Acid Trip Ends in Arrest for Naked Bills Fan Who Covered Himself in Feces, Fell Down 30-Foot Hole

A nude man high on LSD, cocaine and more was arrested Sunday after being rescued from a 30-foot pit at the construction site of the Buffalo Bills’ new football stadium, relatively unharmed but covered in human fecal matter from a nearby porta-potty.

Originally reported by WIVB-4, deputies with the Erie County Sheriff’s Office mercifully withheld the identity of the 29-year-old man who was transported to Buffalo General Hospital for evaluation of a few minor injuries before being charged with criminal trespassing. Authorities said the man scaled a very large fence after leaving the porta-potty to access the construction site and fell into the pit when police approached him. Sheriff Garcia reportedly told Buffalo News that as the man was laying in the pit awaiting rescue, he gave them a peace sign with one hand and an obscene gesture with the other.

“He scaled that fence right up, [jumped] over the other side and next thing you know, he’s running toward the pit,” said Erie County Sheriff John Garcia. “By the time ECC security got behind him now this individual is falling, tumbling down into the pit. It happened so quickly, it’s a large site. You can’t have people every six feet.”

Authorities said the man told them he had consumed LSD, cocaine, alcohol and marijuana before this sequence of events began. The Sheriff’s Office assured the public there was no cause for alarm. Just as lightning does not strike twice in the same place, people don’t take acid and fall down the same hole twice (there’s a joke here about rabbit holes but I will abstain from making one as it would detract from the grave seriousness of this whole ordeal).

“When you’re taking LSD, cocaine and marijuana, you’re going to not read the signs. You’re not going to read anything,” said Sheriff Garcia. “You wouldn’t be in a porta potty jumping inside it, [covering] yourself with human excrement, you wouldn’t be doing that. This is a very isolated issue.”

Oddly enough, the big giant hole in the ground made headlines that very day, shortly before the naked man met his fateful fall. The Buffalo News ran a story called “’Big hole in the ground’ slows trip, but nothing stops Bills fans from getting to game,” detailing how construction on the new $1.4 billion Buffalo Bills stadium had left a big giant hole in the ground in Orchard Park across from the current stadium on Abbott Road. Apparently, the hole and the enormous pile of earth and gravel sitting next to the hole have been creating traffic jams of an hour or more for Bills fans trying to get to the stadium. 

“Everybody is talking about the big hole in the ground,” WGR host Jeremy White said.

“Which is a big, giant hole,” added co-host Nate Geary.

Sheriff Garcia spoke very highly of the rest of the hundreds of Buffalo Bills fans who managed to make it through Sunday without any other major incidents, calling it the “best behaved crowd that we’ve seen since our administration has been in place.”

“Nobody else was injured, nobody else made it on to this site,” Sheriff Garcia said. “We always try to stay four, five plays ahead because our job is to try to prevent incidents like that to occur but when someone takes LSD, cocaine and marijuana and they’re drinking, from running into traffic to scaling a 10 foot fence, we can’t prevent everything.”

According to the WIVB-4 article, only one other arrest was made that day of a football fan attempting to start a fight and eight other fans were ejected from the stadium. The man who fell into the pit was ultimately released on an appearance ticket after being charged, and not for nothing, but the Buffalo Bills shut out the Las Vegas Raiders 38-10 that day. Unfortunately, the naked psychedelic shit-covered football fan never made it to the game, as he was arrested just 40 minutes before kickoff. 

The post Acid Trip Ends in Arrest for Naked Bills Fan Who Covered Himself in Feces, Fell Down 30-Foot Hole appeared first on High Times.

Where in the World is Alcohol Illegal?

Sometimes, when you’re sipping on an ice cold beer or a nice glass of red wine, it’s impossible to imagine a world where alcohol is illegal. Well – just like recreational substances – alcohol is not legal everywhere. Alcohol, often referred to as the ‘social lubricant’, has been an integral part of human culture for millennia. It has played roles in celebrations, rituals, and social interactions across diverse societies.

However, not all countries have embraced it in the same manner. In various corners of the globe, alcohol has faced restrictions and outright bans due to cultural, religious, social, or health-related reasons. In this article, we’ll be delving into the fascinating world of alcohol prohibition, exploring the places where it remains illegal and the motivations behind such decisions.

What is Alcohol?

Alcohol has been an integral part of many societies for centuries. In fact, it is believed that the part of our body that metabolizes alcohol has been within mammals long before humans even existed. Some say this is anywhere from 7-21 million years ago. Our predecessors were consuming alcohol from fruits long before we were around.

Heroes of ancient Greek myths Dionysus and Ariadne with jugs of wine

Alcohol, in a chemical sense, refers to a group of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. The most common type of alcohol is ethanol, with the chemical formula C2H5OH. Ethanol is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages and is produced through the fermentation of sugars by yeast.

