, cannabis is so much more than just THC content, and indica versus sativa. With hundreds of active and inactive compounds all working together in this incredible plant, it’s no surprise that you get slightly different effects from every strain you consume. So, keep in mind that you’re short changing yourself and missing out on so many amazing flowers if you go straight for the indicas every time.

Thank you for stopping by CBD TESTERS, your hub for all things cannabis-related. Remember to subscribe to The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter for more articles like this one and exclusive deals on flowers, vapes, edibles, and other legal products.

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Is HHC 1000% Stronger Than THC and Should It Go To Market?

A novel cannabinoid entered the public cannabis market for the first time anywhere recently, landing in Colorado. Hydrogenated THC, known as HHC, was previously, and is possibly still, restricted from any market due to patents and laws. Variations of HHC are even 1000 percent stronger than THC. Plus, production often uses heavy metals. Despite these […]

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How a Holistic Company is Changing the Course of CBD in Women’s Health

Wellness shouldn’t have to be a full-time job. But if you’re a woman living in today’s modern world, it automatically becomes one. Although women make up over half the population globally, the reality is there’s limited research or progress when it comes to women’s health. For many women, it comes as no surprise. Since the […]

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