During fermentation, yeast consumes sugars, releasing carbon dioxide and ethanol as byproducts. This chemical process has been harnessed by humans for millennia to create various alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, and spirits. Wine is made from sugar from grapes, whereas vodka is vape from the sugar in potatoes. The Penn Museum writes:

“Chemical analyses recently confirmed that the earliest alcoholic beverage in the world was a mixed fermented drink of rice, honey, and hawthorn fruit and/or grape. The residues of the beverage, dated ca. 7000–6600 BCE, were recovered from early pottery from Jiahu, a Neolithic village in the Yellow River Valley.”

Alcohol, like many recreational substances, has the ability to increase euphoria and decrease social anxiety. It is no surprise that early human beings came across this substance and used it for religious and social ceremonies. In addition, its subtle pain killing properties were also very useful in the early days. Alcohol has stood the test of time as one of the most frequently used drugs ever created. In fact, according to the World Health Organization, an estimated 2.3 billion people are current alcohol drinkers. That is over a quarter of the population. 

Alcoholic Beverages

Alcoholic beverages can be broadly categorised into three main types: fermented beverages, distilled spirits, and fortified wines.

Fermented Beverages

These beverages result from the natural fermentation of sugars by yeast. Common examples include beer and wine. Beer is made from malted grains, such as barley, while wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes.

Distilled Spirits

Also known as hard liquor, distilled spirits are created through a process of distillation, which involves heating a fermented liquid to separate the alcohol from other components. This results in higher alcohol content compared to fermented beverages. Examples of distilled spirits include vodka, whiskey, rum, and gin.

Fortified Wines

Fortified wines are created by adding additional alcohol, often in the form of brandy, to a base wine. This increases the alcohol content and contributes to the distinct flavors of these beverages. Sherry and port are popular examples of fortified wines.

Effects on the Human Body

Alcohol has substantial effects on the CNS

When consumed, alcohol affects the human body in various ways, primarily targeting the central nervous system. The effects of alcohol consumption are dose-dependent, meaning that they vary based on the amount consumed.

Immediate Effects

Even a small amount of alcohol can lead to relaxation, lowered inhibitions, and a feeling of euphoria. However, higher doses can result in impaired coordination, slowed reaction times, and impaired judgement.

Long-Term Effects

Chronic alcohol consumption can have serious long-term health consequences. It can lead to liver damage (such as cirrhosis), heart problems, impaired cognitive function, and an increased risk of certain cancers.

Banning Alcohol

Banning alcohol is an extreme decision, especially when you consider how many nations in the world have maintained its legality. In the modern day, few countries have outlawed alcohol, in part or as a whole. These “dry” nations often implement such measures to uphold religious principles, combat public health concerns, or maintain social order. Some of these countries have a majority Muslim population and have governments that adhere to some form of Islamic law, known as Sharia. Eating pork and drinking alcohol are two of the big prohibitions of Islam. There are around 14 countries that have outlawed alcohol to varying points. Let’s take a journey through some of the regions where alcohol is currently banned or restricted.

Saudi Arabia

One of the most well-known examples of strict alcohol prohibition can be found in Saudi Arabia. The country’s Islamic laws strictly prohibit the sale, consumption, and possession of alcohol. This prohibition is rooted in Islamic teachings that emphasise sobriety and avoidance of substances that alter one’s state of mind.


Due to its primarily Islamic population, Afghanistan also enforces a ban on alcohol. The Taliban’s rule from 1996 to 2001 intensified this prohibition, and even after its fall, alcohol remains scarce and illegal in much of the country.


In Iran, alcohol is forbidden according to Islamic law. However, there is a significant underground market for homemade alcohol, revealing the complexities of enforcing such bans.


Kuwait is another Middle Eastern nation where alcohol is prohibited. The ban is again rooted in Islamic beliefs and the desire to maintain a conservative social environment.


This Southeast Asian country, with its strong Islamic traditions, has implemented a strict ban on alcohol as well. Violations of the ban can lead to severe penalties.


The unstable political situation in Libya has led to sporadic enforcement of alcohol bans. Islamic influences play a role in the prohibition, but social and cultural factors also contribute.


Like many other Islamic nations, Yemen enforces a ban on alcohol. The country’s conservative culture and adherence to Islamic teachings are significant factors in this decision.


Alcohol has faced legal restrictions in Sudan due to Islamic influences, even though the country is ethnically and culturally diverse.

Bangladesh: While alcohol is not entirely banned in Bangladesh, its availability is limited and heavily regulated due to Islamic and cultural considerations.


This island nation in the Indian Ocean has a predominantly Muslim population, which has led to the implementation of alcohol restrictions.

The Prohibition

Whilst most of these nations have a strong religious purpose for the ban of alcohol, this is not the first time that this has happened. In fact, in the 1920s, in the US, the same ban was attempted but it failed pretty miserably. This represented an era known as Prohibition. Prohibition, also known as the Prohibition Era, refers to the period in the United States from 1920 to 1933 when the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages were prohibited by law.

This nationwide ban was established through the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and enforced by the Volstead Act. The main motivations behind the Prohibition movement were rooted in concerns about public health, morality, and social order. Advocates believed that banning alcohol would lead to reduced crime, domestic violence, and poverty, and would promote healthier lifestyles and improved productivity. Additionally, there was a strong temperance movement that aimed to curb what were seen as negative effects of alcohol on individuals and society.

However, despite the noble intentions behind Prohibition, the policy ultimately failed to achieve its intended goals, as organized crime rose, crime increased, the economy suffered, and it was simply difficult to enforce. In a nation like the USA, which had used alcohol for centuries, banning it so suddenly was simply not going to work. While prohibition might seem effective in theory, it often drives alcohol consumption underground, making it difficult to regulate and control. Some critics argue that a more balanced approach, such as implementing regulations and educating the public about responsible drinking, might yield better results in terms of public health and safety.

Final Thoughts

Often people gasp at the idea of a nation that has banned alcohol. For instance, during the Qatar World Cup, many thought it cruel to attend a football game without being able to drink a delicious pint. However, it’s important to put this into perspective. Many countries ban substances that they deem unhealthy, dangerous or religiously improper. Well, alcohol – in many ways – has proven itself to be far more dangerous than cannabis. And yet, the majority of the world still decides to ban it. Whilst alcohol has a deep-rooted culture in much of the world, it doesn’t take away the undoubted dangers that it brings. Perhaps it’s hypocritical to legalize alcohol but not other substances. What do you think?

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We Need to Chill Out About Categorizing ‘Medical’ Versus ‘Recreational’

I used to wake up in the middle of the night, every night, with a nightmare. In it, my body was frozen, and trigger warning: In the nightmare, I was fading in and out of unconscious, but someone was raping me. They were textbook PTSD nightmares, and I had no idea what to do about them.

I was raised in the Caribbean, in the U.S. Virgin Islands, surrounded by ganja culture. While millennial “statesiders” my age I’d meet later when I moved to the South for school and then New York for my forever home, I realized that my childhood was different. Far from the “Just Say No” and D.A.R.E rhetoric my contemporaries experienced, many of my friend’s parents were Rastafarians. I grew up understanding that cannabis was a sacrament. So I spent high school, during the Bush era, on the debate team arguing for its legalization, and college majoring in journalism, reporting on cannabis. I’ve always been vehemently pro-legalization. But the reason cannabis didn’t become a big part of my personal life until a decade ago, in 2013, was because I was a total boozehound. 

But alcohol made my PTSD stemming from my assault worse. Sometimes, back in the day, to be perfectly honest, it made me downright nasty or even suicidal. So my ambition kicked in, having seen what alcoholism can do to others (it runs in my family), and I quit. I haven’t had a drink in 10 years. I’ve been Cali Sober since before the term existed, baby. 

So, a few years into sobriety, when a stoner close to my heart told me that people used cannabis to treat anxiety, PTSD and that THC could even suppress nightmares, at first, I was skeptical. Sure, it should be legal, just like alcohol, and the government is full of shit, but would it affect me like liquor did? Personally, 12-Step programs did more harm than good. I’m a big believer that a one-size-fits-all model is not suitable for recovery, something society finally seems ready to talk about.

Especially in the first few years after my assault, I needed to be shaken and reminded of my power — which had been robbed from me — instead of admitting I was powerless, which is, in so many words, the first step of AA. I’m glad the program works for many, including people I love, and I won’t even get into the fact that its founder, Bill W., fully embraced psychedelics at the end of his life, adamant that they could treat alcoholism. Because this story is about why recreational use and medical use have more overlap than the establishment makes them out to.

When I first quit drinking shortly after my assault, I was a shell of my former self. I’d accept invitations to parties only to turn around at the door, back to the safety of my apartment, as my social anxiety was so bad even small talk was terrifying. I should add that I was prescribed a very high level of benzodiazepines, which I’m not against on principle, they have their time and place, but as anyone who’s weaned off them knows, they also have their downfalls (quite serious, benzo withdrawal can cause seizure or even death). So after doing my research and realizing that cannabis could not only quell nightmares, help me better inhabit my body, and treat social anxiety, but had a lower side effect profile than benzos, and was less physically addicting, I decided (after talking with my psychiatrist and therapist) to give cannabis a shot. It worked. It stopped my nightmares. My dissociation got better. I could socialize again; I could even goddamn do karaoke without a sip of booze or flutter of nerves. I didn’t need all that Klonopin. I was sold, even if those I knew in recovery circles at the time were not. 

So when New York legalized medical marijuana for PTSD in 2017, even though I was already using it under doctor supervision, I jumped at the opportunity and got a medical card, hitting up a dispensary right away. I was a little bummed to learn that they sold lower-dose products for much more than my dealer (I prefer the term “florist”) could offer, so like so many others in this economy, I returned to the black market and honestly eventually just let my medical card expire. 

But something else had happened by 2017. I healed. Sure, I still had anxiety, some trust issues, and enough reasons to have a therapist, but I no longer woke up every night with flashbacks. I was my outgoing, extroverted, optimistic self again. Cannabis still helped me be present, dial down any social anxiety, and only need a Klonopin if having one of those panic attacks that feel like a heart attack. Still, I started to wonder: Was I “bad” for continuing to use cannabis, not primarily for PTSD, but simply because it felt good and made life easier? And, no, to this day, it’s never made me blackout, it’s never made me say something nasty to a friend I don’t remember the next day, it’s never given me a hangover with a side of suicidal thoughts. My friends, doctors, and partner actually sometimes need to remind me to take it when I get a little bitchy now and then. 

Then I realized something even more horrifying — I was thinking like a Reagan supporter. Is it wrong to enjoy the euphoric side effects of a substance? Taking this a step further, is it morally worse to enjoy the euphoric side effects of a substance such as cannabis that’s federally illegal instead of many FDA-approved anxiety or pain treatments that also make you feel high? What was this hypocritical bullshit? I’m a Virgin Islander, goddamnit, not some regressive conservative clinging onto the bullshit the Moral Majority spent so many years spewing. 

Of course, legalization has upsides, such as fewer people in prison and more research on the plant’s benefits. But by 2017, and absolutely by the present day, I don’t just fit the bill for a medical patient; I’m a recreational (make that adult-use, a term I greatly appreciate) user. Yes, it helps my anxiety and PTSD. Yes, it plays a role in harm reduction, just like dear old Bill W. eventually supported, and it makes it easier not to drink. I never even think about alcohol. But cannabis is also just fun. Plenty of people who use cannabis recreationally also receive medical benefits as a nice side effect, such as lowered social anxiety or better sleep. Conversely, people with medical cards who use it for an ailment enjoy the pleasant side effect of euphoria. Is either team wrong? I think not. Does one need a stamp of government approval (since when do we trust them on this subject?) to use cannabis guilt-free? Dear god, I hope not. 

We live in a culture that moralizes euphoria. From a government-approved recovery program POV, if it makes you feel good, it’s bad. Any substance use should involve honesty about its effects. For instance, while I used to use cannabis to help with nightmares, as I got older, THC started giving me insomnia. So now, unless I’m at a concert or late-night dance party, I don’t take any after a certain hour, sticking with a low dose during the day. But that’s just me. We’re all different, and everyone’s reaction to substances is different and will likely change throughout their lifetime. But in this beautiful life on this wicked world, filled with violent crimes, people in prison for non-violent crimes, pandemics, homophobes, hurricanes, cancer drug shortages, but also love, community, science, the spiritual experience of playing with a dog — I’ll take all the euphoria I can get as long as it continues to offer a positive impact on my life. Binary thinking is so Bush-era and so over. May the adult-use cannabis consumers also enjoy lowered anxiety or pain, and may the medical patients guilt-free pop an edible before a concert and dance up a sweat while enjoying a heightened sensory experience. 

Euphorically yours, 
Sophie Saint Thomas

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Hulk Hogan, 70, Swaps Opioids and Alcohol for CBD

Hulk Hogan, real name Terry Gene Bollea, is done with painkillers and alcohol, swapping the two for CBD, which is being studied for its role in battling addiction. He revealed the switch in a candid interview with Muscle and Health magazine.

A legend in professional wrestling, Hogan underwent some 25 surgeries over the course of his career, getting loaded up with opioids prescribed by doctors. But Hogan said he continued taking the opioids long after the physical pain was gone.

Now at age 70, he revealed that a combination of opioids and alcohol spelled a decades-long relationship with addiction. Going sober meant dropping vices that felt destructive. Muscle and Health Editor-in-chief Danni Levy sat down with the wrestling icon to discuss a variety of topics. 

“I’ve had a lot of practice drinking because I wrestled for about forty years, so those guys have a beer every once in a while,” he told Muscle and Health. “But about seven months ago, I decided not to drink any more alcohol. I was at a New Year’s Eve party and saw a bunch of stuff that I didn’t condone or like. I saw myself in this environment, and I went, “You know what? I don’t know how I got here, but I’m done.’ It was just that one thing.” 

It was then he realized it was a negative thing he didn’t want. Being around people who believed and behaved differently than he did, he decided he wanted out. And he says it feels much better to be clear-headed and that he’s no longer tempted to drink alcohol. 

Hogan explained how going sober meant losing some friends and gaining others. “I’ve had certain wrestlers look at me in the face and go, “If you don’t have a drink with me, you’re not my friend,” Hogan said. “Well, I am your friend, but I’m not going to drink with you. What are you going to do about it?”

Some consider the 1980s as the glory days when American pro wrestling was at a peak. In the October, 1981 issue of High Times, writer Chester Patton wrote about the history of American professional wrestling, from Clarence “the Kansas Demon” to “Animal” Steele, eater of turnbuckles. Wrestling led to blockbuster cameos and more for Hogan.

Like other high impact sports, wrestling injuries lead to surgeries and subsequently, painkillers. Opioids proved to be equally devastating, creating another dilemma. “I had doctors writing me prescription after prescription, and all of a sudden, it became a vicious cycle,” Hogan added. “I was hitting the pain pills hard because I’d had to endure twenty-five procedures, including ten to my back, facial operations from being kicked, knee and hip replacements and abdominal and shoulder surgeries.”

Most recently, the wrestling legend has been talking about Hogan’s Hangout, a restaurant he recently opened up in Clearwater, Florida.

Replacing Addiction with CBD

Hogan mentioned last May that he found success with CBD, and that he was planning to launch his own brand. He said it was another wrestling legend who actually introduced him to CBD. Wrestling icon Ric Flair launched a cannabis line “Ric Flair Drip” with Carma Holdings founder and president Chad Bronstein.

“Ric Flair, Mike Tyson and the founder and president of Carma Holdings, Chad Bronstein introduced me to CBD,” he reveals. Those three came at me like ‘The Royal Rumble.’ I didn’t have a chance.”

Hogan may be on to something: CBD can help lower cravings for tobacco and heroin under certain conditions, with research on humans to back it up, Peter Grinspoon of Harvard Medical School wrote. Animal models additionally suggest it may also help lower cravings for alcohol, cannabis, opiates, and stimulants.

“At first, I was confused because I’d never used CBD,” Hogan said. “I didn’t understand the health aspects of what it can do for you as far as energy, sleep or getting off hard drugs or pharmaceuticals slowly and winding down are concerned. It took me a while to figure it out because I am a little slow. I had to do a lot of research and do my due diligence. I figured this was something that really would benefit a lot of people that needed help—and I know it will.”  

Hogan also went into a lot of detail about how CBD specifically replaced opioids.

“We’ve found CBD is a logical alternative to prescription drugs that helps people to wind down slowly,” says Hogan. “I’m really focusing on helping people with their health, whether that’s guys coming back from the war, hardcore drug users or people who’ve got themselves into the prescription trap following illness or anxiety. CBD is amazing for sleep and can also help overcome alcohol abuse.”

Hogan’s brand Immortal, coming soon, will feature vapes, cartridges, pre-rolls, and more.

CBD is showing promising results in treating addiction, reducing inflammation, and a handful of other benefits as researchers continue to back it with science.

The post Hulk Hogan, 70, Swaps Opioids and Alcohol for CBD appeared first on High Times.

Cannabis Tax Revenue in Colorado Outpaces Alcohol and Cigarettes

Summary: In a significant milestone, Colorado’s tax revenue from marijuana sales has exceeded that of alcohol and cigarettes, reflecting the growing acceptance and profitability of the cannabis industry in the state.

A Shift in Consumption: Colorado’s Cannabis Tax Tops Alcohol and Cigarette

Colorado has witnessed a remarkable shift in its tax revenue sources. The state’s cannabis tax revenue has now surpassed that of alcohol and cigarettes, marking a significant milestone in the cannabis industry’s growth and acceptance.

And you also can order cannabis online

The rise in marijuana tax revenue can be attributed to several factors. Firstly, the legalization and subsequent boom of the recreational marijuana market in Colorado have led to increased sales and, consequently, higher tax collections. Additionally, the state has seen a decline in alcohol and cigarette consumption, further widening the gap in tax revenues.

Colorado has been at the forefront of the cannabis movement in the United States. It was one of the first states to legalize recreational marijuana in 2012, and since then, the industry has flourished. The state’s regulatory framework, combined with a growing consumer base, has made Colorado a model for other states considering cannabis legalization.

The economic benefits of the marijuana industry are evident. Apart from tax revenues, the sector has created numerous jobs and spurred investment in related businesses, from cultivation to retail.

Colorado is also leading in psychedelics

However, the surpassing of alcohol and cigarette tax revenues by marijuana is not just an economic indicator. It also reflects a broader societal shift in attitudes towards cannabis. As the negative stigma around marijuana diminishes and its medicinal benefits become more widely recognized, more consumers are choosing cannabis over traditional substances like alcohol and cigarettes.

While this is a significant achievement for the cannabis industry in Colorado, it also underscores the importance of responsible consumption and regulation. As the sector continues to grow, ensuring consumer safety and maintaining stringent quality standards will be paramount.

Source: KDVR

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AI Disclaimer: This news update was created using a AI tools. PsychePen is an AI author who is constantly improving. We appreciate your kindness and understanding as PsychePen continues to learn and develop. Please note that the provided information is derived from various sources and should not be considered as legal, financial, or medical advice.

The legality of Delta-8 THC is debated

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Can CBD Aid in Addiction Recovery? New Study Sheds Light

Summary: A recent study suggests that CBD, a non-psychoactive compound found in cannabis and hemp, may help in addiction recovery by reducing the risk of relapse in individuals recovering from alcohol and cocaine addiction.

Addiction Recovery: CBD Shows Promise in Reducing Relapse Risk for Alcohol and Cocaine Addicts

Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound derived from the cannabis plant, has been gaining attention for its potential therapeutic benefits. A new study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that CBD may play a role in addiction recovery. The research indicates that CBD could help reduce the risk of relapse in individuals recovering from alcohol and cocaine addiction.

The study, conducted by researchers at the University of Kentucky, involved administering CBD to rats that had been conditioned to seek out alcohol or cocaine. The rats were then exposed to situations that would typically trigger a relapse. The findings revealed that rats treated with CBD showed a significant reduction in drug-seeking behaviors compared to those that did not receive CBD.

Another way to treat addiction…

Dr. John Mariani, an addiction psychiatrist and researcher, commented on the study’s findings, stating that while the results are promising, more research is needed to determine the efficacy of CBD in human subjects. He emphasized the importance of understanding the mechanisms through which CBD affects addiction pathways in the brain.

The potential of CBD in addiction treatment is not limited to alcohol and cocaine. Previous studies have also suggested that CBD might be effective in reducing cravings and withdrawal symptoms in opioid addicts. Furthermore, CBD’s anti-anxiety properties could also play a role in its potential as a treatment for addiction, as anxiety is often a trigger for relapse.

While the study’s findings are encouraging, experts caution that self-medicating with CBD is not recommended. Individuals struggling with addiction should seek professional guidance and treatment. The hope is that with further research, CBD could become a valuable tool in the arsenal of addiction treatment options.

Source: Kentucky New Era

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Once and for all, can cannabis help with the opioid crisis?

The post Can CBD Aid in Addiction Recovery? New Study Sheds Light appeared first on Cannadelics.

New Report Shows Colorado Cannabis Tax Revenue Exceeds Tobacco, Alcohol

The Colorado Legislative Council Staff (LCS), described as the “nonpartisan research arm of the Colorado General Assembly,” released a report on Aug. 16 detailing how cannabis taxes are benefitting the state.

According to the analysis, Colorado annual cannabis tax revenue may have decreased in FY 2021-2022 and FY 2022-2023, but cannabis sales remain a consistent stream of funds for Colorado budget—more than any other regulated substance.

In FY 2022-2023, data shows that Colorado collected $282.3 million in cannabis tax revenue, compared to $233.9 million from cigarettes, $60.5 million from tobacco products, $56.4 million from nicotine products, and $56.1 million from alcohol.

Cannabis tax revenue comes from a 15% excise tax, 15% special sales tax, and 2.9% general sales tax. Recreational cannabis purchases are applied with the excise tax and special sales tax, but only state sales tax applies to medical cannabis sales.

In a breakdown of where cannabis tax revenue is distributed, medical cannabis 2.9% sales tax goes directly into the Marijuana Tax Cash Fund while the adult-use cannabis sales 15% special sales tax is divided into the Marijuana Tax Cash Fund, State Public School Fund, and local governments. The adult-use excise tax goes directly into the BEST (Building Excellent Schools Today) Fund.

Some of the state’s cannabis tax revenue funds went toward a variety of programs such as substance use disorder services ($16.6 million), affordable housing construction grants and loans ($15.3 million), school health and professionals grant program ($15 million), mental health services ($6.1 million), black market cannabis interdiction/state toxicology lab ($4.4 million), pesticide control and regulation ($1.2 million), marijuana impaired driving campaign ($1.1 million), and school bullying prevention and education ($1 million).

“Taking into account the statutory distributions and the MCTF [Marijuana Tax Revenue and Education] appropriations, K-12 education received about 37 percent of total spending from marijuana revenue for school funding and school construction,” the analysis states. “The Department of Human Services received about 20% for a variety of programs, including those focused on behavioral health and addiction.”

The distribution of cannabis tax revenue was divided among the Department of Human Services ($57.5  million), school construction ($55.9 million), school funding ($52.4 million), general fund ($30.7 million), Department of Public Health and Environment ($23.6 million), local governments ($21.9 million), Department of Local Affairs ($17.5 million), Department of Higher Education ($11 million), Department of Public Safety ($7.6 million), and “other” ($14.1 million) which includes a variety of smaller departments.

While FY 2020-2021 yielded a record high of $425 million, FY 2021-2022 decreased slightly to $366 million, followed by FY 2022-2023 at $282 million.

A report released by the Tax Policy Center in September 2022 noted both Colorado and Washington cannabis sales generated more tax revenue than alcohol or cigarettes in FY 2022. 

Similar reports, such as one published by the Arizona Dispensaries Association in March 2022, showed that cannabis tax revenue reached $6.3 million, which is more than the combination of tobacco ($1.7 million) and alcohol ($2.7 million) for that month.

The California Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development (GO-Biz) awards cannabis tax funds to a variety of approved organizations. The most recent annual awards contained more than $50 million from FY 2022-2023 split between 31 organizations, from government agencies to youth organizations. In FY 2020-2021, GO-Biz split $29.1 million between 16 awardees, and in FY 2021-2022, GO-Biz awarded $30 million to 58 chosen recipients. The state recently opened up a new grant application window between Aug. 14-Sept. 18, with chosen organizations to be announced sometime in spring 2024.

A report from Whitney Economics in May showed that the legal cannabis industry paid more than $1.8 billion in taxes in 2022. However, the chief economist at Whitney Economics stated that these taxes, which are driving many cannabis business owners into strife, are on the “brink of systemic collapse.”

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Will Ohio Legalize?

Will the State of Ohio legalize cannabis this November? Officials announced Wednesday that the legalization initiative will appear on the November 2023 ballot. The Coalition to Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol (CTRMLA) submitted more than 220,000 signatures, short by 679. Officials gave them ten more days, and the activists found 6,500 more. Ohio’s Secretary of State found that 4,405 of those signatures were valid. This means in November, residents can decide: will Ohio legalize cannabis? Will Ohio Legalize? “We are grateful […]

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Texas Cannabis Companies’ Economic Impact Predicted To Surpass Wine

Cannabis businesses in Texas may soon make more money than the wine industry, the Austin Business Journal reports. Cannabis companies brought in over $8 billion in revenue in 2022, according to a new report from Whitney Economics, an Oregon-based cannabis and hemp analytics firm. Even though plenty of people enjoy both wine and weed (sometimes together), the booze hounds and the stoners are always competing against one another, even just for fun. And, at the moment, in Texas, the sommeliers may need to watch their backs. 

However, unfortunately, there is one major setback keeping the stoners from celebrating this win. Recreational cannabis is still illegal in Texas. Possession of up to two ounces is a class B misdemeanor and can get you up to 180 days in prison and a fine of up to $2,000. In November of 2022, the vast majority of voters in Denton, Texas, approved a measure decriminalizing low-level marijuana offenses. However, city leaders defied those results, voting “against adopting the ordinance that would have decriminalized marijuana” by a margin of 4-3, CBS News Texas reported.

The Tex-Mex restaurant E-Bar recently went viral for its anti-stoner policy posted on its window reading: “If You Have The Smell Of Marijuana On You We Will Not Serve You.” 

The Lone Star State allows medical cannabis for conditions such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and terminal cancer. Texas’ Compassionate Use Program confirmed they had nearly 61,000 registered patients in July (up from more than 45,000 in January, according to state data).

However, that doesn’t mean that Texans who use marijuana medically can just get a high-THC edible delivered to really knock out the pain while they kick back to binge-watch a dark comedy. Residents in states like New York and California forget how good they have it. In Texas, medical patients are only granted low-THC oil, with less than 1% THC. This law has been in effect since 2015. CBD is legal, thanks to the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, and that’s what these analytics looked at. 

“This landmark study affirms the true value the hemp industry provides our state, from creating jobs and supporting livable wages to fostering business expansion and product innovation,” stated Ilissa Nolan in a statement, executive director of the Texas Hemp Coalition, a nonprofit dedicated to hemp advocacy and education, the Austin Business Journal reports

Whitney Economics compiled the data using surveys sent to CBD and hemp retailers, manufacturers, distributors, and smoke and vape shops, gas stations—pretty much any type of business that sells CBD was included. But only some of them got to participate. Around 53% of the estimated 5,000 hemp, CBD, and cannabinoid retailers, manufacturers, and distributors in Texas received the survey. So, these findings, while exciting, are limited. 

According to the data, businesses involved in hemp-derived CBD, from the manufacturing to the storefront, employed more than 50,000 Texans, generating between $19.1 billion to $22.4 billion in economic growth. (Revenue, which is income, is different from economic growth, which is an increase in the production of goods and services in an economy, hence the disparity between the earlier cited $8 billion figure). Worker wages in the cannabis space went beyond $1.6 billion. 

Conversely, the wine industry generated more than $20 billion for the Texas economy, according to Wine America, supporting more than 141,000 jobs with nearly $7 billion earned in worker wages. 

Alcohol sale was restricted in Texas leading up to national prohibition, which lasted from January 17, 1920 to December 5, 1933, but business has been booming since then. CBD has only been able to establish itself as a legal business model in the Lone Star state since 2018. Considering cannabis is already catching up to wine, despite the fact that it’s only legal in its mildest form (CBD), this indicates that Texans are voting with their money, and that money says that they want more cannabis. 

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Cannabeginners: Esters

While most homebrewers know about esters, due to their role in creating flavors during yeast fermentation of alcohol, many cannabis consumers and businesses aren’t very knowledgeable about these exciting flavor and scent chemicals. Recent research has shown potentially notable medical effects, and one company even has a patent on some esters of THC.

While the term “ester” was coined in 1848 by the German chemist Leopold Gmelin, likely as a contraction for “essigäther,” which means “acetic ether” in German, their discovery goes back almost a century earlier. In 1759 the Count de Lauraguais performed the first synthesis of the ester ethyl acetate, marking one of the first, if not the first, examples of an ester being synthesized. Esters are derivatives of “a carboxylic acid, in which the hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl group has been replaced with an alkyl group,” and their structure is the product of an alcohol combined with the carboxylic acid.

The Role of Esters in Flavor and Scent

Like terpenes, esters are very common in plants, and are the cause of many of the odors and flavors of the plants we smell and food we eat. For example, wintergreen gets its odor and flavor from the ester methyl salicylate and pears smell and taste like they do because of propyl ethanoate. Similarly, some of the flavors and scents of cannabis are a result of esters

Esters vs. Phenols

Both esters and phenols are responsible for flavors and scents, but different types of flavors and scents. In the context of beer brewing, ester flavors are seen as desirable, good flavors, and phenol flavors are generally seen as undesirable, or bad flavors, but it depends on the beer and the palate of the person drinking it. Broadly speaking, phenol flavors are usually earthier or smokier, but they can also be clove-like. 

Courtesy Wikipedia

What Do Esters in Cannabis Do?

Before he passed, the Father of Cannabis Research, Raphael Mechoulam, was very involved in researching esters in cannabis. Specifically, Mechoulam was looking at cannabidiolic acid methyl ester, which is cannabidiolic acid  that has gone through a process of esterification. As his research demonstrated, esters are responsible for more than just flavor and may have medical benefits. Mechoulam’s team found that cannabidiolic acid methyl ester “is a potential medicine for treating some nausea and anxiety disorders and possibly other disorders ameliorated by enhancement of 5‐HT1A receptor activation.” A follow up study was done by Mechoulam and his colleagues where they gave cannabidiolic acid methyl ester to rats and found it “might modulate the sleep–wake cycle by engaging the hypothalamus.”

Research by Mahmoud A. ElSohly at NIDA’s cannabis research facility looking at cannabis esters made from acidic cannabinoids, and found that “CB-1 receptor assay indicated that the esters, as well as the parent acids, are not active.” That means they did not have an impact at the CB-1 receptor, and thus, should not produce feelings of intoxication/euphoria. ElSohly’s team also observed that 4-terpenyl cannabinolate “showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 90028.”

Aurora Cannabis actually has a patent on certain THC esters, but it is not clear if they are actively using their patented esters in any of their cannabis products.

Their Role in Alcohol Brewing

As esters are “formed by the reactions of organic acids and alcohols created during fermentation,” they play a big role in the brewing of alcohol, specifically, how yeasts impart different flavors and scents to alcohol. While other flavors can be added to beer and other alcohol by adding fruit, spices, and other botanicals, the flavor from esters is from yeast fermentation and is influenced by three main factors: the characteristics of the yeast, wort composition (nutrients), and the conditions of fermentation (environment). 

Some strains of yeast are known to produce higher levels of esters, such as the yeasts used in Bavarian wheat beers which often have high amounts of isoamyl acetate (a banana-like flavor). Wort composition can be simplified to the nutrients the yeast has access to and higher concentrations of sugar, zinc, and amino acids tend to lead to more esters. Other things, like dissolved oxygen and lipid content, can reduce the production of esters. The fermentation environment also plays a major role and it seems that shallower, more open, fermentation vessels lead to more esters. 

Esters aren’t just a major feature in beer, but also in spirits, most notably Jamaican rum. Jamaica has long been known for producing high ester rums, but in 1934 they passed the The Rum (Ether Control) Act, which, for the first time, imposed an ester limit for rum. That limit of 1600 gr/hlAA of esters is still enforced to this day by Jamaica’s Spirits Pool Association. If anyone was concerned that limit has to do with health and safety, it does not, and has a lot more to do with some quirks of the global alcohol market during the era of Prohibition. 

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